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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638674/role-of-personality-in-behavioral-responses-to-new-environments-in-captive-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica
#1
Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Anna Viau, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Daniele Vigo, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Richard Preziosi
Studying personality in captive animals may enable the development of individual-based management decisions, which may improve animal welfare. Asiatic lions at London Zoo represent an opportunity to research an understudied species' response to new environments since they have experienced social and physical changes, such as new enclosures and increased social interaction with humans. This project aimed to investigate the role of personality in behavioral responses to these changes. Lion personality questionnaires completed by keepers and direct focal animal observations were used to create personality profiles...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627010/a-turtle-cognition-research-demonstration-enhances-visitor-engagement-and-keeper-animal-relationships
#2
Andrew C Alba, Katherine A Leighty, Victoria L Pittman Courte, Alison P Grand, Tamara L Bettinger
Environmental enrichment techniques present animals with cognitive challenges while providing them opportunities to make choices and exert control over their environment. In this way, cognitive research and training is enriching to animals and can be used as a form of enrichment in zoos and aquariums. Cognitive research demonstrations also provide an opportunity to enhance visitor experience, as well as foster interactions between animals and keepers. We investigated how cognitive research sessions involving eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) impacted both the rate of visitors coming to the exhibit and the amount of time they spent engaged...
June 18, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626619/african-penguins-follow-the-gaze-direction-of-conspecifics
#3
Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro
Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620152/cryptosporidium-meleagridis-and-c-baileyi-apicomplexa-in-domestic-and-wild-birds-in-algeria
#4
Abd Elkarim Laatamna, Nikola Holubova, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kvac
A total of 345 faecal samples were collected from domestic, captive and wild birds in rural areas, urban areas and a Zoo in Algeria. Samples were screened for the presence of parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 by microscopy and PCR analysis of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU), actin and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 31 samples. Sequence analysis of SSU and actin genes revealed the presence of C. baileyi Current, Upton et Haynes, 1986 in domestic chicken broilers (n = 12), captive ostriches (n = 4) and a wild mallard (n = 1), and C...
June 13, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616485/evidence-of-canine-parvovirus-transmission-to-a-civet-cat-paradoxurus-musangus-in-singapore
#5
Ian H Mendenhall, Dolyce Low, Erica Sena Neves, Ali Anwar, Serena Oh, Yvonne C F Su, Gavin J D Smith
Cross-species transmission can often lead to deleterious effects in incidental hosts. Parvoviruses have a wide host range and primarily infect members of the order Carnivora. Here we describe juvenile common palm civet cats (Paradoxurus musangus) that were brought to the Singapore zoo and fell ill while quarantined. The tissues of two individual civets that died tested PCR-positive for parvovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed this parvovirus strain falls in a basal position to a clade of CPV that have infected dogs in China and Uruguay, suggesting cross-species transmission from domestic to wild animals...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603873/environmental-dna-enables-detection-of-terrestrial-mammals-from-forest-pond-water
#6
Masayuki Ushio, Hisato Fukuda, Toshiki Inoue, Kobayashi Makoto, Osamu Kishida, Keiichi Sato, Koichi Murata, Masato Nikaido, Tetsuya Sado, Yukuto Sato, Masamichi Takeshita, Wataru Iwasaki, Hiroki Yamanaka, Michio Kondoh, Masaki Miya
Terrestrial animals must have frequent contact with water to survive, implying that environmental DNA (eDNA) originating from those animals should be detectable from places containing water in terrestrial ecosystems. Aiming to detect the presence of terrestrial mammals using forest water samples, we applied a set of universal PCR primers (MiMammal, a modified version of fish universal primers) for metabarcoding mammalian eDNA. The versatility of MiMammal primers was tested in silico and by amplifying DNAs extracted from tissues...
