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Epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239917/decrease-in-mortality-of-adult-epilepsy-patients-since-1980-lessons-learned-from-a-hospital-based-cohort
#1
C A Granbichler, W Oberaigner, G Kuchukhidze, J-P Ndayisaba, A Ndayisaba, A Taylor, G Bauer, G Luef, E Trinka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on mortality in patients with epilepsy have been available since the 1800s. They consistently show a 2-3-fold increase compared to the general population. Despite major advances in diagnostic tools and treatment options, there is no evidence for a decrease in premature deaths. The temporal trend of mortality in a hospital-based epilepsy cohort over three decades was assessed. METHODS: A hospital-based incidence cohort was recruited from a specialized epilepsy outpatient clinic at Innsbruck Medical University between 1980 and 2007, divided by decade into three cohorts and followed for 5 years after initial epilepsy diagnosis...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239781/validation-of-the-promis-%C3%A2-measures-of-self-efficacy-for-managing-chronic-conditions
#2
Ann L Gruber-Baldini, Craig Velozo, Sergio Romero, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®)) was designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure key domains of physical, mental, and social health in chronic conditions. This paper reports the calibration and validation testing of the PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions measures. METHODS: PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions item banks comprise five domains, Self-Efficacy for Managing: Daily Activities, Symptoms, Medications and Treatments, Emotions, and Social Interactions...
February 26, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239767/down-regulation-of-pin1-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-mouse-model
#3
Lan Tang, Yanke Zhang, Guojun Chen, Yan Xiong, Xuefeng Wang, Binglin Zhu
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, demonstrated by colocalization with the dendritic marker, MAP2...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239548/ictal-laughter-and-crying-should-they-be-classified-as-automatisms
#4
Anna-Marieta Moise, Linda Leary, Lola C Morgan, Alex M Papanastassiou, C Ákos Szabó
Gelastic seizures (GS) describe ictal laughter and are associated with hypothalamic lesions, as well as other cortical areas. Dacrystic seizures (DS), characterized by ictal crying, also have been reported in hypothalamic lesions and focal epilepsy. We describe a young girl with drug resistant focal dyscognitive seizures associated with gelastic and dacrystic features. However, neither laughter nor crying was correlated with a stereotyped electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern or involvement of a particular brain region...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239547/unmasking-of-myoclonus-by-lacosamide-in-generalized-epilepsy
#5
Daniel Birnbaum, Mohamad Koubeissi
Lacosamide is a new-generation antiseizure medication that is approved for use as an adjunctive treatment and monotherapy in focal epilepsy. Its use in generalized epilepsy, however, has not been adequately evaluated in controlled trials. We report a 67-year-old woman who experienced new-onset myoclonic seizures after initiation of lacosamide. We presume that she had an undiagnosed generalized epilepsy syndrome, likely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Myoclonic seizures were not reported before introducing lacosamide and completely resolved after lacosamide was discontinued...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239528/prevalence-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-people-with-epilepsy
#6
Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo, Alejandra Gomez, Antia Moreira, Laura Díez, Roberto Elosua, Jaume Roquer
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy has been associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. This study aimed to assess the potential association between cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs), antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective epilepsy cohort from the decade of 2004-2013 was assessed. Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated to obtain CRF prevalence ratios (PR) according to AED prescription and etiology...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239337/local-and-distant-dysregulation-of-synchronization-around-interictal-spikes-in-bects
#7
Emilie Bourel-Ponchel, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Patrick Berquin, Fabrice Wallois
Objective: High Density electroencephalography (HD EEG) is the reference non-invasive technique to investigate the dynamics of neuronal networks in Benign Epilepsy with Centro-Temporal Spikes (BECTS). Analysis of local dynamic changes surrounding Interictal Epileptic Spikes (IES) might improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that propel neurons to the hypersynchronization of IES in BECTS. Transient distant changes in the dynamics of neurons populations may also interact with neuronal networks involved in various functions that are impaired in BECTS patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238865/an-australian-nationwide-survey-on-medicinal-cannabis-use-for-epilepsy-history-of-antiepileptic-drug-treatment-predicts-medicinal-cannabis-use
