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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894321/encephalomyocarditis-virus-infection-in-macaca-sylvanus-and-hystrix-cristata-from-an-italian-rescue-centre-for-wild-and-exotic-animals
#1
Giusy Cardeti, Valeria Mariano, Claudia Eleni, Marco Aloisi, Goffredo Grifoni, Stefania Sittinieri, Giampiero Dante, Valeria Antognetti, Efrem Alessandro Foglia, Antonella Cersini, Alberigo Nardi
BACKGROUND: The Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small, non enveloped, positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Cardiovirus, family Picornaviridae, with two known serotypes. It is spread worldwide and infects a huge range of vertebrate hosts with zoonotic potential for humans. The pig is the mammal most likely to be impacted on with the disease, but EMCV occurrence has also been reported in non-human primates and in a variety of domestic, captive and wild animals. Until now, human cases have been very rare and the risk appears to be almost negligible in spite of human susceptibility to the infection...
November 28, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888587/tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-orygis-in-dairy-cattle-and-captured-monkeys-in-bangladesh-a-new-scenario-of-tuberculosis-in-south-asia
#2
Z Rahim, J Thapa, Y Fukushima, A G M van der Zanden, S V Gordon, Y Suzuki, C Nakajima
Mycobacterium orygis, commonly known as the oryx bacillus and a newly proposed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies, was isolated from 18 cattle in a dairy farm and two captured rhesus monkeys in a zoo in Bangladesh. All the infected animals had tuberculosis lesions in their lungs, suggesting transmission and infection with M. orygis by an airborne route. The 20 isolates were analysed using a range of conventional and molecular typing methods, and RD-deletion typing and sequencing of selected genes confirmed the isolates as M...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881645/phylogenetic-diversity-of-koala-retrovirus-within-a-wild-koala-population
#3
K J Chappell, J C Brealey, A A Amarilla, D Watterson, L Hulse, C Palmieri, S D Johnston, E C Holmes, J Meers, P R Young
: Koala populations are in serious decline across many areas of mainland Australia, with infectious disease a contributing factor. Koala Retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus present in most wild Koala populations and captive colonies. Five subtypes of KoRV have been identified (A-E) based on amino acid sequence divergence in a hyper-variable region of the receptor binding domain of the envelope protein. However, analysis of viral genetic diversity has primarily been conducted on KoRV in captive koalas housed in zoos in Japan, the United States of America and Germany...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866266/survey-of-baylisascaris-spp-in-captive-striped-skunks-mephitis-mephitis-in-some-european-areas
#4
D d'Ovidio, N Pantchev, E Noviello, L Del Prete, M P Maurelli, G Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi
Skunks are popular carnivore species kept both in zoological institutions and in households where they are hand raised as exotic pets. These small carnivores are considered the main definitive hosts of the roundworm Baylisascaris columnaris. The purpose of this survey was to investigate the occurrence of Baylisascaris spp. in striped skunks kept as pets or in private zoo collections in some European areas. Copromicroscopic data from two laboratories, one in Italy and one in Germany, were used. A total of 60 cases positive to Baylisascaris spp...
November 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866159/pairing-animal-cartoon-characters-with-produce-stimulates-selection-among-child-zoo-visitors
#5
Allison Karpyn, Michael Allen, Samantha Marks, Nicole Filion, Debora Humphrey, Ai Ye, Henry May, Meryl P Gardner
In order to address the pervasive trend of underconsumption of fruits and vegetables among children, we examined the hypothesis that children would be more likely to select fruits (apple slices, bananas, and oranges) and vegetables (baby carrots) when paired with animal cartoon image than when available without the character image. Tested in a randomized experiment using counterbalancing, products were arranged on two tables at two separate family fun nights held at a local zoo. Animal character produce parings were manipulated by placing one of two animals (tamarin or iguana) next to two of the four fruit or vegetable selections at each table, and by changing when available without the image...
November 18, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#6
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826361/viral-metagenomics-of-fecal-samples-from-non-human-primates-revealed-human-astrovirus-in-a-chimpanzee-china
#7
Xiaochun Wang, Jinxin Wang, Chenglin Zhou, Shixing Yang, Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Dunwu Qi
BACKGROUND: Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are commonly identified worldwide as important aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. More and more evidences challenged the paradigm that AstV infections are species-specific. Yet to date, AstVs associated with human infections have not been detected in any animal hosts. RESULTS: Viral metagenomics methods were used to detect viral nucleic acids in fecal samples from 69 captive non-human primates (NHPs) from three zoos in China...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819303/comparative-analyses-of-longevity-and-senescence-reveal-variable-survival-benefits-of-living-in-zoos-across-mammals
#8
Morgane Tidière, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Vérane Berger, Dennis W H Müller, Laurie Bingaman Lackey, Olivier Gimenez, Marcus Clauss, Jean-François Lemaître
While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796660/responses-of-urban-crows-to-con-and-hetero-specific-alarm-calls-in-predator-and-non-predator-zoo-enclosures
#9
Kateřina Bílá, Jana Beránková, Petr Veselý, Thomas Bugnyar, Christine Schwab
Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species...
October 31, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795893/genetic-assessment-of-captive-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens-population
#10
Arun Kumar, Upashna Rai, Bhupen Roka, Alankar K Jha, P Anuradha Reddy
Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785798/acute-hepatic-necrosis-and-death-in-a-subadult-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-associated-with-exposure-to-sterigmatocystin-in-forage-contaminated-with-aspergillus-nidulans
#11
B R Bryant, M Campbell, C Sangster
A young male southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), which was resident in a zoo as part of a multi-rhinoceros group, died suddenly. Necropsy and histopathological findings supported a diagnosis of death from acute hepatic necrosis. The microscopic distribution of liver lesions was suggestive of hepatotoxicosis. Further investigation revealed potential exposure to a mycotoxin, sterigmatocystin, present in spoiled lucerne hay contaminated with Aspergillus nidulans. It was concluded that mycotoxicosis was the likely cause of the hepatic necrosis and death in this animal...
