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H-Y Li, F Liu, H-R Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) expression and drug resistance in the brain of rats with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and the animal model of epilepsy was established by electrical stimulation. These rats were randomly divided into the control group and the drug-resistant group. The model of drug-resistant epilepsy was screened with phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB); the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex tissues were isolated from rats; the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels of Nurr1 in the hippocampus and cortex tissues of the two groups of rats were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Astrid Eliasen, Kim Peder Dalhoff, Henrik Horwitz
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases have a profound impact on quality of life. We investigated the risk of suicide attempt in ten neurological diseases. METHODS: Case-control study. Cases were identified from the Danish Poison Information Centre database in the period 2006-2013. The prevalence of ten neurological diagnoses was compared with the prevalence in a randomly sampled age- and gender-matched control group. RESULTS: We identified 8974 cases of suicidal attempt and 89,740 controls...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Christelle Rodrigues, Stéphanie Chhun, Catherine Chiron, Olivier Dulac, Elisabeth Rey, Gérard Pons, Vincent Jullien
PURPOSE: The objective of this work was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for a prolonged-release granule formulation of valproic acid (VPA) in children with epilepsy and to determine the doses providing a VPA trough concentration (Ctrough ) within the target range (50-100 mg/L). METHODS: Ninety-eight children (1-17.6 years, 325 plasma samples) were included in the study. The model was built with NONMEM 7.3. The probability to obtain Ctrough between 50 and 100 mg/L was determined by the Monte Carlo simulations for doses of 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day and body weights between 10 and 70 kg...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Tianchi Zhou, Nuan Wang, Lei Xu, Hongli Huang, Chunyu Yu, Hao Zhou
The efficacy of carbamazepine combined with vitamin B12 in epilepsy treatment by comparing levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), serum TNF-α and hs-CRP in patients with epilepsy before and after treatment was investigated. Fifty-eight patients with epilepsy who were admitted and received treatment in The First People's Hospital of Xuzhou were recruited as subjects, and fifty-eight healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. Patients were treated with carbamazepine combined with vitamin B12 for a period of three months...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mariana Alves, Edward Beamer, Tobias Engel
Epilepsy encompasses a heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes which are characterized by recurrent seizures affecting over 60 million people worldwide. Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainly designed to target ion channels and/or GABA or glutamate receptors. Despite recent advances in drug development, however, pharmacoresistance in epilepsy remains as high as 30%, suggesting the need for the development of new AEDs with a non-classical mechanism of action. Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as one of the key players in seizure generation and in the maintenance of the epileptic phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo, Claudia Cagnetti, Alberto Verrotti, Gaetano Zaccara, Mauro Silvestrini
Introduction: Up to 30% of the patients diagnosed with epilepsy will continue suffering from seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs, either in monotherapy or polytherapy. Hence, there remains the need to develop new effective and well-tolerated therapies. Aim: The objective of this article was to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive treatment in adult patients with focal onset seizures. Evidence review: ESL is the newest, third-generation, single enantiomer member of the dibenzazepine family...
2018: Core Evidence
Bing Hu, Yu Guo, Feng Shi, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jing Dong, Long Pan, Min Yu, Chaowei Zhou, Zhang Cheng, Wanyue Tang, Haochen Sun, Luonan Chen
In this paper, we use a model modified from classic corticothalamic network(CT) to explore the mechanism of absence seizures appearing on specific relay nuclei (SRN) of the thalamus. It is found that typical seizure states appear on SRN through tuning several critical connection strengths in the model. In view of previous experimental and theoretical works which were mainly on epilepsy seizure phenomena appearing on excitatory pyramidal neurons (EPN) of the cortex, this is a novel model to consider the seizure observed on thalamus...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert S Fisher, Anna M Bonner
The definition of who has epilepsy, classification of seizure types, and types of epilepsy have all recently been revised. The classical definition of epilepsy as a person having two or more unprovoked seizures more than 24 hours apart has been expanded also to include those with one seizure and a high likelihood (more than 60%) of having another. In the new definition, epilepsy is considered to be resolved when a person is seizure-free for 10 years, the terminal 5 being off seizure medicines, or when an age-dependent syndrome has been outgrown...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Inrundeep Kaur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Kousuke Kanemoto, Oh-Young Kwon, Go Taniguchi, Zhou Dong, Yotin Chinvarun, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Aileen McGonigal, Andres Miguel Kanner, Sung-Pa Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence of depression in people with epilepsy (PWE) in different countries in Asia. METHODS: We searched the electronic database PubMed on June 13, 2017 for articles in English that included the following search terms: "epilepsy" AND "depression" AND "country name" for all Asian countries since 1947. Relevant original studies from Asia were included if they reported the prevalence of depression in PWE...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Chinekwu Anyanwu, Gholam K Motamedi
Despite appropriate trials of at least two antiepileptic drugs, about a third of patients with epilepsy remain drug resistant (intractable; refractory). Epilepsy surgery offers a potential cure or significant improvement to those with focal onset drug-resistant seizures. Unfortunately, epilepsy surgery is still underutilized which might be in part because of the complexity of presurgical evaluation. This process includes classifying the seizure type, lateralizing and localizing the seizure onset focus (epileptogenic zone), confirming the safety of the prospective brain surgery in terms of potential neurocognitive deficits (language and memory functions), before devising a surgical plan...
