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K Ryan, D Gareth Williams, David J Balding
Many DNA profiles recovered from crime scene samples are of a quality that does not allow them to be searched against, nor entered into, databases. We propose a method for the comparison of profiles arising from two DNA samples, one or both of which can have multiple donors and be affected by low DNA template or degraded DNA. We compute likelihood ratios to evaluate the hypothesis that the two samples have a common DNA donor, and hypotheses specifying the relatedness of two donors. Our method uses a probability distribution for the genotype of the donor of interest in each sample...
September 21, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Dania Rishiq, Aparna Rao, Tess Koerner, Harvey Abrams
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine whether hearing aids in combination with computer-based auditory training improve audiovisual (AV) performance compared with the use of hearing aids alone. Method: Twenty-four participants were randomized into an experimental group (hearing aids plus ReadMyQuips [RMQ] training) and a control group (hearing aids only). The Multimodal Lexical Sentence Test for Adults (Kirk et al., 2012) was used to measure auditory-only (AO) and AV speech perception performance at three signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs)...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Madhav V Deo
A buzzword in Indian press and amongst the policy makers is that India is short of the WHO recommended doctor to population ratio of 1:1000. The recommendations were formulated to facilitate programs to achieve some of the health related UN-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Infections and malnutrition, which can be comfortably handled by a basic MBBS doctor, were the dominant health issues at the time of the formulation of the MDGs. However, all countries worldwide are going through health epidemiological transition and health impact of the non-communicable disorders (NCDs) can be no more ignored even by the low income nations...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Conall Tunney, Patricia Cooney, David Coyle, Gary O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: The current popularity of mindfulness-based practices has coincided with the increase in access to mobile technology. This has led to many mindfulness apps and programs becoming available, some specifically for children. However, little is known about the experience of engaging with mindfulness through these mediums. AIMS: To explore children's experience of mindfulness delivered both face-to-face and through a computer game to highlight any differences or similarities...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Alex R Hardisty, Finn Bacall, Niall Beard, Maria-Paula Balcázar-Vargas, Bachir Balech, Zoltán Barcza, Sarah J Bourlat, Renato De Giovanni, Yde de Jong, Francesca De Leo, Laura Dobor, Giacinto Donvito, Donal Fellows, Antonio Fernandez Guerra, Nuno Ferreira, Yuliya Fetyukova, Bruno Fosso, Jonathan Giddy, Carole Goble, Anton Güntsch, Robert Haines, Vera Hernández Ernst, Hannes Hettling, Dóra Hidy, Ferenc Horváth, Dóra Ittzés, Péter Ittzés, Andrew Jones, Renzo Kottmann, Robert Kulawik, Sonja Leidenberger, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Cherian Mathew, Norman Morrison, Aleksandra Nenadic, Abraham Nieva de la Hidalga, Matthias Obst, Gerard Oostermeijer, Elisabeth Paymal, Graziano Pesole, Salvatore Pinto, Axel Poigné, Francisco Quevedo Fernandez, Monica Santamaria, Hannu Saarenmaa, Gergely Sipos, Karl-Heinz Sylla, Marko Tähtinen, Saverio Vicario, Rutger Aldo Vos, Alan R Williams, Pelin Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: Making forecasts about biodiversity and giving support to policy relies increasingly on large collections of data held electronically, and on substantial computational capability and capacity to analyse, model, simulate and predict using such data. However, the physically distributed nature of data resources and of expertise in advanced analytical tools creates many challenges for the modern scientist. Across the wider biological sciences, presenting such capabilities on the Internet (as "Web services") and using scientific workflow systems to compose them for particular tasks is a practical way to carry out robust "in silico" science...
October 20, 2016: BMC Ecology
Sally Lindsay, Kara Grace Hounsell
PURPOSE: Youth with disabilities are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in school and in the workforce. One encouraging approach to engage youth's interest in STEM is through robotics; however, such programs are mostly for typically developing youth. The purpose of this study was to understand the development and implementation of an adapted robotics program for children and youth with disabilities and their experiences within it. METHOD: Our mixed methods pilot study (pre- and post-workshop surveys, observations, and interviews) involved 41 participants including: 18 youth (aged 6-13), 12 parents and 11 key informants...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Joseph Resti, Pulsar Li, Steven L Orebaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Medical Education
Balasundaram Preethi, Veerappapillai Shanthi, Karuppasamy Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Salmonella typhimurium is the main cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans, and treatment options are decreasing because drug-resistant strains have emerged. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use computational drug repurposing to identify a novel candidate with an effective mechanism of action to circumvent the drug resistance. METHODS: We used the Mantra 2.0 database to initially screen drug candidates that share similar gene expression profiles to those of quinolones...
October 19, 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
K K Bredahl, M Taudorf, L Lönn, K C Vogt, H Sillesen, J P Eiberg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Surveillance after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is mandatory and computed tomography angiography (CTA) is considered the standard imaging modality, although patients are exposed to ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic contrast medium. The primary aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of duplex ultrasound (DUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using CTA as the gold standard. The secondary aim was to determine the clinical consequences of endoleaks missed by DUS and CEUS, or CTA...
