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pediatric airway management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621297/endoscopic-ultrasound-with-or-without-fine-needle-aspiration-has-a-meaningful-impact-on-clinical-care-in-the-pediatric-population
#1
Amit Raina, Maire A Conrad, Benjamin Sahn, Alireza Sedarat, Gregory G Ginsberg, Nuzhat A Ahmad, Vinay Chandrasekhara, Petar Mamula, Michael L Kochman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety and utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the evaluation and management of gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders among adults has been established. The literature on safety and efficacy in a pediatric referral population (under 21 years of age) is limited. We hypothesized that EUS is safe and useful in the pediatric population. We reviewed the pediatric EUS experience at a single tertiary-care system. We describe the indications, findings, safety, technical success rate, and impact on clinical outcomes...
May 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616369/management-of-an-obstructed-tracheostomy-in-a-limited-resource-setting
#2
Julie Chiaravalli, Norman Lufesi, Elwin Shawa, Vitumbiko Nkhoma, Elaine Sigalet, Adam Dubrowski
Obstruction of a tracheostomy tube is a common cause of respiratory compromise in adults and pediatric patients, which can lead to a life-threatening emergency if it is not properly managed. Compromised airway patency has many potential etiologies; however, the scenario described in this technical report focuses specifically on the management of tracheostomy obstruction through the presence of a mucus plug, blood clot, or highly viscous secretions. The simulation described in this technical report was written to be conducted as an in-situ simulation within the intensive care unit (ICU) at Mzuzu Central Hospital, Malawi...
May 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615900/predictors-of-outcome-in-children-with-status-epilepticus-during-resuscitation-in-pediatric-emergency-department-a-retrospective-observational-study
#3
Indumathy Santhanam, Sangeetha Yoganathan, V Akila Sivakumar, Rubini Ramakrishnamurugan, Sharada Sathish, Murali Thandavarayan
OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical profile and predictors of outcome in children with status epilepticus (SE) during resuscitation in pediatric emergency department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Admission and resuscitation data of children, aged between 1 month and 12 years, treated for SE, between September 2013 and August 2014, were extracted using a standard data collection form. Our SE management protocol had employed a modified pediatric assessment triangle to recognize and treat acute respiratory failure, cardiovascular dysfunction (CD), and subtle SE until all parameters resolved...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598919/cardiorespiratory-alterations-following-acute-normovolemic-hemodilution-in-a-pediatric-and-an-adult-porcine-model-a-prospective-interventional-study
#4
Gergely Albu, Cédric Sottas, Mirko Dolci, Magali Walesa, Ferenc Peták, Walid Habre
BACKGROUND: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is considered as a blood-sparing intervention during the perioperative management. We aimed at comparing the cardiopulmonary consequences of ANH between adult pigs and weaned piglets to establish the effects of lowering hematocrit in these age groups, and thereby testing the hypothesis that difference in the age-related physiological behavior will be reflected in the cardiorespiratory changes following ANH. METHODS: ANH was achieved in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated adult minipigs and 5-week-old weaned piglets by stepwise blood withdrawal (10 mL/kg) with crystalloids replacement...
June 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598799/clinical-outcomes-of-an-inpatient-pediatric-obesity-treatment-program-in-the-usa
#5
Sharonda J Alston Taylor, Kimberly Rennie, Cindy Jon
Background When treating recalcitrant and severe childhood obesity, pharmaceutical options are limited and few patients qualify for bariatric surgery. A prolonged inpatient program serves as an alternative treatment. The purpose of this project was to describe the development of a medically supervised inpatient weight management program and evaluate its effectiveness. Methods This is a retrospective chart review of 18 patients [4-18 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 50.2 kg/m2] admitted to an inpatient pediatric weight management program from October 2011 through December 31, 2012 to evaluate the biometric, laboratory, sleep and behavioral changes that occurred from admission to discharge from the program...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596950/review-quality-of-life-in-children-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#6
REVIEW
Anna Marie Nathan, Jessie Anne de Bruyne, Kah Peng Eg, Surendran Thavagnanam
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) has gained renewed interest, due to its increasing health-care burden. Annual mortality statistics in England and Wales showed that under 1,000 people die from bronchiectasis each year, and this number is increasing by 3% yearly. Unfortunately, there is a severe lack of well-powered, randomized controlled trials to guide clinicians how to manage NCFB effectively. Quality-of-life (QOL) measures in NCFB are an important aspect of clinical care that has not been studied well...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592704/the-added-value-of-exhaled-breath-temperature-in-respiratory-medicine
#7
Todor A Popov, Tanya Kralimarkova, Marina Labor, Davor Plavec
Recognition of the huge economic burden chronic respiratory diseases pose for society motivated fundamental and clinical research leading to insight into the role of airway inflammation in various disease entities and their phenotypes. However, no easy, cheap and patient-friendly methods to assess it have found a place in routine clinical practice. Measurement of exhaled breath temperature (EBT) has been suggested as a non-invasive method to detect inflammatory processes in the airways as a result of increased blood flow within the airway walls...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589256/treatment-of-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformations-a-systematic-review-from-the-apsa-outcomes-and-evidence-based-practice-committee
#8
Cynthia D Downard, Casey M Calkins, Regan F Williams, Elizabeth J Renaud, Tim Jancelewicz, Julia Grabowski, Roshni Dasgupta, Milissa McKee, Robert Baird, Mary T Austin, Meghan A Arnold, Adam B Goldin, Julia Shelton, Saleem Islam
PURPOSE: Variation in management characterizes treatment of infants with a congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM). This review addresses six clinically applicable questions using available evidence to provide recommendations for the treatment of these patients. METHODS: Questions regarding the management of a pediatric patient with a CPAM were generated. English language articles published between 1960 and 2014 were compiled after searching Medline and OvidSP...