March 21, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yimy Amarillo, Angela Isabel Tissone, German Mato, Marcela S Nadal
Slow repetitive burst firing by hyperpolarized thalamocortical (TC) neurons correlates with global slow rhythms (< 4 Hz), which are the physiological oscillations during N-REM sleep, or pathological ones during idiopathic epilepsy. The pacemaker activity of TC neurons depends on the expression of several subthreshold conductances, which are modulated in a behaviorally dependent manner. Here we show that up-regulation of the small and neglected inward rectifier potassium current IKir induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Chen Jia, Shanshan Han, Liming Wei, Xiangji Dang, Qianqian Niu, Mengyu Chen, Boqun Cao, Yuting Liu, Haisheng Jiao
CONTEXT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is associated with cognitive impairment. The modern Chinese medicine, compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDP), is clinically effective in treating epilepsy and improving cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the protective effects of CDDP alone and in combination with carbamazepine (CBZ) on kainic acid-induced TLE and cognitive impairment in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (sham operated), model, CDDP, CBZ and combined...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Rūta Mameniškienė, Peter Wolf
There is growing awareness that reflex epileptic seizures offer unique insight into natural seizure generation in humans. In the last years, focus has mostly been on reflex seizures in generalized epilepsies whereas a comprehensive review of their role in focal epilepsies has been missing. Areas covered: This paper reviews reflex seizures strictly in focal epilepsies, not including focal reflex seizures in system epilepsies that also exist. They were categorized according to their triggers which can be sensory or cognitive, simple or complex...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Kees Pj Braun, J Helen Cross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
N Jmail, M Zaghdoud, A Hadriche, T Frikha, C Ben Amar, C Bénar
To define the neural networks responsible of an epileptic seizure, it is useful to perform advanced signal processing techniques. In this context, electrophysiological signals present three types of waves: oscillations, spikes, and a mixture of both. Recent studies show that spikes and oscillations should be separated properly in order to define the accurate neural connectivity during the pre-ictal, seizure and inter-ictal states. Retrieving oscillatory activity is a sensitive task due to the frequency overlap between oscillations and transient activities...
February 2018: Heliyon
Tenpei Akita, Kazushi Aoto, Mitsuhiro Kato, Masaaki Shiina, Hiroki Mutoh, Mitsuko Nakashima, Ichiro Kuki, Shin Okazaki, Shinichi Magara, Takashi Shiihara, Kenji Yokochi, Kaori Aiba, Jun Tohyama, Chihiro Ohba, Satoko Miyatake, Noriko Miyake, Kazuhiro Ogata, Atsuo Fukuda, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hirotomo Saitsu
Objective: α ( CAMK2A ) and β ( CAMK2B ) isoforms of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) play a pivotal role in neuronal plasticity and in learning and memory processes in the brain. Here, we explore the possible involvement of α - and β -CaMKII variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed for 976 individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and epilepsy. The effect of CAMK2A and CAMK2B variants on CaMKII structure and firing of neurons was evaluated by computational structural analysis, immunoblotting, and electrophysiological analysis...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Luk Van Baelen, Karin De Ridder, Jérôme Antoine, Lies Gremeaux
Background: Although gabapentin has been licensed in the European Union only for neuropathic pain and epilepsy for patients who have partial seizures, it has also been prescribed in treatment for substance use disorders. Many studies report the potential risk of abuse of gabapentin by people with substance use disorders. The objective of this paper is to determine if people who have been in treatment for substance use disorders bought gabapentin in a time span that could indicate consumption at a dose that exceeded the maximum approved dose of 3600 mg/day...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Ghulam Hussain, Azhar Rasul, Haseeb Anwar, Nimra Aziz, Aroona Razzaq, Wei Wei, Muhammad Ali, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Neurodegenerative diseases are conventionally demarcated as disorders with selective loss of neurons. Conventional as well as newer molecules have been tested but they offer just symptomatic advantages along with abundant side effects. The discovery of more compelling molecules that can halt the pathology of these diseases will be considered as a miracle of present time. Several synthetic compounds are available but they may cause several other health issues. Therefore, natural molecules from the plants and other sources are being discovered to replace available medicines...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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