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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685228/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-zoo-and-wild-animals
#1
Andrea T Feßler, Patricia Thomas, Kristin Mühldorfer, Mirjam Grobbel, Julian Brombach, Inga Eichhorn, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Schwarz
Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus is a major problem in human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to characterise S. aureus isolates from wild and zoo animals mainly associated with bacterial infections. In total, 23 S. aureus isolates, including nine from wild animals and 14 from zoo animals, were obtained during routine diagnostics. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, macrorestriction analysis with subsequent SmaI pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial susceptibility testing and S...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675871/an-evaluation-of-video-cameras-for-collecting-observational-data-on-sanctuary-housed-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#2
Bethany K Hansen, Amy L Fultz, Lydia M Hopper, Stephen R Ross
Video cameras are increasingly being used to monitor captive animals in zoo, laboratory, and agricultural settings. This technology may also be useful in sanctuaries with large and/or complex enclosures. However, the cost of camera equipment and a lack of formal evaluations regarding the use of cameras in sanctuary settings make it challenging for facilities to decide whether and how to implement this technology. To address this, we evaluated the feasibility of using a video camera system to monitor chimpanzees at Chimp Haven...
April 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671895/visitor-effects-on-a-zoo-population-of-california-sea-lions-zalophus-californianus-and-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina
#3
Amber J de Vere
The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA...
April 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671179/clinical-infection-in-house-rats-rattus-rattus-caused-by-streptobacillus-notomytis
#4
Viktoria Michel, Claudia Ulber, Dietrich Pöhle, Beate Köpke, Katharina Engel, Ute Kaim, Ahmad Fawzy, Sophie Funk, Juliane Fornefett, Christoph Georg Baums, Tobias Eisenberg
Rat bite fever is an under-reported, under-diagnosed emerging zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Besides Spirillum minus, Streptobacillus moniliformis is the major causative microorganism although it usually colonises rats without any clinical signs. A group of house rats (Rattus rattus) kept in a zoo exhibition for educational purposes suffered from neurological signs including disorientation, torticollis, stall walking, ataxia and death. Gross pathological and histo-pathological examinations of the investigated rats revealed high-grade otitis interna et media, from which Streptobacillus notomytis was isolated in pure culture or as the predominant microorganism...
April 18, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655471/group-treatment-strategies-for-animals-in-a-zoologic-setting
#5
REVIEW
Katie W Delk, Christine M Molter
Providing care for groups of animals is a major part of practicing zoologic medicine. Herd health is key to the mindset of a zoo clinician no matter the species encountered. Group treatment of amphibians and birds is common, but it is uncommon in reptiles and most mammals. The main reason groups of mammals are treated is for gastrointestinal parasitism. In addition to the classic examples of group treatment involving chemotherapeutics, zoo clinicians also practice herd health by preventing disease from entering the collection...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621889/impacts-of-natural-history-and-exhibit-factors-on-carnivore-welfare
#6
Lance J Miller, Jamie A Ivy, Greg A Vicino, Ivana G Schork
To improve the welfare of nonhuman animals under professional care, zoological institutions are continuously utilizing new methods to identify factors that lead to optimal welfare. Comparative methods have historically been used in the field of evolutionary biology but are increasingly being applied in the field of animal welfare. In the current study, data were obtained from direct behavioral observation and institutional records representing 80 individual animals from 34 different species of the order Carnivora...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618453/report-susceptibility-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-from-zoo-birds-in-indonesia-to-antibiotics-and-disinfectants
#7
Sajid Umar, Ana Triana Maiyah, Mehwish Shareef, Hajra Qadir, Qamarun Nisa, Seema Abbas
Antibiotic resistance in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a common problem in the Indonesian poultry industry. Zoo birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance, although much is still unknown about the strains of zoo birds. Disinfection can reduce the infection burden. However, little is known about the presence of resistance against these products. Sixty one APEC strains were isolated from Indonesian zoo birds. The resistance to different classes of antibiotics as well as the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of five disinfectants most often used in the poultry industry was determined...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616678/species-identification-of-crested-gibbons-nomascus-in-captivity-in-china-using-karyotyping-and-pcr-based-approaches
#8
Wen-Hui Nie, Jin-Huan Wang, Wei-Ting Su, Yu Hu, Shui-Wang He, Xue-Long Jiang, Kai He
Gibbons and siamangs (Hylobatidae) are well-known for their rapid chromosomal evolution, which has resulted in high speciation rate within the family. On the other hand, distinct karyotypes do not prevent speciation, allowing interbreeding between individuals in captivity, and the unwanted hybrids are ethically problematic as all gibbon species are endangered or critically endangered. Thus, accurate species identification is crucial for captive breeding, particularly in China where studbooks are unavailable...
