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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647914/shifting-the-physical-inactivity-curve-worldwide-by-closing-the-gender-gap
#1
Grégore I Mielke, Inacio Crochemore M da Silva, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Wendy J Brown
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to (i) examine gender differences in physical inactivity in countries with different levels of Human Development Index (HDI); and (ii) assess whether small changes in the prevalence of inactivity in women could achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) global inactivity target. METHODS: Data on inactivity were extracted for 142 countries for the year 2010 from the WHO Data Repository. Data for HDI were obtained for the year 2010 from the United Nations Development Program...
June 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647790/should-degree-programs-in-biomedical-and-health-informatics-be-dedicated-or-integrated-reflections-and-recommendations-after-more-than-40%C3%A2-years-of-medical-informatics-education-at-tu-braunschweig-including-10%C3%A2-years-of-b-sc-and-15%C3%A2-years-of-m-sc-integrated
#2
Reinhold Haux, Michael Marschollek, Klaus-Hendrik Wolf, Ute Zeisberg
Education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI) has been established in many countries throughout the world. For degree programs in BMHI we can distinguish between those that are completely stand-alone or dedicated to the discipline vs. those that are integrated within another program. After running integrated degree medical informatics programs at TU Braunschweig for 10 years at the B.Sc. and for 15 years at the M.Sc level, we (1) report about this educational approach, (2) analyze recommendations on, implementations of, and experiences with degree educational programs in BMHI worldwide, (3) summarize our lessons learned with the integrated approach at TU Braunschweig, and (4) suggest an answer to the question, whether degree programs in biomedical and health informatics should be dedicated or integrated...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646471/decoding-early-myelopoiesis-from-dynamics-of-core-endogenous-network
#3
Hang Su, Gaowei Wang, Ruoshi Yuan, Junqiang Wang, Ying Tang, Ping Ao, Xiaomei Zhu
A decade ago mainstream molecular biologists regarded it impossible or biologically ill-motivated to understand the dynamics of complex biological phenomena, such as cancer genesis and progression, from a network perspective. Indeed, there are numerical difficulties even for those who were determined to explore along this direction. Undeterred, seven years ago a group of Chinese scientists started a program aiming to obtain quantitative connections between tumors and network dynamics. Many interesting results have been obtained...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646264/magnitude-and-temporal-trends-in-avoidable-blindness-in-children-abc-in-india
#4
Venkata S Murthy Gudlavalleti
The World Health Organization estimates that 19 million children are visually impaired, among whom, 1.4 million are blind. Childhood blindness is an excellent indicator of the state of child health and primary care services in a country. Childhood blindness is important not just due to the number of children blind but also because the number of years that the surviving child has to live with blindness (blind years lived). Childhood blindness is next only to adult cataract in terms of the number of blind person years lived...
June 23, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645853/anterior-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-a-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#5
Marie-Laure Welter, Jean-Luc Houeto, Stéphane Thobois, Benoit Bataille, Marc Guenot, Yulia Worbe, Andreas Hartmann, Virginie Czernecki, Eric Bardinet, Jerome Yelnik, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Yves Agid, Marie Vidailhet, Philippe Cornu, Audrey Tanguy, Solène Ansquer, Nematollah Jaafari, Emmanuel Poulet, Giulia Serra, Pierre Burbaud, Emmanuel Cuny, Bruno Aouizerate, Pierre Pollak, Stephan Chabardes, Mircea Polosan, Michel Borg, Denys Fontaine, Bruno Giordana, Sylvie Raoul, Tiphaine Rouaud, Anne Sauvaget, Isabelle Jalenques, Carine Karachi, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645054/computational-analysis-of-the-toxcast-estrogen-receptor-agonist-assays-to-predict-vitellogenin-induction-by-chemicals-in-male-fish
#6
David A Dreier, Nancy D Denslow, Christopher J Martyniuk
Endocrine disruptors, especially estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, have received considerable research attention. While there are several mechanistic endpoints for ER agonism in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, there have been growing efforts to develop high-throughput screening assays and computational models to reduce testing cost, time, and animal use. For example, there are 16 ER agonist assays and an integrated computational model in ToxCast. In the present study, we examined the relationship between ToxCast ER agonist assays and model activity to male vitellogenin induction in the Fish-Short Term Reproduction Assay...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644804/global-time-delay-estimation-in-ultrasound-elastography
#7
Hoda S Hashemi, Hassan Rivaz