June 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584731/experience-based-human-perception-of-facial-expressions-in-barbary-macaques-macaca-sylvanus
#7
Laëtitia Maréchal, Xandria Levy, Kerstin Meints, Bonaventura Majolo
BACKGROUND: Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584728/how-to-be-a-great-dad-parental-care-in-a-flock-of-greater-flamingo-phoenicopterus-roseus
#8
Camillo Sandri, Vittoria Vallarin, Carolina Sammarini, Barbara Regaiolli, Alessandra Piccirillo, Caterina Spiezio
In the last years, studies on captive greater flamingos have increased. Research on zoo animals is important to improve the knowledge on these species and to improve their ex-situ and in-situ conservation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the parental behaviour of a captive colony of greater flamingo hosted at Parco Natura Viva, an Italian zoological garden, to improve the knowledge on this species in zoos. In particular, the present study investigated and compared the parental care of females and males in 35 breeding pairs of greater flamingos...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583130/high-prevalence-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-zoonotic-genotype-d-in-captive-golden-snub-nosed-monkey-rhinopithecus-roxellanae-in-zoos-in-china
#9
Fuchang Yu, Yayun Wu, Tongyi Li, Jianke Cao, Jiantang Wang, Suhui Hu, Huili Zhu, Sumei Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the dominant specie of microsporidia which can infect both anthroponotic and zoonotic species. The golden snub-nosed monkey is an endangered primate which can also infect by E. bieneusi. To date, few genetic data on E. bieneusi from golden snub-nosed monkeys has been published. Therefore, to clarify the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in captive golden snub-nosed monkeys is necessary to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. RESULT: We examined 160 golden snub-nosed monkeys from six zoos in four cities in China, using PCR and comparative sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)...
June 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579157/compound-mechanism-of-fatal-neck-injury-a-case-report-of-a-tiger-attack-in-a-zoo
#10
Łukasz Szleszkowski, Agata Thannhäuser, Tomasz Jurek
Fatal injuries caused by attacks by large wild cats are extremely rare in forensic medical practice in Europe. There are very few cases described in the forensic medical literature concerning incidents in zoos similar to the tiger attack on a 58-year-old male zoo employee that we present here. While preparing a runway for tigers, the man was attacked by a male Sumatran tiger. Another zoo employee was an eyewitness to the accident; in his testimony he described the sequence of events in detail. The autopsy showed the injuries typical of a tiger attack: traces of claws and canine teeth indicating that the victim of the attack was knocked down from behind, along with deep and extensive fatal wounds to the neck...
May 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573025/chimpanzee-intellect-personality-performance-and-motivation-with-touchscreen-tasks
#11
Drew M Altschul, Emma K Wallace, Ruth Sonnweber, Masaki Tomonaga, Alexander Weiss
Human intellect is characterized by intercorrelated psychological domains, including intelligence, academic performance and personality. Higher openness is associated with higher intelligence and better academic performance, yet high performance among individuals is itself attributable to intelligence, not openness. High conscientiousness individuals, although not necessarily more intelligent, are better performers. Work with other species is not as extensive, yet animals display similar relationships between exploration- and persistence-related personality traits and performance on cognitive tasks...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547779/the-effects-of-environmental-and-visitor-variables-on-the-behavior-of-free-ranging-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-captivity
#12
Courtney Collins, Ilse Corkery, Amy Haigh, Sean McKeown, Thomas Quirke, Ruth O'Riordan
The effect of the zoo environment on captive animals is an increasingly studied area of zoo research, with visitor effects and exhibit design recognized as two of the factors that can contribute to animal welfare in captivity. It is known that in some situations, visitors may be stressful to zoo-housed primates, and this may be compounded by environmental factors such as the weather, the time of day, and zoo husbandry routines. Exhibit design and proximity of the public are also known to influence behavioral response of primates to visitors; however, there is minimal research on free-ranging zoo animals, even though they are potentially subjected to intense interactions with visitors...
May 26, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543739/sound-at-the-zoo-using-animal-monitoring-sound-measurement-and-noise-reduction-in-zoo-animal-management
#13
David A Orban, Joseph Soltis, Lori Perkins, Jill D Mellen
A clear need for evidence-based animal management in zoos and aquariums has been expressed by industry leaders. Here, we show how individual animal welfare monitoring can be combined with measurement of environmental conditions to inform science-based animal management decisions. Over the last several years, Disney's Animal Kingdom® has been undergoing significant construction and exhibit renovation, warranting institution-wide animal welfare monitoring. Animal care and science staff developed a model that tracked animal keepers' daily assessments of an animal's physical health, behavior, and responses to husbandry activity; these data were matched to different external stimuli and environmental conditions, including sound levels...