#8
Anastasia S Suraev, Lisa Todd, Michael T Bowen, David J Allsop, Iain S McGregor, Carol Ireland, Nicholas Lintzeris
Epilepsy Action Australia conducted an Australian nationwide online survey seeking opinions on and experiences with the use of cannabis-based products for the treatment of epilepsy. The survey was promoted via the Epilepsy Action Australia's main website, on their Facebook page, and by word of mouth. The survey consisted of 39 questions assessing demographics, clinical factors, including diagnosis and seizure types, and experiences with and opinions towards cannabis use in epilepsy. A total of 976 responses met the inclusion criteria...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238851/cellular-responses-to-recurrent-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-the-adult-zebrafish-brain
#9
Phan Q Duy, Michael A Berberoglu, Christine E Beattie, Charles W Hall
A seizure is a sustained increase in brain electrical activity that can result in loss of consciousness and injury. Understanding how the brain responds to seizures is important for development of new treatment strategies for epilepsy, a neurological condition characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. Pharmacological induction of seizures in rodent models results in a myriad of cellular alterations, including inflammation, angiogenesis, and adult neurogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cellular responses to recurrent pentylenetetrazole seizures in the adult zebrafish brain...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238621/psychiatric-and-behavioral-side-effects-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-adolescents-and-children-with-epilepsy
#10
B Chen, K Detyniecki, H Choi, L Hirsch, A Katz, A Legge, R Wong, A Jiang, R Buchsbaum, P Farooque
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to compare the psychiatric and behavioral side effect (PBSE) profiles of both older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescent patients with epilepsy. METHOD: We used logistic regression analysis to test the correlation between 83 non-AED/patient related potential predictor variables and the rate of PBSE. We then compared for each AED the rate of PBSEs and the rate of PBSEs that led to intolerability (IPBSE) while controlling for non-AED predictors of PBSEs...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238620/coexistence-of-childhood-absence-epilepsy-and-benign-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-case-series
#11
Alberto Verrotti, Sara Casciato, Alberto Spalice, Marco Carotenuto, Pasquale Striano, Pasquale Parisi, Nelia Zamponi, Salvatore Savasta, Victoria Elisa Rinaldi, Renato D'Alonzo, Federico Mecarini, Anthony J Ritaccio, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
AIM: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) are the most common forms of childhood epilepsy. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the two phenotypes may represent a neurobiological continuum. Although the coexistence of CAE and BECTS has been reported, this issue remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the electro-clinical characteristics of a group of children with contemporary or subsequent features of absence seizures and focal seizures consistent with BECTS...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238546/regulation-of-thalamic-and-cortical-network-synchrony-by-scn8a
#12
Christopher D Makinson, Brian S Tanaka, Jordan M Sorokin, Jennifer C Wong, Catherine A Christian, Alan L Goldin, Andrew Escayg, John R Huguenard
Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutations cause severe epilepsies marked by intermittent, pathological hypersynchronous brain states. Here we present two mechanisms that help to explain how mutations in one VGSC gene, Scn8a, contribute to two distinct seizure phenotypes: (1) hypoexcitation of cortical circuits leading to convulsive seizure resistance, and (2) hyperexcitation of thalamocortical circuits leading to non-convulsive absence epilepsy. We found that loss of Scn8a leads to altered RT cell intrinsic excitability and a failure in recurrent RT synaptic inhibition...
February 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238402/design-synthesis-anticonvulsant-evaluation-and-docking-study-of-2-6-substituted-benzo-d-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl-methyl-1-4-substituted-phenyl-isothioureas
#13
Nadeem Siddiqui, Md Shamsher Alam, Meeta Sahu, Mohd Javed Naim, M Shahar Yar, Ozair Alam
In this paper, we report the synthesis of 2-[(6-substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl)methyl]-1-(4-substituted phenyl)isothiourea derivatives (4a-y) carrying active pharmacophores essential for anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated in vivo by maximal electroshock (MES) test and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test in mice. Most of the compounds showed promising anticonvulsant activity. The most active compounds 4b and 4q were found active in both MES and scPTZ models, without signs of neurotoxicity...