April 3, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580172/paw-preferences-in-the-asian-small-clawed-otter-using-an-inexpensive-video-based-protocol-to-study-laterality-of-rare-species-in-the-zoo
#9
Martina Manns, Felix Ströckens, Philipp Stavenhagen, Sebastian Ocklenburg
It is still debated whether limb-use preferences represent a common trait in vertebrates, which is based on a shared phylogenetic history. Unravelling the evolutionary origin and pattern of paw preferences in vertebrates requires the analysis of a larger number of species within an ecologically relevant setting. We therefore investigated whether observations in a zoo enable the collection of reliable data sets by quantifying paw use in two independent groups of Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea). Employing a continuous focal animal sampling method, each day one of the ten individuals was video recorded from outside of the enclosure during usual activity...
March 26, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569338/gorilla-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-a-life-saving-collaboration-between-human-and-veterinary-medicine
#10
Greg E Davis, Fred M Baik, Robert M Liddell, Andrew G Ayars, Kelley R Branch, Paul S Pottinger, Allen D Hillel, Kelly Helmick, Darin Collins
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common disease process in humans; however, in the primate population of gorillas, it has rarely been described. This case describes lifesaving sinus surgery on a critically ill gorilla performed by a human otolaryngology team in collaboration with the gorilla's veterinary medicine team. METHODS: The 35-year-old western silverback gorilla was treated for 3 months with aggressive medical therapy for a worsening sinus infection...
March 23, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568703/curious-creatures-a-multi-taxa-investigation-of-responses-to-novelty-in-a-zoo-environment
#11
Belinda A Hall, Vicky Melfi, Alicia Burns, David M McGill, Rebecca E Doyle
The personality trait of curiosity has been shown to increase welfare in humans. If this positive welfare effect is also true for non-humans, animals with high levels of curiosity may be able to cope better with stressful situations than their conspecifics. Before discoveries can be made regarding the effect of curiosity on an animal's ability to cope in their environment, a way of measuring curiosity across species in different environments must be created to standardise testing. To determine the suitability of novel objects in testing curiosity, species from different evolutionary backgrounds with sufficient sample sizes were chosen...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536472/-clinical-presentation-of-cowpox-virus-infection-in-south-american-camelids-a-review
#12
Almut Prkno, Matthias Kaiser, Daniela Goerigk, Martin Pfeffer, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Donata Hoffmann, Martin Beer, Alexander Starke
Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. elephant, rhinoceros, okapi). Of note, a review of the literature produced only three reports of CPXV in individual or small groups of South American camelids. The goal of this review was to describe the current knowledge as it relates to clinical features of CPXV infection in South American camelids and to compare the clinical manifestations with those described in other animal species...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536015/member-perceptions-of-the-one-health-initiative-at-a-zoological-institution
#13
Hannah Padda, Amy Niedbalski, Erin Tate, Sharon L Deem
Zoological institutions play an important role in promoting the goals of the One Health movement. We launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine (ICM) at the Saint Louis Zoo in 2011 to advance the goals of One Health. In 2016, we distributed a survey to Zoo members to evaluate member awareness and understanding of One Health and to provide direction for future communication and actions from the ICM. We hypothesized that Zoo members would be aware of One Health and care about infectious disease issues. Survey results showed Zoo members primarily cared about chronic, non-infectious diseases and their associated economic costs, with participants ranking their top three health issues of concern for humans as nutrition/obesity/diet (49%), costs of health care (48%), and cancer (37%)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527718/stress-and-social-behaviors-of-maternally-deprived-captive-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis
#14
Leila Siciliano-Martina, Jason P Martina
Maternal deprivation can cause long-term behavioral changes in captive mammals. Studies regarding captive ungulates have also indicated behavioral shifts in the presence of the animal keeping staff; however, little is known about these effects in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). To examine this, we observed a population of reticulated giraffes composed of maternally raised and maternally deprived individuals by direct and camera observations at Binder Park Zoo, Battle Creek, Michigan. We conducted observations using a unique ethogram with special regard for behaviors that might indicate stress or anti-social tendencies...