May 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532793/streptococcus-agalactiae-in-elephants-a-comparative-study-with-isolates-from-human-and-zoo-animal-and-livestock-origin
#14
Tobias Eisenberg, Jörg Rau, Uta Westerhüs, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Ahmad Fawzy, Karen Schlez, Michael Zschöck, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Carsten Heydel, Reinhard Sting, Stefanie P Glaeser, Dipen Pulami, Mark van der Linden, Christa Ewers
Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528556/proventriculitis-associated-with-cryptosporidium-baileyi-in-a-snowy-owl-bubo-scandiacus-and-its-epidemiological-investigation
#15
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Miki Sugimoto, Sohei Tomikawa, Kenichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500361/-live-animals-and-staged-nature-drawing-and-photography-in-german-popular-zoology-between-1860-and-1910
#16
Alexander Gall
It is the central thesis of this paper that the "biological perspective" (Lynn Nyhart) typical for Germany, with its interest in living animals, not only influenced natural history practices in many ways during the second half of the 19th century, rather also shaped the illustrations of popular zoology publications, as for example those in Brehms Thierleben. The illustrators of this period preferred to use live animals as models, which they studied in zoos. These animals were often depicted in their "natural" habitats...
May 12, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493440/tear-production-intraocular-pressure-and-conjunctival-bacterial-flora-in-selected-captive-wild-ruminants
#17
Pavel Kvapil, Tina Pirš, Brigita Slavec, Roman Luštrik, Tadej Zemljič, Eva Bártová, Bojana Stranjac, Marjan Kastelic
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of tear production (Schirmer's tear test, STT) and measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) were performed in a population of captive wild ungulates in a Slovenian ZOO during routine annual health check. ANIMALS STUDIED: In total, 10 fallow deer (Dama dama), 25 mouflons (Ovis aries musimon), 20 alpine ibexes (Capra ibex), and three alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were included in the study. METHODS: Tear production was performed by Schirmer's tear test, IOP was measured with an applanation tonometer, and ophthalmological examination was conducted with slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy...
May 11, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487453/adaptation-of-the-animal-welfare-assessment-grid-awag-for-monitoring-animal-welfare-in-zoological-collections
#18
W S M Justice, M F O'Brien, O Szyszka, J Shotton, J E M Gilmour, P Riordan, S Wolfensohn
Animal welfare monitoring is an essential part of zoo management and a legal requirement in many countries. Historically, a variety of welfare audits have been proposed to assist zoo managers. Unfortunately, there are a number of issues with these assessments, including lack of species information, validated tests and the overall complexity of these audits which make them difficult to implement in practice. The animal welfare assessment grid (AWAG) has previously been proposed as an animal welfare monitoring tool for animals used in research programmes...
May 9, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484620/group-size-and-visitor-numbers-predict-faecal-glucocorticoid-concentrations-in-zoo-meerkats
#19
Katy Scott, Michael Heistermann, Michael A Cant, Emma I K Vitikainen
Measures of physiological stress in zoo animals can give important insights into how they are affected by aspects of their captive environment. We analysed the factors influencing variation in glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces (fGCs) from zoo meerkats as a proxy for blood cortisol concentration, high levels of which are associated with a stress response. Levels of fGCs in captive meerkats declined with increasing group size. In the wild, very small groups of meerkats are at a higher risk of predation, while in larger groups, there is increased competition for resources...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472180/serum-biochemistry-panels-in-african-buffalo-defining-reference-intervals-and-assessing-variability-across-season-age-and-sex
#20
Claire E Couch, Morgan A Movius, Anna E Jolles, M Elena Gorman, Johanna D Rigas, Brianna R Beechler
Serum biochemical parameters can be utilized to evaluate the physiological status of an animal, and relate it to the animal's health. In order to accurately interpret individual animal biochemical results, species-specific reference intervals (RI) must be established. Reference intervals for biochemical parameters differ between species, and physiological differences including reproductive status, nutritional resource availability, disease status, and age affect parameters within the same species. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish RI for biochemical parameters in managed African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), (2) assess the effects of age, sex, pregnancy, and season on serum biochemistry values, and (3) compare serum biochemistry values from a managed herd to a free-ranging buffalo herd and to values previously published for captive (zoo) buffalo...
2017: PloS One
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