February 17, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238390/electro-clinical-etiological-associations-of-epilepsia-partialis-continua-in-57-chinese-children
#14
Hui Li, Jiao Xue, Ping Qian, Yuehua Zhang, Xinhua Bao, Xiaoyan Liu, Zhixian Yang
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) was one type of focal status epilepticus. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics, and outcome of 57 child-onset patients with EPC according to different etiologies, and further explore the electro-clinical-etiological associations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 57 children diagnosed with EPC in our department over last ten years. Etiology, clinical and EEG data, and outcome were categorized and analyzed...
February 18, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237853/familial-cortical-myoclonic-tremor-and-epilepsy-description-of-a-new-south-african-pedigree-with-30-year-follow-up
#15
Riaan van Coller, Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar, Clara Schutte, C H van der Meyden
AIM: The aims of this study were to report the index case of a South African family with cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy, to describe the pedigree with the clinical findings and results of additional investigations, and to report the unique follow-up evaluation of affected and unaffected family members after 30 years. METHODS: The index case led to evaluation of the clinical files of patients from 1978/1979 and clinical assessment and investigation of patients from this cohort as well as newly identified family members...
February 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237833/stable-psychological-functioning-after-surgery-for-epilepsy-an-informant-based-perspective
#16
Marcie L King, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: Psychological adjustment following surgery for epilepsy has been assessed primarily with self-report measures. In the current work, we investigated pre- to postoperative changes in various dimensions of personality and behavior from the perspective of a well-known family member or friend for 27 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS: For each patient, a close family member or friend ("informant") provided pre- and postoperative ratings on five dimensions of personality and behavior...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237832/central-nervous-system-anomalies-in-two-females-with-borjeson-forssman-lehmann-syndrome
#17
Burkhard S Kasper, Arnd Dörfler, Nataliya Di Donato, Ekkehard M Kasper, Dagmar Wieczorek, Juliane Hoyer, Christiane Zweier
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the PHF6 gene. It manifests as syndromic X-linked recessive intellectual disability (ID) in males and as sporadic ID due to de novo mutations in females. Clinical features include variable ID and a range of somatic manifestations constituting a distinct phenotype in both males and females, respectively, including seizures in a few. Central nervous system (CNS) imaging data are largely unavailable for BFLS. Here we report on CNS MRI findings from two female individuals with BFLS due to a de novo duplication in PHF6 who presented with typical BFLS and epilepsy...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237815/antiepileptic-action-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-inhibition-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Tina Y Tai, Lindsay N Warner, Terrance D Jones, Sangwook Jung, Francis A Concepcion, David W Skyrud, Jason Fender, Yusha Liu, Aaron D Williams, John F Neumaier, Raimondo D'Ambrosio, Nicholas P Poolos
Several phosphorylation signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy arising from both genetic causes and acquired insults to the brain. Identification of dysfunctional signaling pathways in epilepsy may provide novel targets for antiepileptic therapies. We previously described a deficit in phosphorylation signaling mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) that occurs in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that produces neuronal hyperexcitability measured in vitro...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237622/theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-of-sjl-j-and-c57bl-6j-mice-models-for-multiple-sclerosis-and-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, Tyler J Hanak, Jane E Libbey, Robert S Fujinami
Mouse models are great tools to study the mechanisms of disease development. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is used in two distinct viral infection mouse models to study the human diseases multiple sclerosis (MS) and epilepsy. Intracerebral (i.c.) infection of the SJL/J mouse strain results in persistent viral infection of the central nervous system and a MS-like disease, while i.c. infection of the C57BL/6J mouse strain results in acute seizures and epilepsy. Our understanding of how the immune system contributes to the development of two disparate diseases caused by the same virus is presented...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237414/visual-function-twenty-years-after-childhood-hemispherectomy-for-intractable-epilepsy
#20
Sian E Handley, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Richard J Bowman, Alki Liasis
PURPOSE: To investigate visual function in adults post hemispherectomy in childhood. DESIGN: Non-comparative case series. METHODS: All participants underwent visual acuity, binocular function, visual field, optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and monocular pattern reversal visually evoked potentials (prVEP). PARTICIPANTS: 6 adults who had a hemispherectomy in childhood (median 21...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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