A critical step in quasi-static ultrasound elastography is estimation of time-delay between two frames of radiofrequency (RF) data that are obtained while the tissue is undergoing deformation. This paper presents a novel technique for timedelay estimation (TDE) of all samples of RF data simultaneously, thereby exploiting all the information in RF data for TDE. A nonlinear cost function that incorporates similarity of RF data intensity and prior information of displacement continuity is formulated. Optimization of this function involves searching for TDE of all samples of the RF data, rendering the optimization intractable with conventional techniques given that the number of variables can be approximately one million...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643284/hydroxyl-radical-mediated-degradation-of-diclofenac-revisited-a-computational-approach-to-assessment-of-reaction-mechanisms-and-by-products
#8
Sesil Agopcan Cinar, Asu Ziylan-Yavaş, Saron Catak, Nilsun H Ince, Viktorya Aviyente
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are based on the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in water upon irradiation of the sample by UV light, ultrasound, electromagnetic radiation, and/or the addition of ozone or a semiconductor. Diclofenac (DCF), one of the emerging organic contaminants (EOC), is of environmental concern due to its abundancy in water and is known to be subjected to AOPs. The current study uses density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the mechanisms of the reactions between •OH and DCF leading to degradation by-products, P1-P9...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643213/the-difficult-legacy-of-turing-s-wager
#9
Andrew Thwaites, Andrew Soltan, Eric Wieser, Ian Nimmo-Smith
Describing the human brain in mathematical terms is an important ambition of neuroscience research, yet the challenges remain considerable. It was Alan Turing, writing in 1950, who first sought to demonstrate how time-consuming such an undertaking would be. Through analogy to the computer program, Turing argued that arriving at a complete mathematical description of the mind would take well over a thousand years. In this opinion piece, we argue that - despite seventy years of progress in the field - his arguments remain both prescient and persuasive...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642213/development-of-a-web-based-intervention-for-addressing-distress-in-caregivers-of-patients-receiving-stem-cell-transplants-formative-evaluation-with-stakeholder-interviews-and-focus-groups
#10
Nicole Amoyal Pensak, Tanisha Joshi, Teresa Simoneau, Kristin Kilbourn, Alaina Carr, Jean Kutner, Mark L Laudenslager
BACKGROUND: Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need...
June 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642125/safety-and-efficacy-of-dual-lead-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-treatment-refractory-multiple-sclerosis-tremor-a-single-centre-randomised-single-blind-pilot-trial
#11
Seth F Oliveria, Ramon L Rodriguez, Dawn Bowers, Daniel Kantor, Justin D Hilliard, Erin H Monari, Bonnie M Scott, Michael S Okun, Kelly D Foote
BACKGROUND: Efficacy in previous studies of surgical treatments of refractory multiple sclerosis tremor using lesioning or deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been variable. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dual-lead thalamic DBS (one targeting the ventralis intermedius-ventralis oralis posterior nucleus border [the VIM lead] and one targeting the ventralis oralis anterior-ventralis oralis posterior border [the VO lead]) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis tremor...
June 19, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#12
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640806/good-enough-practices-in-scientific-computing
#13
Greg Wilson, Jennifer Bryan, Karen Cranston, Justin Kitzes, Lex Nederbragt, Tracy K Teal
Computers are now essential in all branches of science, but most researchers are never taught the equivalent of basic lab skills for research computing. As a result, data can get lost, analyses can take much longer than necessary, and researchers are limited in how effectively they can work with software and data. Computing workflows need to follow the same practices as lab projects and notebooks, with organized data, documented steps, and the project structured for reproducibility, but researchers new to computing often don't know where to start...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637439/a-qualitative-analysis-of-smokers-perceptions-about-lung-cancer-screening
#14
Lindsay Gressard, Amy S DeGroff, Thomas B Richards, Stephanie Melillo, Julia Kish-Doto, Christina L Heminger, Elizabeth A Rohan, Kristine Gabuten Allen
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) began recommending lung cancer screening for high risk smokers aged 55-80 years using low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan. In light of these updated recommendations, there is a need to understand smokers' knowledge of and experiences with lung cancer screening in order to inform the design of patient education and tobacco cessation programs. The purpose of this study is to describe results of a qualitative study examining smokers' perceptions around lung cancer screening tests...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637243/nanopore-sequencing-data-analysis-state-of-the-art-applications-and-challenges
#15
Alberto Magi, Roberto Semeraro, Alessandra Mingrino, Betti Giusti, Romina D'Aurizio
The nanopore sequencing process is based on the transit of a DNA molecule through a nanoscopic pore, and since the 90s is considered as one of the most promising approaches to detect polymeric molecules. In 2014, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) launched a beta-testing program that supplied the scientific community with the first prototype of a nanopore sequencer: the MinION. Thanks to this program, several research groups had the opportunity to evaluate the performance of this novel instrument and develop novel computational approaches for analyzing this new generation of data...
