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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186207/metabolic-health-assessment-of-zoo-elephants-management-factors-predicting-leptin-levels-and-the-glucose-to-insulin-ratio-and-their-associations-with-health-parameters
#1
Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185798/reproduction-and-monogamy-in-captive-flock-of-greater-flamingos-phoenicopterus-roseus
#2
Camillo Sandri, Carolina Sammarini, Barbara Regaiolli, Caterina Spiezio, Alessandra Piccirillo
Due to the great number of greater flamingos in captivity and their long life span, studying their behavior and welfare might be useful to improve the husbandry and breeding of this species in zoos. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting the breeding activity of captive greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) from 2012 to 2016. To estimate reproductive success, the number of pairs, eggs laid, and hatchlings were recorded. In addition, information on age, egg-laying history of the partners, and pair composition was collected...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173594/serological-evidence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-zoo-animals-and-identification-of-a-rodent-borne-strain-in-a-syrian-brown-bear
#3
Carina Spahr, René Ryll, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Rainer G Ulrich, Reimar Johne
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging infectious disease of humans. HEV infections have also been described in various animal species. Whereas domestic pigs and wild boars are well-known animal reservoirs for HEV, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in zoo animals is scarce so far. Here, we analysed 244 sera from 66 mammal species derived from three zoos in Germany using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 16 animal species, with the highest detection rates in suids (33...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168441/detection-of-hev-specific-antibodies-in-four-non-human-primate-species-including-great-apes-from-different-zoos-in-germany
#4
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, L Dähnert, M Enders, M Müller, R Johne, R G Ulrich
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described in humans and various animal species in different regions of the world. However, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in non-human primates and the corresponding risk of zoonotic transmission is scarce. To determine whether primates in captivity are affected by HEV infection, we investigated 259 individual sera of clinically healthy non-human primates of 14 species from nine German zoos. Using a commercial double-antigen-sandwich ELISA and a commercial IgG ELISA, 10 animals (3·9%) reacted positive in at least one assay...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165867/applying-behavior-analytic-methodology-to-the-science-and-practice-of-environmental-enrichment-in-zoos-and-aquariums
#5
Christina A Alligood, Nicole R Dorey, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Katherine A Leighty
Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518)...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163646/prevalence-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-in-captive-wildlife-species-of-india
#6
A A Prince Milton, R K Agarwal, G B Priya, M Saminathan, M Aravind, A Reddy, C K Athira, Anjay, T P Ramees, K Dhama, A K Sharma, A Kumar
Campylobacteriosis is an important zoonotic disease and the prevalence of Campylobacter is largely unknown in the wildlife of India. A total of 370 samples, comprising of 314 fresh faecal samples from apparently healthy captive wild animals and birds, 30 stool swabs from animal care takers and 26 samples of the animals' food and water were collected from G. B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital, Kanpur Zoo, Wildlife Park, IVRI and the Post Graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences (PGRIAS), Chennai, Tamilnadu from August 2014 to May 2015...
2017: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157134/the-paper-zoo-500-years-of-animals-in-art
#7
Florike Egmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149857/putative-progressive-and-abortive-feline-leukemia-virus-infection-outcomes-in-captive-jaguarundis-puma-yagouaroundi
#8
Claudia Filoni, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Mara Cristina Marques, Luciana Neves Torres, Manfred Reinacher, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an exogenous gammaretrovirus of domestic cats (Felis catus) and some wild felids. The outcomes of FeLV infection in domestic cats vary according to host susceptibility, virus strain, and infectious challenge dose. Jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi) are small wild felids from South and Central America. We previously reported on FeLV infections in jaguarundis. We hypothesized here that the outcomes of FeLV infection in P. yagouaroundi mimic those observed in domestic cats...
November 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138744/multiple-myeloma-in-an-amur-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica
#9
Alison M Lee, Naomi Guppy, John Bainbridge, Hanne Jahns
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134672/quantitative-aspects-of-the-ruminating-process-in-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-fed-with-different-diets
#10
Dominik Schüßler, Hartmut Greven
Giraffes are ruminants feeding on fresh browse and twigs in the wild, but in zoos, their diet is mainly based on alfalfa hay, grains, and pellets occasionally supplemented by twigs and foliage. These diets, which differ in composition and digestibility, affect the behavior of the animals, tooth wear patterns, and chewing efficiency. We quantified several parameters of the rumination process in ten zoo housed giraffes of different sexes and ages fed either with alfalfa hay, fresh browse, or a combination of both...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121668/seasonal-recurrence-of-cowpox-virus-outbreaks-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#11
Julia Stagegaard, Andreas Kurth, Daniel Stern, Piotr Wojciech Dabrowski, Ann Pocknell, Andreas Nitsche, Livia Schrick
Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Nine cheetahs showed varying severity of clinical disease; two of them died (22%). All episodes occurred between August and October of the respective year. No other carnivores kept at the same institution nor the keepers taking care of the animals were clinically affected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116204/tuberculosis-in-swiss-captive-asian-elephants-microevolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-characterized-by-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#12
Giovanni Ghielmetti, Mireia Coscolla, Maja Ruetten, Ute Friedel, Chloé Loiseau, Julia Feldmann, Hanspeter W Steinmetz, David Stucki, Sebastien Gagneux
Zoonotic tuberculosis is a risk for human health, especially when animals are in close contact with humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from several organs, including lung tissue and gastric mucosa, of three captive elephants euthanized in a Swiss zoo. The elephants presented weight loss, weakness and exercise intolerance. Molecular characterization of the M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping revealed an identical profile, suggesting a single source of infection. Multilocus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) elucidated two divergent populations of bacteria and mixed infection in one elephant, suggesting either different transmission chains or prolonged infection over time...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105815/mate-choice-screening-in-captive-solitary-carnivores-the-role-of-male-behavior-and-cues-on-mate-preference-and-paternity-in-females-of-a-model-species-american-mink-neovison-vison
#13
Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Razvan Anistoroaei, Mikkel Stelvig, Torben Dabelsteen
Mate choice studies suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose among potential mates, deemed genetically suitable based on studbook data, might improve breeding management in production and zoo animals and thereby the sustainability of captive populations. Investigating mate preference via odor from potential mates before animal transfer is a proposed strategy for incorporating mate choice into breeding management...
