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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340502/trends-in-alcohol-consumption-among-older-americans-national-health-interview-surveys-1997-to-2014
#1
Rosalind A Breslow, I-Jen P Castle, Chiung M Chen, Barry I Graubard
BACKGROUND: The majority of U.S. older adults consume alcoholic beverages. The older population is projected to almost double by 2050. Substantially more drinkers are likely. PURPOSE: To describe gender-specific trends (1997 to 2014) in prevalence of drinking status (lifetime abstention, former drinking, current drinking [including average volume], and binge drinking) among U.S. adults ages 60+ by age group and birth cohort. METHODS: In the 1997 to 2014 National Health Interview Surveys, 65,303 respondents ages 60+ (31,803 men, 33,500 women) were current drinkers; 6,570 men and 1,737 women were binge drinkers...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340009/designing-an-optimal-screening-program-for-unknown-atrial-fibrillation-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#2
Mattias Aronsson, Emma Svennberg, Mårten Rosenqvist, Johan Engdahl, Faris Al-Khalili, Leif Friberg, Viveka Frykman, Lars-Åke Levin
Aims: The primary objective of this study was to use computer simulations to suggest an optimal age for initiation of screening for unknown atrial fibrillation and to evaluate if repeated screening will add value. Methods and results: In the absence of relevant clinical studies, this analysis was based on a simulation model. More than two billion different designs of screening programs for unknown atrial fibrillation were simulated and analysed. Data from the published scientific literature and registries were used to construct the model and estimate lifelong effects and costs...
March 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339169/gesp-a-computer-program-for-modeling-genetic-effective-population-size-inbreeding-and-divergence-in-substructured-populations
#3
Fredrik Olsson, Linda Laikre, Ola Hössjer, Nils Ryman
The genetically effective population size (Ne) is of key importance for quantifying rates of inbreeding and genetic drift, and is often used in conservation management to set targets for genetic viability. The concept was developed for single, isolated populations and the mathematical means for analyzing the expected Ne in complex, subdivided populations have previously not been available. We recently developed such analytical theory and central parts of that work have now been incorporated into a freely available software tool presented here...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337725/comparison-of-diagnostic-performance-of-four-software-packages-for-phase-dyssynchrony-analysis-in-gated-myocardial-perfusion-spect
#4
Koichi Okuda, Kenichi Nakajima, Shinro Matsuo, Soichiro Kashiwaya, Hiroto Yoneyama, Takayuki Shibutani, Masahisa Onoguchi, Mitsumasa Hashimoto, Seigo Kinuya
BACKGROUND: Phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony was investigated using the following dedicated software packages: Corridor4DM (4DM), cardioREPO (cREPO), Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECTb), and quantitative gated SPECT (QGS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal values of 95% histogram bandwidth, phase standard deviation (SD), and entropy and to compare the diagnostic performance of the four software packages...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336805/what-is-data-ethics
#5
Luciano Floridi, Mariarosaria Taddeo
This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values)...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335385/patient-posture-monitoring-system-based-on-flexible-sensors
#6
Youngsu Cha, Kihyuk Nam, Doik Kim
Monitoring patients using vision cameras can cause privacy intrusion problems. In this paper, we propose a patient position monitoring system based on a patient cloth with unobtrusive sensors. We use flexible sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride, which is a flexible piezoelectric material. Theflexiblesensorsareinsertedintopartsclosetothekneeandhipoftheloosepatientcloth. We measure electrical signals from the sensors caused by the piezoelectric effect when the knee and hip in the cloth are bent. The measured sensor outputs are transferred to a computer via Bluetooth...
March 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335028/defining-the-5%C3%AE-and-3%C3%AE-landscape-of-the-drosophila-transcriptome-with-exo-seq-and-rnaseh-seq
#7
Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N Artyomov, Alexander A Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener
Cells regulate biological responses in part through changes in transcription start sites (TSS) or cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PAS). To fully understand gene regulatory networks, it is therefore critical to accurately annotate cell type-specific TSS and PAS. Here we present a simple and straightforward approach for genome-wide annotation of 5΄- and 3΄-RNA ends. Our approach reliably discerns bona fide PAS from false PAS that arise due to internal poly(A) tracts, a common problem with current PAS annotation methods...