March 12, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517459/a-retrospective-study-of-morbidity-and-mortality-in-the-north-american-amur-leopard-panthera-pardus-orientalis-population-in-zoologic-institutions-from-1992-to-2014
#15
Julia E Napier, Michael S Lund, Douglas L Armstrong, Denise McAloose
The Amur leopard ( Panthera pardus orientalis) is one of the most critically endangered leopards on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature red list. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to identify common and significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the North American Amur leopard zoo population. This information provides insights that contribute to their improved care, health, and medical management and, ultimately, affects the sustainability of this leopard subspecies in the wild...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517452/retrospective-evaluation-of-a-novel-sustained-release-ivermectin-varnish-for-treatment-of-wound-myiasis-in-zoo-housed-animals
#16
Nili Avni-Magen, David Eshar, Michael Friedman, David Kirmayer, Lital Letschert, Irith Gati, Elizabeth Kaufman, Avital Paz, Eran Lavy
Myiasis is a major disease condition in human and veterinary medicine. Domestic, free-ranging, and zoo-housed animals can be severely affected by myiasis. Depending on case severity, multiple treatment episodes may be indicated and can lead to recurrent capturing, handling stress, and anesthetics, all of which increase the risk of adverse responses (including death) individually and also in the herd. As an insecticide, ivermectin is often used for larval control. A total of 28 individual myiasis cases were retrospectively evaluated, out of which 11 cases were also treated using an ivermectin sustained-release varnish (SRV)...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517451/assessing-the-efficacy-of-deslorelin-acetate-implants-suprelorin-in-alternative-placement-sites
#17
Veronica B Cowl, Susan L Walker, Yedra Feltrer Rambaud
Hormonal contraception is being increasingly used to manage captive animals in zoological collections. Many of the animals placed on contraception are of genetic importance within captive breeding programs; therefore, it is imperative that the application of contraceptive products minimize potential side effects and facilitate a return to fertility if required. Deslorelin acetate implants (Suprelorin®) are one example of a hormonal contraceptive that is frequently used in captivity as they are easy to use and effective in most species...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517441/age-related-changes-in-hematology-and-blood-biochemistry-values-in-endangered-wild-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-at-the-bez%C3%A3-mahafaly-special-reserve-madagascar
#18
Cora L Singleton, Michelle L Sauther, Frank P Cuozzo, Ibrahim Antho Youssouf Jacky
The health of 44 wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across three age classes: <5 yr (young), 5-9 yr (adult), and ≥10 yr (old). Hematology and biochemistry tests were performed manually (leukocyte count and differential, packed cell volume, total protein) and using a point-of-care analyzer (hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, total carbon dioxide, anion gap), respectively. Urine specific gravity was measured via refractometry...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517429/treatment-of-mycotic-rhinosinusitis-in-a-bennett-s-wallaby-macropus-rufogriseus-using-topical-voriconazole-suspended-in-a-reverse-thermodynamic-pluronic-gel
#19
Josephine Bryk Rose, Sarah Davies, Kadie M Anderson, Graeme S Allan, Patricia M Dennis, Richard Malik
An approximately 4-yr-old female Bennett's wallaby ( Macropus rufogriseus) was evaluated for chronic left-sided facial swelling and nasal discharge. Computed tomography, endoscopy, biopsy, mycologic culture, and panfungal polymerase chain reaction were consistent with destructive mycotic rhinosinusitis. The patient's infection was treated with a long-term injectable antibiotic, oral antifungal therapy, and multiple intranasal infusions of voriconazole suspended in a reverse thermodynamic pluronic gel. This case represents the first documented case of mycotic rhinosinusitis in a macropod and underlines the importance of advanced cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis, monitoring, and management of nasal cavity disease in zoo animals...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512188/current-husbandry-situation-of-red-pandas-in-japan
#20
Ai Tanaka, Tadatoshi Ogura
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered semi-arboreal folivore with a specialized diet of bamboo leaves. Zoos worldwide maintain red pandas under a variety of housing environments and husbandry procedures that may affect the reproductive success and longevity of captive red pandas. The aims of the present study were to investigate how red pandas are kept in Japan and to obtain useful insights to increase their longevity by comparing the results from a questionnaire sent to Japanese zoos and those from a previous survey conducted in other countries...
March 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
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