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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212654/diversity-and-distribution-of-avian-malaria-and-related-haemosporidian-parasites-in-captive-birds-from-a-brazilian%C3%A2-megalopolis
#1
Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Lilian de Oliveira Guimarães, Eliana Ferreira Monteiro, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz Guida, Roseli França Simões, Priscila Thihara Rodrigues, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Karin Kirchgatter
BACKGROUND: The role of zoos in conservation programmes has increased significantly in last decades, and the health of captive animals is essential to guarantee success of such programmes. However, zoo birds suffer from parasitic infections, which often are caused by malaria parasites and related haemosporidians. Studies determining the occurrence and diversity of these parasites, aiming better understanding infection influence on fitness of captive birds, are limited. METHODS: In 2011-2015, the prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium spp...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198143/demographics-of-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-captive-population-viability-in-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis
#2
Gabriella L Flacke, Joseph L Tomkins, Robert Black, Beatrice Steck
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was previously diagnosed at necropsy in several pygmy hippopotami (Choeropsis liberiensis) from the Smithsonian National Zoo and Zoo Basel, suggesting a threat to the long-term viability of the captive population. We determined the incidence and demographics of PKD in the captive population historically; we tested if the condition is linked to pedigree; we investigated mode of inheritance; we examined effects of PKD on longevity; we conducted survival analysis; and we examined long-term population viability...
February 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187776/mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-european-bison-bison-bonasus-raises-concerns-about-tuberculosis-in-brazilian-captive-wildlife-populations-a-case-report
#3
Cristina Kraemer Zimpel, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Antônio Francisco de Souza Filho, Alexander Welker Biondo, João Henrique Perotta, Cristina Corsi Dib, Marcelo Bonat, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Ana Marcia Sa Guimaraes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important worldwide zoonosis and has been reported to cause clinical disease in several animal species, including captive wildlife. This report describes a case of M. bovis infection in a European bison from a Brazilian zoo and compiles a number of literature reports that raise concern regarding tuberculosis among captive wildlife in Brazil. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13 year-old captive-born male bison (Bison bonasus) from a Brazilian zoo began presenting weight loss, diarrhea and respiratory symptoms, which inevitably led to his death...
February 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186700/retrospective-study-of-mortality-in-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica-in-the-european-breeding-population-between-2000-and-2014
#4
Olivia Metz, Jonathan Williams, Rikke Kruse Nielsen, Nic Masters
Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186699/activity-budget-and-social-interactions-in-semi-captive-gray-woolly-monkeys-lagothrix-lagotricha-cana-living-in-an-ex-situ-conservation-area-in-central-amazonia
#5
Bárbara Cartagena-Matos, Thierry Gasnier, Mariana Cravo-Mota, Bruna Martins Bezerra
Areas holding primates in semi-captivity conditions represent an excellent opportunity for collecting data on rare, little known, and endangered taxa, contributing with insightful information to help in their conservation. Here, we present information on the activity budget and social interactions of the elusive gray woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha cana, in an ex situ conservation area in central Amazonia. We studied the behavior of 18 semi-captive individuals through instantaneous scan and focal animal samplings during 4 months in the wet season...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186698/added-dietary-vegetables-and-fruits-improved-coat-quality-of-capybara-in-seoul-zoo-republic-of-korea-a-case-study
#6
Hyungeun Shim, Ellen S Dierenfeld
Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182656/multi-locus-genotypes-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-captive-asiatic-black-bears-in-southwestern-china-high-genetic-diversity-broad-host-range-and-zoonotic-potential
#7
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Chao Gong, Xuefeng Cao, Yuan Song, Wuyou Wang, Xiangming Huang, Xuehan Liu, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Min He, Ya Wang, Yue Zhang, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161098/peracute-bacterial-meningitis-due-to-infection-with-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-captive-bred-ruffed-lemurs-varecia-variegate
#8
E Sasaki, T Tokiwa, K Tsugo, Y Higashi, H Hori, Y Une
We describe the development of neurological signs in four juvenile black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegate), housed at a petting zoo in Japan. The clinical course was severe, with three lemurs dying within 1 day of the appearance of clinical signs. The other lemur was treated and survived. Pathological analyses demonstrated meningitis and the presence of gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum, cerebellum, palatine tonsil and liver. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the brain of all of the dead lemurs...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140633/effects-of-various-diets-on-the-calcium-and-phosphorus-composition-of-mealworms-tenebrio-molitor-larvae-and-superworms-zophobas-morio-larvae
#9
La'Toya V Latney, Barbara D Toddes, Nicole R Wyre, Dorothy C Brown, Kathryn E Michel, Johanna A Briscoe
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals...
February 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138777/first-complete-genome-sequence-of-parainfluenza-virus-5-isolated-from-lesser-panda
#10
Jun-Qiong Zhai, Shao-Lun Zhai, Tao Lin, Jian-Kui Liu, He-Xing Wang, Bing Li, He Zhang, Shu-Zhan Zou, Xia Zhou, Meng-Fan Wu, Wu Chen, Man-Lin Luo
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea...
