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Zoo animals

Marcelo P N Carvalho, Natalia C C A Fernandes, Viviane C Nemer, Ramiro N Dias Neto, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Bruna S Miranda, Maria J Mamprim, José L Catão-Dias, Rodrigo A Réssio
Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that comprise neurofibromas, schwannomas, neurilemmomas, and perineuromas. In animals, peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms are most commonly diagnosed in dogs and cattle, followed by horses, goats, and cats, but their occurrence is uncommon in birds. An adult, free-living, male toco (common) toucan ( Ramphastos toco ) was admitted to the zoo animal clinic with weight loss, dehydration, and presence of a soft nodule adhered to the medial portion of the left pectoral muscle...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Lewis J Rowden, Paul E Rose
Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management...
October 13, 2016: Zoo Biology
Youfang Gu, Xiaolong Wang, Cefan Zhou, Peiying Li, Qianming Xu, Changcheng Zhao, Wei Liu, Wenlong Xu
To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Michele Miller, Patricia Sue Chavey, Jennifer Hofmeyr, Nomkhosi Mathebula, Alyssa Doering, Peter Buss, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
John A Flanders, Dana A Buoscio, Bonnie A Jacobs, Kathryn C Gamble
Cardiac disease is a common condition in captive primates, and multiple cases in François' langurs ( Trachypithecus francoisi ) were noted on review of the Species Survival Plan studbook. To determine the prevalence of cardiac disease in this species, surveys were distributed to current and previous holding institutions (n = 23) for the U.S. studbook population (n = 216). After exclusion of stillbirths (n = 48), animals less than 1 yr of age (n = 8), and animals housed internationally (n = 2), a study group (n = 158) was identified for this analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Xingfang Qiao, Juan Hu, Denghu Wu, Li Wei, Yang Yang, Jiankang Chen, Benzhong Mi, SongQuan Yang
Skin diseases affect millions of people and animals worldwide, including Asian elephants. This study sought to determine the pathogen of skin diseases that occurred in Asian elephants in Chongqing Zoo, China. The isolated fungus was identified through its cultural characteristics, morphology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR amplification using common fungal primers (ITS1 and ITS4) determined that the pathogen was 99.7% homologous to Microsporum canis. This is the first report on elephants infected with Microsporum canis in China...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Teresa García-Seco, Marta Pérez-Sancho, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Julio Álvarez, Julián Santiago-Moreno, Joaquín Goyache, Lucas Domínguez, Nerea García
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, can infect a wide range of host species, but limited information exists on the occurrence and implications of infection in wild species. This study describes a natural infection in a population of dorcas gazelles ( Gazella dorcas ) from a zoo. A 9-yr-old male Saharawi dorcas gazelle ( Gazella dorcas neglecta) tested positive on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite treatment with oxytetracycline, the animal did not clear the infection after 6 mo, as confirmed by a PCR test on a semen sample...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Laura Cummins Meals, Stephen R Ross, Curtis Eng, Kathryn C Gamble
Hepatitis B virus causes horizontally transmitted infectious hepatopathy of primates and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Historically, a small number of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) living in accredited North American zoos have been confirmed with positive hepatitis B serology consistent with exposure. However, the overall status for this population and the interpretation of these individual test results have not been established previously. The current U.S. zoo-housed population (n = 259) was assessed serologically for hepatitis B by surface protein antigen (HbsAg) and surface antibodies (anti-Hbs)...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Bruno L Anjos, Paulo V Peixoto, Saulo A Caldas, Daniel Bhaltazar, Ticiana N França, Aníbal G Armién
Plant intoxications in wildlife are difficult to diagnose, are overlooked, or are sometimes even neglected. Hence, factors that induce wild animals to ingest poisonous plants have not been sufficiently documented. An outbreak of glycoprotein storage disease in sambar deer ( Cervus unicolor ), induced by ingestion of the swainsonine-containing plant, common wireweed (Sida carpinifolia), is reported. Nine out of 55 deer held by a zoo in Brazil were affected. The poisoning was characterized by emaciation and neurologic signs followed by unexpected death in some of the animals...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Emily Burton, Andrew Tribe
Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Uwe Fiebig, Martina Keller, Joachim Denner
Many koalas carry an endogenous retrovirus, KoRV-A, in their genome. Recently, a second retrovirus, KoRV-B, was detected in koalas in Japanese and U.S. zoos. However, this virus is not endogenous, differs in the receptor binding site of the surface envelope protein, and uses a receptor different from that of KoRV-A. We describe here a KoRV-B found in koalas at zoos in Germany and Belgium that differs slightly from that found in the Los Angeles zoo.