November 5, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084226/how-familiar-are-our-doctors-towards-rabies-prophylaxis-a-study-from-coastal-south-india
#14
Ramesh Holla, Bhagawan Darshan, Astha Guliani, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Rekha Thapar, Prasanna Mithra, Nithin Kumar, Vaman Kulkarni, Avinash Kumar, Salman Anwar
BACKGROUND: Rabies, a 100% fatal disease claims more than 59,000 human lives every year globally. One human life is lost every 15 minutes due to this deadly preventable disease. Timely initiation of post exposure prophylaxis following an animal exposure can result in 100% preventability of this fatal disease. METHODOLOGY: This facility based study was conducted among clinical fraternities of teaching hospitals. A semi structured questionnaire was used for collection of data...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081475/sudden-death-of-an-indian-peafowl-pavo-cristatus-at-a-zoo-due-to-non-pigmented-serratia-marcescens-infection
#15
Seung-Hun Lee, Sang-Joon Park, Dongmi Kwak, Kyoo-Tae Kim
A 16-year-old female Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) died two days after recognition of conjunctivitis in the right eye, anorexia and depression. Gross necropsy revealed a thick pseudomembrane under the eyelid and hydropericardium. Histopathological examination revealed hepatocellular necrosis, sinusoidal and vascular congestion and infiltrated inflammatory cells. Infiltration by inflammatory cells was noted in the epicardium. The lungs had mild interstitial pneumonia with the extensive congestion within the capillaries of the air sacs...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080297/a-role-for-selective-contraception-of-individuals-in-conservation-management-programs
#16
REVIEW
Holly R Cope, Carolyn J Hogg, Peter J White, Catherine A Herbert
Contraception has an established role to play in managing overabundant populations and preventing undesirable breeding in zoos. We propose that it can also be used strategically and selectively in conservation management programs to increase the genetic and behavioural quality of the animals. In captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximise the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, and preventing genetically suboptimal breeding, through the use of selective contraception...
October 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067199/antibiotic-resistance-in-conjunctival-and-enteric-bacterial-flora-in-raptors-housed-in-a-zoological-garden
#17
Andrea Sala, Simone Taddei, Davide Santospirito, Camillo Sandri, William Magnone, Clotilde S Cabassi
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in a wide range of infectious agents is a growing public health threat. Birds of prey are considered indicators of the presence of AMR bacteria in their ecosystem because of their predatory behaviour. Only few data are reported in the literature on AMR strains isolated from animals housed in zoos and none about AMR in raptors housed in zoological gardens. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity profile of the isolates obtained from the conjunctival and cloacal bacterial flora of 14 healthy birds of prey, 6 Accipitriformes, 3 Falconiformes and 5 Strigiformes, housed in an Italian zoological garden...
November 2016: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062189/zoo-agent-s-measure-in-applying-the-five-freedoms-principles-for-animal-welfare
#18
Argyo Demartoto, Robertus Bellarminus Soemanto, Siti Zunariyah
BACKGROUND: Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. AIM: This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory...
September 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056144/sharks-in-captivity-the-role-of-husbandry-breeding-education-and-citizen-science-in-shark-conservation
#19
Michael Grassmann, Bryan McNeil, Jim Wharton
The role of public aquariums in promoting conservation has changed substantially over the decades, evolving from entertainment attractions to educational and research centres. In many facilities, larger sharks are an essential part of the collection and represent one of the biggest draws for the public. Displaying healthy elasmobranchs comes with many challenges, but improvements in husbandry techniques have enabled aquariums to have success with a variety of species. The establishment of organisations such as the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and the completion of texts like the Elasmobranch Husbandry Manual, has helped set high standards of care for sharks in captivity and promoted international conservation efforts...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043021/genetic-wealth-population-health-major-histocompatibility-complex-variation-in-captive-and-wild-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta
#20
Kathleen E Grogan, Michelle L Sauther, Frank P Cuozzo, Christine M Drea
Across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical to individual disease resistance and, hence, to population health; however, MHC diversity can be reduced in small, fragmented, or isolated populations. Given the need for comparative studies of functional genetic diversity, we investigated whether MHC diversity differs between populations which are open, that is experiencing gene flow, versus populations which are closed, that is isolated from other populations. Using the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) as a model, we compared two populations under long-term study: a relatively "open," wild population (n = 180) derived from Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar (2003-2013) and a "closed," captive population (n = 121) derived from the Duke Lemur Center (DLC, 1980-2013) and from the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Zoos (2012)...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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