November 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777582/mycobacterium-genavense-infection-in-two-species-of-captive-snakes
#12
Leila Sabrina Ullmann, Ramiro das Neves Dias-Neto, Didier Quevedo Cagnini, Ricardo Seiti Yamatogi, Jose Paes Oliveira-Filho, Viviane Nemer, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira, Alexander Welker Biondo, João Pessoa Araújo
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium is an important zoonotic agent with companion, livestock and wildlife animals reportedly playing a role as reservoirs. Although its association with reptiles has been described, the disease cycle remains to be fully established, particularly in snakes. Accordingly, this study aimed to report the occurrence of mycobacteriosis with clinical pneumonia in one exotic python snake (Python molurus) and one native green snake (Philodryas olfersii) from the Sorocaba Zoo, São Paulo state, Brazil...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736224/benign-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-in-a-wild-toco-toucan-ramphastos-toco
#13
Marcelo P N Carvalho, Natalia C C A Fernandes, Viviane C Nemer, Ramiro N Dias Neto, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Bruna S Miranda, Maria J Mamprim, José L Catão-Dias, Rodrigo A Réssio
Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that comprise neurofibromas, schwannomas, neurilemmomas, and perineuromas. In animals, peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms are most commonly diagnosed in dogs and cattle, followed by horses, goats, and cats, but their occurrence is uncommon in birds. An adult, free-living, male toco (common) toucan ( Ramphastos toco ) was admitted to the zoo animal clinic with weight loss, dehydration, and presence of a soft nodule adhered to the medial portion of the left pectoral muscle...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735990/a-global-survey-of-banteng-bos-javanicus-housing-and-husbandry
#14
Lewis J Rowden, Paul E Rose
Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691966/investigation-on-cryptosporidium-infections-in-wild-animals-in-a-zoo-in-anhui-province
#15
Youfang Gu, Xiaolong Wang, Cefan Zhou, Peiying Li, Qianming Xu, Changcheng Zhao, Wei Liu, Wenlong Xu
To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691960/evaluation-of-serum-ferritin-and-serum-iron-in-free-ranging-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-as-a-tool-to-understand-factors-affecting-iron-overload-disorder
#16
Michele Miller, Patricia Sue Chavey, Jennifer Hofmeyr, Nomkhosi Mathebula, Alyssa Doering, Peter Buss, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691958/retrospective-analysis-of-adult-onset-cardiac-disease-in-fran%C3%A3-ois-langurs-trachypithecus-francoisi-housed-in-u-s-zoos
#17
John A Flanders, Dana A Buoscio, Bonnie A Jacobs, Kathryn C Gamble
Cardiac disease is a common condition in captive primates, and multiple cases in François' langurs ( Trachypithecus francoisi ) were noted on review of the Species Survival Plan studbook. To determine the prevalence of cardiac disease in this species, surveys were distributed to current and previous holding institutions (n = 23) for the U.S. studbook population (n = 216). After exclusion of stillbirths (n = 48), animals less than 1 yr of age (n = 8), and animals housed internationally (n = 2), a study group (n = 158) was identified for this analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691957/isolation-and-identification-of-microsporum-canis-from-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-in-the-chongqing-zoo-china
#18
Xingfang Qiao, Juan Hu, Denghu Wu, Li Wei, Yang Yang, Jiankang Chen, Benzhong Mi, SongQuan Yang
Skin diseases affect millions of people and animals worldwide, including Asian elephants. This study sought to determine the pathogen of skin diseases that occurred in Asian elephants in Chongqing Zoo, China. The isolated fungus was identified through its cultural characteristics, morphology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR amplification using common fungal primers (ITS1 and ITS4) determined that the pathogen was 99.7% homologous to Microsporum canis. This is the first report on elephants infected with Microsporum canis in China...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691954/detection-of-coxiella-burnetii-infection-in-a-saharawi-dorcas-gazelle-gazella-dorcas-neglecta
#19
Teresa García-Seco, Marta Pérez-Sancho, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Julio Álvarez, Julián Santiago-Moreno, Joaquín Goyache, Lucas Domínguez, Nerea García
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, can infect a wide range of host species, but limited information exists on the occurrence and implications of infection in wild species. This study describes a natural infection in a population of dorcas gazelles ( Gazella dorcas ) from a zoo. A 9-yr-old male Saharawi dorcas gazelle ( Gazella dorcas neglecta) tested positive on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite treatment with oxytetracycline, the animal did not clear the infection after 6 mo, as confirmed by a PCR test on a semen sample...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691953/prospective-population-management-for-hepatitis-b-in-the-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-ssp%C3%A2-population
#20
Laura Cummins Meals, Stephen R Ross, Curtis Eng, Kathryn C Gamble
Hepatitis B virus causes horizontally transmitted infectious hepatopathy of primates and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Historically, a small number of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) living in accredited North American zoos have been confirmed with positive hepatitis B serology consistent with exposure. However, the overall status for this population and the interpretation of these individual test results have not been established previously. The current U.S. zoo-housed population (n = 259) was assessed serologically for hepatitis B by surface protein antigen (HbsAg) and surface antibodies (anti-Hbs)...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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