February 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334396/quantifying-circular-rna-expression-from-rna-seq-data-using-model-based-framework
#8
Musheng Li, Xueying Xie, Jing Zhou, Mengying Sheng, Xiaofeng Yin, Eun-A Ko, Tong Zhou, Wanjun Gu
Motivation: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that are widely expressed in various cell lines and tissues of many organisms. Although the exact function of many circRNAs is largely unknown, the cell type- and tissue-specific circRNA expression has implicated their crucial functions in many biological processes. Hence, the quantification of circRNA expression from high-throughput RNA-seq data is becoming important to ascertain. Although many model-based methods have been developed to quantify linear RNA expression from RNA-seq data, these methods are not applicable to circRNA quantification...
March 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334390/seqarray-a-storage-efficient-high-performance-data-format-for-wgs-variant-calls
#9
Xiuwen Zheng, Stephanie M Gogarten, Michael Lawrence, Adrienne Stilp, Matthew P Conomos, Bruce S Weir, Cathy Laurie, David Levine
Motivation: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data is being generated at an unprecedented rate. Analysis of WGS data requires a flexible data format to store the different types of DNA variation. Variant call format (VCF) is a general text-based format developed to store variant genotypes and their annotations. However, VCF files are large and data retrieval is relatively slow. Here we introduce a new WGS variant data format implemented in the R/Bioconductor package "SeqArray" for storing variant calls in an arrayoriented manner which provides the same capabilities as VCF, but with multiple high compression options and data access using high-performance parallel computing...
March 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334379/influence-of-different-hazelnut-cultivars-on-some-demographic-characteristics-of-the-filbert-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae
#10
Ali Güncan, Ebru Gümüs
The filbert aphid Myzocallis coryli (Goeze) is a serious pest of hazelnut in North America, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. To evaluate the resistance of hazelnut to this insect, aphids were reared on five major cultivars ('Tombul,' 'Palaz,' 'Çakıldak,' 'Foşa,' and 'Mincane') under laboratory conditions. The developmental times of preadult and adult stages, total longevity, reproduction, and life table parameters were analyzed according to age-stage, two-sex life table theory, in which the stage differentiation and variable developmental rates among individuals could be described...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334372/simulations-imaging-and-modeling-a-unique-theme-for-an-undergraduate-research-program-in-biomechanics
#11
Stephanie M George, Zachary J Domire
As the reliance on computational models to inform experiments and evaluate medical devices grows, the demand for students with modeling experience will grow. In this paper, we report on the three year experience of a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) based on the theme simulations, imaging, and modeling in biomechanics. While directly applicable to REU sites, our findings also apply to those creating other types of summer undergraduate research programs. The objective of the paper is to examine if a theme of simulations, imaging, and modeling will improve students' understanding of the important topic of modeling, provide an overall positive research experience, and provide an interdisciplinary experience...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334282/comprehensive-assessment-of-flexible-ligand-docking-algorithms-current-effectiveness-and-challenges
#12
Sheng-You Huang
Protein-ligand docking has been playing an important role in modern drug discovery. To model drug-target binding in real systems, a number of flexible-ligand docking algorithms with different sampling strategies and scoring methods have been subsequently developed over the past three decades, while rigid-ligand docking is still being used because of its compelling computational efficiency. Here, a comprehensive assessment has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of flexible-ligand docking versus rigid-ligand docking for three representative docking algorithms (global optimization, incremental construction and multi-conformer docking) in virtual screening and pose prediction on the Directory of Useful Decoys...
March 14, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333763/inflammatory-status-and-lung-function-predict-mortality-in-lung-cancer-screening-participants
#13
Ugo Pastorino, Daniele Morelli, Alfonso Marchianò, Stefano Sestini, Paola Suatoni, Francesca Taverna, Mattia Boeri, Gabriella Sozzi, Anna Cantarutti, Giovanni Corrao
Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening trials have based their risk selection algorithm on age and tobacco exposure, but never on pulmonary risk-related biomarkers. In the present study, the baseline inflammatory status, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and lung function, measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), were tested as independent predictors of all-cause mortality in LDCT-screening participants. Between 2000 and 2010, 4413 volunteers were enrolled in two LDCT-screening trials, with evaluable baseline CRP and FEV1 values: 2037 were included in the discovery set and 2376 were included in the validation set...