December 2016: Archives of Virology
Marina Salas, Déborah Temple, Teresa Abáigar, Mariano Cuadrado, Maria Delclaux, Conrad Enseñat, Vanessa Almagro, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Miguel Ángel Quevedo, Annaïs Carbajal, Oriol Tallo-Parra, Maria Sabés-Alsina, Marta Amat, Manel Lopez-Bejar, Hugo Fernández-Bellon, Xavier Manteca
Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas)...
September 13, 2016: Zoo Biology
Connie Duer, Tom Tomasi, Charles I Abramson
Even in the best situations, the artificial social constructs of captivity alter natural elephant behavior and unfortunately create distress. Asian elephants are powerful and intelligent animals that require consideration for their well-being and prudent management. The males present particular difficulties due to a temporary state of heightened aggressive behavior unique to male elephants called "musth." When he is in this state, the danger the elephant poses to other animals and the people around him is considerable...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Reports
Carolin Boehlke, Sandra Pötschke, Verena Behringer, Christian Hannig, Oliver Zierau
Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are herbivore generalists; however, Asian elephants might ingest a higher proportion of grasses than Africans. Although some studies have investigated nutrition-specific morphological adaptations of the two species, broader studies on salivary enzymes in both elephant species are lacking. This study focuses on the comparison of salivary enzymes activity profiles in the two elephant species; these enzymes are relevant for protective and digestive functions in humans...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Emily J Anderson, Robert B Weladji, Patrick Paré
Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups...
August 29, 2016: Zoo Biology
Justin R Schlanser, George W Bohart, Deborah W Paperd, Cynthia Wagner, Mark Marquardt, Tara M Harrison
Through the use of operant conditioning, the authors developed a technique to facilitate obtaining blood samples from a black rhinoceros diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The technique involved operant conditioning to facilitate venipuncture of the transverse facial vein, at an anatomic landmark on the lateral side of the face ventral to the medial canthus of the eye, and dorsal to the lateral commissure of the mouth. The investigators used standard operant conditioning protocols to train the animal for desensitization to a needle puncture in the facial vein...
August 29, 2016: Zoo Biology
Xiaochun Wang, Shihe Shao, Hua Wang, Quan Shen, Shixing Yang, Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses (EVs) are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of viruses infecting humans and a variety of animals including non-human primates (NHPs). The present study was to investigate EVs in the fecal samples from captive NHPs in zoos in China using classic RT-PCR and viral metagenomics methods. FINDINGS: An EV strain was detected in a fecal sample collected from a captive NHP of a zoo in eastern China. The complete genome of this EV strain (named Sev-nj1) was determined and characterized...
2016: SpringerPlus
Pamela J Schreiner
Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals...
February 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Nadine Gourkow, Clive J C Phillips
Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher)...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jonah S Zitsman, Paula Alonso-Guallart, Christopher Ovanez, Yojiro Kato, Joanna F Rosen, Joshua I Weiner, Raimon Duran-Struuck
Cynomolgus macaques (CYNO; Macaca fascicularis) are a well-established NHP model used for studies in immunology. To provide reference values on the baseline cell distributions in the hematopoietic and lymphoid organs (HLO) of these animals, we used flow cytometry to analyze the peripheral blood, bone marrow, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus of a cohort of male, adult, research-naïve, Mauritian CYNO. Our findings demonstrate that several cell distribution patterns differ between CYNO and humans. First, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T-cell ratio is lower in CYNO compared with humans...
2016: Comparative Medicine
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