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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551859/cognitive-workload-reduction-in-hospital-information-systems-decision-support-for-order-set-optimization
#1
Daniel Gartner, Yiye Zhang, Rema Padman
Order sets are a critical component in hospital information systems that are expected to substantially reduce physicians' physical and cognitive workload and improve patient safety. Order sets represent time interval-clustered order items, such as medications prescribed at hospital admission, that are administered to patients during their hospital stay. In this paper, we develop a mathematical programming model and an exact and a heuristic solution procedure with the objective of minimizing physicians' cognitive workload associated with prescribing order sets...
May 27, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550994/prospective-validation-of-a-near-real-time-ehr-integrated-automated-sofa-score-calculator
#2
Christopher Aakre, Pablo Moreno Franco, Micaela Ferreyra, Jaben Kitson, Man Li, Vitaly Herasevich
OBJECTIVES: We created an algorithm for automated Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score calculation within the Electronic Health Record (EHR) to facilitate detection of sepsis based on the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (SEPSIS-3) clinical definition. We evaluated the accuracy of near real-time and daily automated SOFA score calculation compared with manual score calculation. METHODS: Automated SOFA scoring computer programs were developed using available EHR data sources and integrated into a critical care focused patient care dashboard at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota...
July 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549867/integrated-testing-strategies-can-be-optimal-for-chemical-risk-classification
#3
Marko Raseta, Jon Pitchford, James Cussens, John Doe
There is an urgent need to refine strategies for testing the safety of chemical compounds. This need arises both from the financial and ethical costs of animal tests, but also from the opportunities presented by new in-vitro and in-silico alternatives. Here we explore the mathematical theory underpinning the formulation of optimal testing strategies in toxicology. We show how the costs and imprecisions of the various tests, and the variability in exposures and responses of individuals, can be assembled rationally to form a Markov Decision Problem...
May 23, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549511/infection-prevention-outside-of-the-acute-care-setting-results-from-the-megasurvey-of-infection-preventionists
#4
Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Ericka L Kalp
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a significant shift of health care delivery to nonacute care settings. However, research on staffing and resources dedicated to infection prevention and control (IPC) in these settings is lacking. METHODS: The data for this analysis come from the 2015 APIC MegaSurvey. Descriptive statistics were computed to describe infection preventionists (IPs) employed in nonacute care settings. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine differences in facility and demographic characteristics by type of nonacute care setting...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#5
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548302/fast-computation-of-full-density-matrix-of-multispin-systems-for-spatially-localized-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#6
Yan Zhang, Li An, Jun Shen
PURPOSE: Numerical simulations of three-dimensionally localized MRS spectra have been very time-consuming for multi-spin systems because the current state-of-the-art requires computation of a large ensemble of spins pixel-by-pixel in three dimensional space. This paper describes a highly accelerated technique for computing spatially localized MRS spectra using the full solution to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. METHODS: The time evolution of spatially localized multispin density matrix as the full solution to the Liouville-von Neumann equation was analyzed...
May 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547013/new-cfd-tools-to-evaluate-nasal-airflow
#7
M A Burgos, E Sanmiguel-Rojas, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND(®) only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow...
May 25, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546777/effectiveness-of-a-participatory-eye-care-program-in-reducing-eye-strain-among-staff-computer-users-in-thailand
#8
Sudaw Lertwisuttipaiboon, Tepanata Pumpaibool, Karl J Neeser, Ngamjit Kasetsuwan
BACKGROUND: The increased usage of computers results in a variety of health problems, particularly eye strain, which is the most common workplace complaint today. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory eye care (PEC) program by comparing eye care knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), as well as eye strain symptoms in staff computer users at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Thailand. METHODS: A participatory approach was held by organizing a meeting of 26 stakeholders to get opinions for developing the PEC program...
2017: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545555/the-complex-domain-architecture-of-samd9-family-proteins-predicted-stand-like-ntpases-suggests-new-links-to-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#9
Sergei L Mekhedov, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin
We report a comprehensive computational dissection of the domain architecture of the SAMD9 family proteins that are involved in antivirus and antitumor response in humans. We show that the SAMD9 protein family is represented in most animals and also, unexpectedly, in bacteria, in particular actinomycetes. From the N to C terminus, the core SAMD9 family architecture includes DNA/RNA-binding AlbA domain, a variant Sir2-like domain, a STAND-like P-loop NTPase, an array of TPR repeats and an OB-fold domain with predicted RNA-binding properties...
May 25, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544141/assessing-the-pre-and-postpeak-phases-in-a-swallow-using-esophageal-pressure-topography
#10
Y Xiao, D A Carlson, Z Lin, N Rinella, D Sifrim, J E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: The current paradigm of measuring esophageal contractile vigor assesses the entirety of a pressure wave using a single measurement, the distal contractile integral (DCI). We hypothesize that an assessment identifying separate phases of the contractile pressure wave before and after the pressure peak may help distinguish abnormalities in patients presenting with chest pain and dysphagia. The aim of the present study was to develop a technique to assess the individual phases and report on the values in healthy controls...