March 23, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333230/bayesian-analysis-of-evolutionary-divergence-with-genomic-data-under-diverse-demographic-models
#14
Yujin Chung, Jody Hey
We present a new Bayesian method for estimating demographic and phylogenetic history using population genomic data. Several key innovations are introduced that allow the study of diverse models within an Isolation with Migration framework. The new method implements a 2-step analysis, with an initial Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) phase that samples simple coalescent trees, followed by the calculation of the joint posterior density for the parameters of a demographic model. In step 1, the MCMC sampling phase, the method uses a reduced state space, consisting of coalescent trees without migration paths, and a simple importance sampling distribution without the demography of interest...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333096/molecularly-imprinted-polymers-for-selective-extraction-of-oblongifolin-c-from-garcinia-yunnanensis-hu
#15
Liping Wang, Wenwei Fu, Yunhui Shen, Hongsheng Tan, Hongxi Xu
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized and applied for the selective extraction of oblongifolin C (OC) from fruit extracts of Garcinia yunnanensis Hu. A series of experiments and computational approaches were employed to improve the efficiency of screening for optimal MIP systems in the study. The molar ratio (1:4) was eventually chosen based on the comparison of the binding energy of the complexes between the template (OC) and the functional monomers using density functional theory (DFT) at the RI-PBE-D3-gCP/def2-TZVP level of theory...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332863/male-and-female-worldsid-and-post-mortem-human-subject-responses-in-full-scale-vehicle-tests
#16
Narayan Yoganandan, John Humm, Frank Pintar, Heather Rhule, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Jim Stricklin, Rodney Rudd, Matthew Craig
Structured ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. METHODS: Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the United States Side impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332469/marrying-step-feed-with-clarifier-improvements-increase-wet-weather-capacity-integrated-methodology
#17
Glen T Daigger John S Siczka Thomas F Smith David A Frank J A McCorquodale
The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, OH, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30...
March 22, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332344/impact-of-intervention-by-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-team-on-conversion-from-intravenous-to-oral-fluoroquinolones
#18
Soh Mee Park, Hyung Sook Kim, Young Mi Jeong, Jung Hwa Lee, Eunsook Lee, Euni Lee, Kyoung Ho Song, Hong Bin Kim, Eu Suk Kim
BACKGROUND: Early conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics plays an important role in lowering the risk of catheter-associated infections, reducing the workload of nurses, decreasing direct and indirect costs, and shortening hospital stays. In August 2015, an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) was implemented to facilitate conversion from intravenous to oral administration of fluoroquinolones in our institute. This study evaluated the clinical and economic impact of the intervention...
March 13, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332322/design-of-character-based-dna-barcode-motif-for-species-identification-a-computational-approach-and-its-validation-in-fishes
#19
Mohua Chakraborty, Bishal Dhar, Sankar Kumar Ghosh
The DNA barcodes are generally interpreted using distance-based and character-based methods. The former uses clustering of comparable groups, based on the relative genetic distance, while the latter is based on the presence or absence of discrete nucleotide substitutions. The distance-based approach has a limitation in defining a universal species boundary across the taxa since the rate of mtDNA evolution is not constant throughout the taxa. However, character-based approach more accurately defines this using a unique set of nucleotide characters...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331548/discovering-feature-relevancy-and-dependency-by-kernel-guided-probabilistic-model-building-evolution
#20
Nestor Rodriguez, Sergio Rojas-Galeano
BACKGROUND: Discovering relevant features (biomarkers) that discriminate etiologies of a disease is useful to provide biomedical researchers with candidate targets for further laboratory experimentation while saving costs; dependencies among biomarkers may suggest additional valuable information, for example, to characterize complex epistatic relationships from genetic data. The use of classifiers to guide the search for biomarkers (the so-called wrapper approach) has been widely studied...
2017: BioData Mining
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