January 30, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131379/encephalitozoon-cuniculi-in-rabbits-serological-screening-and-histopathological-findings
#11
Giovanni Maestrini, Emanuele Ricci, Carlo Cantile, Riccardo Mannella, Francesca Mancianti, Gisella Paci, Carlo D'Ascenzi, Stefania Perrucci
Serological prevalence of E. cuniculi infection was assessed in 183 rabbits from central Italy. In seropositive deceased rabbits, histopathological lesions were also evaluated. Sera from 118 rabbits from 6 intensive farms, 10 rabbits from 6 family farms, 16 rabbits from a zoo, 30 rabbits from 5 research laboratories and 9 pet rabbits from 9 different owners, were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analysed. Tissue samples from brain and kidney of 10 deceased rabbits were formalin-fixed and subsequently analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111821/digestibility-of-a-new-diet-for-captive-short-beaked-echidnas-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#12
Hayley J Stannard, Jamie M Bekkers, Julie M Old, Bronwyn M McAllan, Michelle E Shaw
Short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) are myrmecophages, or ant and termite insectivore specialists, and replicating their exact diet in captivity is problematic. Diets for captive animals often incorporate raw meat, eggs and cat food mixed together with water, and vitamin and mineral supplements. These diets have promoted a number of health problems in captive echidnas, such as gastritis, cystitis, gut impaction, obesity, and diarrhea. A manufactured diet was designed and three echidnas from two zoos were transitioned onto this diet to assess the acceptability and digestibility of this diet for echidnas...
January 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107477/effects-of-ambient-environmental-factors-on-the-stereotypic-behaviors-of-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#13
He Liu, Hejun Duan, Cheng Wang
Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092603/gut-microbiota-isolated-from-the-european-pond-turtle-emys-orbicularis-and-its-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
M Ruzauskas, S Misyte, L Vaskeviciute, Z Mikniene, R Siugzdiniene, I Klimiene, A Pikuniene, J Kucinskiene
The aim of the study was to isolate cultivable gut microbiota from European pond turtles kept at the Lithuanian Zoo and to determine antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. The study subjects included 8 elderly turtles living at the Lithuanian Zoo for about 50 years as well as their offspring - 24 young individuals (1-2 years old) that were hatched at the same zoo. Animals were not exposed by treatment with antimicrobials during the last 3 years. Gut samples were taken from the cloaca and inoculated onto universal media...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081063/state-laws-requiring-hand-sanitation-stations-at-animal-contact-exhibits-united-states-march-april-2016
#15
Aila Hoss, Colin Basler, Lauren Stevenson, Kelly Gambino-Shirley, Misha Park Robyn, Megin Nichols
In the United States, animal contact exhibits, such as petting zoos and agricultural fairs, have been sources of zoonotic infections, including infections with Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Cryptosporidium (1-4). The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians recommends handwashing after contact with animals as an effective prevention measure to disease transmission at these exhibits (4). This report provides a list of states that have used law, specifically statutes and regulations, as public health interventions to increase hand sanitation at animal contact exhibits...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080925/cardiac-assessment-of-zoo-kept-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus-anesthetized-with-isoflurane
#16
Eric B Garcia, David Eshar, Justin D Thomason, Kenneth R Harkin, David Biller
Cardiomyopathy is suggested to be a relatively common disease condition in prairie dogs; however, there are no reports of normal cardiac echosonography and radiology in the prairie dog ( Cynomys spp.). The objective of this study was to report the ultrasonographic and radiographic measurements of the heart, and plasma troponin concentration in captive healthy anesthetized black-tailed prairie dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ). Zoo-kept prairie dogs with no signs of cardiac disease (n = 17) were evaluated. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via face mask and a complete clinical assessment was performed, including complete blood cell count and plasma biochemistry, urinalysis, blood gasses, plasma troponin concentration, three-view whole body radiography, and echocardiogram...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075607/efficacy-of-an-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-srp-vaccine-in-orally-challenged-goats-and-strain-persistence-over-time
#17
Jacob M Swift, Derek M Foster, Anna T Rogers, Hannah J Sylvester, Emily H Griffith, Megan E Jacob
Small ruminants have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at livestock exhibitions throughout the United States. Additionally, goat meat or milk may serve as a reservoir for foodborne transmission of the organism. These associations highlight the public health importance of an effective strategy to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in goats. We examined the efficacy of the SRP(®) vaccine in goats orally challenged with E. coli O157:H7. Mixed-breed goats (n = 14) were randomly allocated into vaccinated and unvaccinated treatments (n = 7 per treatment)...
January 11, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070591/-the-importance-of-conservation-of-rare-domestic-animal-breeds-using-the-example-of-arc-warder
#18
Kai Frölich, Anabell Jandowsky
The domestic animals descend from various wild ancestors. Thus, for example, of the wolf, the dog (15  000 BC), of the Bezoar goat the goat (10  000 BC), of the Asian mouflon the sheep (10  000 BC), of the wild boar the pig (8000 BC) and of the aurochs the cattle (7000 BC). Domestication has dramatically changed our culture and led to a great diversity of animal breeds. This is a unique cultural and historical treasure, which we have to preserve for future generations. The zoological park Arc Warder is Europe's largest center for rare and endangered domestic animal breeds...
February 9, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060928/synanthropic-mammals-as-potential-hosts-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-panama
#19
Sergio E Bermúdez, Nicole Gottdenker, Aparna Krishnvajhala, Amy Fox, Hannah K Wilder, Kadir González, Diorene Smith, Marielena López, Milixa Perea, Chystrie Rigg, Santiago Montilla, José E Calzada, Azael Saldaña, Carlos M Caballero, Job E Lopez
Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060901/molecular-epidemiology-of-blastocystis-sp-in-various-animal-groups-from-two-french-zoos-and-evaluation-of-potential-zoonotic-risk
#20
Amandine Cian, Dima El Safadi, Marwan Osman, Romain Moriniere, Nausicaa Gantois, Sadia Benamrouz-Vanneste, Pilar Delgado-Viscogliosi, Karine Guyot, Luen-Luen Li, Sébastien Monchy, Christophe Noël, Philippe Poirier, Céline Nourrisson, Ivan Wawrzyniak, Frédéric Delbac, Stéphanie Bosc, Magali Chabé, Thierry Petit, Gabriela Certad, Eric Viscogliosi
Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs) have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened...
2017: PloS One
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