October 16, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin, Amir H Bayegan, Ivan Dotu, Peter Clote
BACKGROUND: RNA inverse folding is the problem of finding one or more sequences that fold into a user-specified target structure s 0, i.e. whose minimum free energy secondary structure is identical to the target s 0. Here we consider the ensemble of all RNA sequences that have low free energy with respect to a given target s 0. RESULTS: We introduce the program RNAdualPF, which computes the dual partition function Z (∗), defined as the sum of Boltzmann factors exp(-E(a,s 0)/RT) of all RNA nucleotide sequences a compatible with target structure s 0...
October 19, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Jacinthe Leclerc, Marie Arsenault, Jean-Pierre Després, Patrice Brassard, Valérie Gaudreault, Jean Bergeron, Natalie Alméras, Angelo Tremblay, Audrey Auclair, Marie-Kristelle Ross, Stéphanie Denault-Bissonnette, Paul Poirier
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. Among those, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is the most frequently encountered in clinical practice. Few studies evaluated the reversibility of LVDD by an approach promoting lifestyle modifications in abdominally obese subjects with MetS. METHODS: We assessed the impact of a 1-year lifestyle modification program combining nutritional and physical activity counseling on LVDD and metabolic profile of abdominally obese men with MetS...
October 18, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Catherine R M Attard, Shashikanth Marri, Chris J Brauer, Luciana M Möller, Luciano B Beheregaray
Captive breeding programs are often a necessity for the continued persistence of a population or species. They typically have the goal of maintaining genetic diversity and minimizing inbreeding. However, most captive breeding programs have been based on the assumption that the founding breeders are unrelated and outbred, even though in situ anthropogenic impacts often mean these founders may have high relatedness and substantial inbreeding. In addition, polygamous group-breeding species in captivity often have uncertain pedigrees, making it difficult to select the group composition for subsequent breeding...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Hiroshi Hirose, Michiyo Takayama, Ryoko Shimizu-Hirota, Yasushi Iwao, Hiroshi Kawabe
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome have a larger visceral fat area (VFA) and a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index; however, the associations of VFA and HOMA-IR with hypertension (HT) remains unclear. We investigated the relationships of blood pressure (BP) status with various metabolic parameters, including VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and HOMA-IR, in participants in our health checkup program. DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 3,854 male and 2,545 female Japanese subjects, aged 16-93 years (median: 60 years), who participated in our comprehensive health checkup program between August 2012 and March 2015, were enrolled in this study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vernon Min Sen Oh
According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Jésus Gonzalez-Bermejo, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Marie-Laure Tanguy, Vincent Meininger, Pierre-François Pradat, Timothée Lenglet, Gaëlle Bruneteau, Nadine Le Forestier, Philippe Couratier, Nathalie Guy, Claude Desnuelle, Hélène Prigent, Christophe Perrin, Valérie Attali, Catherine Fargeot, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Catherine Royer, Fabrice Ménégaux, François Salachas, Thomas Similowski
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with respiratory muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Non-invasive ventilation alleviates respiratory symptoms and prolongs life, but is a palliative intervention. Slowing the deterioration of diaphragm function before respiratory failure would be desirable. We aimed to assess whether early diaphragm pacing could slow down diaphragm deterioration and would therefore delay the need for non-invasive ventilation...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
James McDonagh, David S Palmer, Tanja Van Mourik, John B O Mitchell
We compare a range of computational methods for the prediction of sublimation thermodynamics (enthalpy, entropy and free energy of sublimation). These include a model from theoretical chemistry that utilizes crystal lattice energy minimization (with the DMACRYS program) and QSPR models generated by both machine learning (Random Forest and Support Vector Machines) and regression (Partial Least Squares) methods. Using these methods we investigate the predictability of the enthalpy, entropy and free energy of sublimation, with consideration of whether such a method may be able to improve solubility prediction schemes...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Fengchao Yu, Ning Li, Weichuan Yu
In computational proteomics, identification of peptides with an unlimited number of post-translational modification (PTM) types is a challenging task. The computational cost associated with database search increases exponentially with respect to the number of modified amino acids and linearly with respect to the number of potential PTM types at each amino acid. The problem becomes intractable very quickly if we want to enumerate all possible PTM patterns. To address this issue, one group of methods named restricted tools (including Mascot, Comet, and MS-GF+) only allow a small number of PTM types in database search process...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
W Kelly Wu, Maame Yaa A B Yiadom, Sean P Collins, Wesley H Self, Ken Monahan
INTRODUCTION: A triage cardiology program, in which cardiologists provide consultation to the Emergency Department (ED), may safely reduce admissions. For patients with chest pain, the HEART Pathway may obviate the need for cardiology involvement, unless there is a difference between ED and cardiology assessments. Therefore, in a cohort concurrently evaluated by both specialties, we analyzed discordance between ED and cardiology HEART scores. METHODS: We performed a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study of adults presenting to the ED with chest pain who had a documented bedside evaluation by a triage cardiologist...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
G Iakimova, S Dimitrova, T Burté
OBJECTIVES: Computer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (C-CBT) are emerging as therapeutic techniques which contribute to overcome the barriers of health care access in adult populations with depression. The C-CBTs provide CBT techniques in a highly structured format comprising a number of educational lessons, homework, multimedia illustrations and supplementary materials via interactive computer interfaces. Programs are often administrated with a minimal or regular support provided by a clinician or a technician via email, telephone, online forums, or during face-to-face consultations...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
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