June 16, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636755/technical-note-combination-of-multiple-epid-imager-layers-improves-image-quality-and-tracking-performance-of-low-contrast-to-noise-objects
#16
Stephen Sf Yip, Joerg Rottmann, Haijian Chen, Daniel Morf, Rony Füglistaller, Josh Star-Lack, George Zentai, Ross Berbeco
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that combining multiple amorphous silicon flat panel layers increases photon detection efficiency in an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), improving image quality and tracking accuracy of low contrast targets during radiotherapy METHODS: The prototype imager evaluated in this study contained 4 individually programmable layers each with a copper converter layer, Gd2 O2 S scintillator and active-matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI). The imager was placed on a Varian TrueBeam linac and a Las Vegas phantom programmed with sinusoidal motion (peak-to-peak amplitude=20mm, Period=3...
June 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636392/hybrid-cpu-gpu-integral-engine-for-strong-scaling-ab-initio-methods
#17
Jörg Kussmann, Christian Ochsenfeld
We present a parallel integral algorithm for two-electron contributions occurring in Hartree-Fock and hybrid density functional theory that allows for a strong scaling parallelization on inhomogeneous compute clusters. With a particular focus on graphic processing units, we show that our approach allows an efficient use of CPUs and graphics processing units (GPUs) simultaneously, although the different architectures demand conflictive strategies in order to ensure efficient program execution. Furthermore, we present a general strategy to use large basis sets like quadruple-ζ split valence on GPUs and investigate the balance between CPUs and GPUs depending on l-quantum numbers of the corresponding basis functions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636358/transferable-atom-centered-potentials-for-the-correction-of-basis-set-incompleteness-errors-in-density-functional-theory
#18
Alberto Otero-de-la-Roza, Gino A DiLabio
Recent progress in the accurate calculation of non-covalent interactions has enabled density-functional theory (DFT) to model systems relevant in biological and supramolecular chemistry. The application of DFT methods using atom-centered Gaussian basis sets to large systems is limited by the number of basis functions required to accurately model thermochemistry and, in particular, weak intermolecular interactions. Basis-set incompleteness error (BSIE) arising from the use of incomplete basis sets leads to erroneous intermolecular energies, bond dissociation energies, and structures...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633667/hpv-and-cofactors-for-invasive-cervical-cancer-in-morocco-a-multicentre-case-control-study
#19
Mohamed Berraho, Afaf Amarti-Riffi, Mohammed El-Mzibri, Rachid Bezad, Noureddine Benjaafar, Abdelatif Benideer, Noureddine Matar, Zinab Qmichou, Naima Abda, Mohammed Attaleb, Kaoutar Znati, Hind El Fatemi, Karima Bendahhou, Majdouline Obtel, Abdelhai Filali Adib, Simone Mathoulin-Pelissier, Chakib Nejjari
BACKGROUND: Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. METHODS: Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633441/bioqueue-a-novel-pipeline-framework-to-accelerate-bioinformatics-analysis
#20
Li Yao, Heming Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Guangchao Sui
Motivation: With the rapid development of Next-Generation Sequencing, a large amount of data is now available for bioinformatics research. Meanwhile, the presence of many pipeline frameworks makes it possible to analyse these data. However, these tools concentrate mainly on their syntax and design paradigms, and dispatch jobs based on users' experience about the resources needed by the execution of a certain step in a protocol. As a result, it is difficult for these tools to maximize the potential of computing resources, and avoid errors caused by overload, such as memory overflow...
June 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
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