May 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543725/tutorial-for-the-structure-elucidation-of-small-molecules-by-means-of-the-lsd-software
#11
Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Bertrand Plainchont
Automatic structure elucidation of small molecules by means of the "Logic for Structure Elucidation" software (LSD) is introduced in the context of the automatic exploitation of chemical shift correlation data and with minimal input from chemical shift values. The first step in solving a structural problem by means of LSD is the extraction of pertinent data from the 1D and 2D spectra. This operation requires the labeling of the resonances and of their correlations; its reliability highly depends on the quality of the spectra...
May 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543062/an-adaptive-vestibular-rehabilitation-technique
#12
Benjamin T Crane, Michael C Schubert
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: There is a large variation in vestibular rehabilitation (VR) results depending on type of therapy, adherence, and the appropriateness for the patient's level of function. A novel adaptive vestibular rehabilitation (AVR) program was developed and evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Technology and procedure development, and prospective multicenter trial. METHODS: Those with complete unilateral vestibular hypofunction and symptomatic at least 3 months with a Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) >30 were eligible...
May 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542615/taking-dietary-habits-into-account-a-computational-method-for-modeling-food-choices-that-goes-beyond-price
#13
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Takeru Igusa
Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542514/panweb-a-web-interface-for-pan-genomic-analysis
#14
Yan Pantoja, Kenny Pinheiro, Allan Veras, Fabrício Araújo, Ailton Lopes de Sousa, Luis Carlos Guimarães, Artur Silva, Rommel T J Ramos
With increased production of genomic data since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), there has been a need to develop new bioinformatics tools and areas, such as comparative genomics. In comparative genomics, the genetic material of an organism is directly compared to that of another organism to better understand biological species. Moreover, the exponentially growing number of deposited prokaryote genomes has enabled the investigation of several genomic characteristics that are intrinsic to certain species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542466/toner-a-tool-for-identifying-nucleotide-enrichment-signals-in-feature-enriched-rna-seq-data
#15
Yuttachon Promworn, Pavita Kaewprommal, Philip J Shaw, Apichart Intarapanich, Sissades Tongsima, Jittima Piriyapongsa
BACKGROUND: Biochemical methods are available for enriching 5' ends of RNAs in prokaryotes, which are employed in the differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq) and the more recent Cappable-seq protocols. Computational methods are needed to locate RNA 5' ends from these data by statistical analysis of the enrichment. Although statistical-based analysis methods have been developed for dRNA-seq, they may not be suitable for Cappable-seq data. The more efficient enrichment method employed in Cappable-seq compared with dRNA-seq could affect data distribution and thus algorithm performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542178/uncovering-direct-and-indirect-molecular-determinants-of-chromatin-loops-using-a-computational-integrative-approach
#16
Raphaël Mourad, Lang Li, Olivier Cuvier
Chromosomal organization in 3D plays a central role in regulating cell-type specific transcriptional and DNA replication timing programs. Yet it remains unclear to what extent the resulting long-range contacts depend on specific molecular drivers. Here we propose a model that comprehensively assesses the influence on contacts of DNA-binding proteins, cis-regulatory elements and DNA consensus motifs. Using real data, we validate a large number of predictions for long-range contacts involving known architectural proteins and DNA motifs...
May 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542156/toward-standard-practices-for-sharing-computer-code-and-programs-in-neuroscience
#17
Stephen J Eglen, Ben Marwick, Yaroslav O Halchenko, Michael Hanke, Shoaib Sufi, Padraig Gleeson, R Angus Silver, Andrew P Davison, Linda Lanyon, Mathew Abrams, Thomas Wachtler, David J Willshaw, Christophe Pouzat, Jean-Baptiste Poline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541749/multilevel-barriers-to-the-successful-implementation-of-lung-cancer-screening-why-does-it-have-to-be-so-hard
#18
Lisa Carter-Harris, Michael K Gould
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for long-term current and former smokers. However, lung cancer screening and its implementation is a complex issue. Screening has associated risks and potential harms that complicate the decision to screen for the patient, add to the already time-constrained clinical encounter for the provider, and present logistical and sociopolitical challenges in creating and implementing lung cancer screening programs for the health care system...
May 25, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541403/flexbar-3-0-simd-and-multicore-parallelization
#19
Johannes T Roehr, Christoph Dieterich, Knut Reinert
Motivation: High throughput sequencing machines can process many samples in a single run. For Illumina systems, sequencing reads are barcoded with an additional DNA tag that is contained in the respective sequencing adapters. The recognition of barcode and adapter sequences is hence commonly needed for the analysis of next generation sequencing data. Flexbar performs demultiplexing based on barcodes and adapter trimming for such data. The massive amounts of data generated on modern sequencing machines demand that this preprocessing is done as efficiently as possible...
May 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539071/the-location-and-effects-of-visual-hemisphere-specific-stimulation-on-reading-fluency-in-children-with-the-characteristics-of-dyslexia
#20
Bobbie Jean Koen, Jacqueline Hawkins, Xi Zhu, Ben Jansen, Weihua Fan, Sharon Johnson
Fluency is used as an indicator of reading proficiency. Many students with reading disabilities are unable to benefit from typical interventions. This study is designed to replicate Lorusso, Facoetti, Paganoni, Pezzani, and Molteni's (2006) work using FlashWord, a computer program that tachistoscopically presents words in the right or left visual hemi-field in English and locates through fMRI imaging the processing areas involved in fluency development. Our participants were 15 students who were ages 8 to 19 years and had reading disabilities randomly assigned to Intervention ( n = 9) and Delayed Intervention ( n = 6) groups...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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