June 6, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589109/laryngo-tracheo-bronchial-foreign-bodies-in-children-clinical-presentations-and-complications
#9
Hazem-Saeed Amer, Mohammad-Waheed El-Anwar, Ashraf Raafat, Mohamed AlShawadfy, Ehab Sobhy, Samir-Attia Ahmed, Ahmed-Ma Maaty
INTRODUCTION: Foreign-body (FB) aspiration in the airway of children is a life-threatening clinical situation responsible for many deaths each year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the different clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis, types and complications of FB inhalation in the pediatric age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included patients who presented with a definitive or suspicious history of FB aspiration. Detailed data for each patient were recorded concerning the age, sex, nature and site of the FB, presenting symptoms and signs, and radiological findings...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576517/retrieval-of-tracheobronchial-foreign-bodies-by-short-flexible-endoscopy-in-children
#10
Wen-Jue Soong, Pei-Chen Tsao, Yu-Sheng Lee, Chia-Feng Yang
OBJECTIVES: Flexible endoscopy (FE) is frequently used to diagnose tracheobronchial foreign bodies (TBFB). However, it is still controversial for retrieval of TBFB in pediatric field. This study aims at reporting and evaluating our experiences of using short-length FE with a non-invasive ventilation (NIV) technique and intensive care unit (ICU) support in retrieving pediatric TBFB. METHODS: A retrospective review of the hospital database and FE videos of pediatric patients aged less than 18 year-old who were diagnosed of TBFB and managed in our hospital over a 17-year period (1999-2015)...
April 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553418/analysis-of-the-literature-on-chronic-cough-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Marcello Bergamini, Ahmad Kantar, Renato Cutrera, Italian Pediatric Cough Interest Group
Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540765/an-update-on-pediatric-bronchiectasis
#12
Danielle F Wurzel, Anne B Chang
The prevalence and awareness of bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis (CF) is increasing and it is now recognized as a major cause of respiratory morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilization worldwide. The need to elucidate the early origins of bronchiectasis is increasingly appreciated and has been identified as an important research priority. Current treatments for pediatric bronchiectasis are limited to antimicrobials, airway clearance techniques and vaccination. Several new drugs targeting airway inflammation are currently in development...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538406/dexmedetomidine-based-intravenous-anesthesia-of-a-pediatric-patient-with-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-g6pd-deficiency-a-case-report
#13
Nanae Takahashi, Takashi Ogawa, Zen'ichiro Wajima, Akibumi Omi
RATIONALE: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, resulting in deficits in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate production, an important intracellular antioxidant enzyme. G6PD-deficient subjects present with a susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress and hemolysis, and should avoid drugs or stressors that have oxidative actions. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic agent with antioxidant actions. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 5-year-old boy with G6PD deficiency...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521330/pediatric-penetrating-neck-trauma-hard-signs-of-injury-and-selective-neck-exploration
#14
Rober A Tessler, Huong Nguyen, Christoper Newton, James Betts
BACKGROUND: Selective neck exploration and computed tomography angiography (CTA) in penetrating neck trauma have been well described in adults. However, data in the pediatric population are sparse. The extent to which these practices have been adopted in pediatric patients is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center cohort study of pediatric penetrating neck trauma for the years 2001 to 2014 in a dedicated children's hospital/Level 1 pediatric trauma center...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513521/otorhinolaryngological-emergencies-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-port-harcourt
#15
U M Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Emergencies are not uncommon in a typical otorhinolaryngological (ORL) clinic. The knowledge of the profile and prevalence of these emergencies will go a long way in helping to equip as well as aid proper and prompt management of these conditions so as to reduce their morbidity and mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive retrospective 8 years review of all patients that presented to the ENT Surgery Department from January 2004 to December 2012...
May 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504355/home-high-flow-nasal-cannula-as-a-treatment-for-severe-tracheomalacia-a-pediatric-case-report
#16
Kevin Vézina, Sophie Laberge, The Thanh Diem Nguyen
Tracheomalacia refers to a softness of the tracheal cartilage that makes the airway more susceptible to collapse. In contrast to milder cases where conservative therapy is preferred, severe tracheomalacia is often a life threatening condition requiring more aggressive management. For children with this condition, a variety of treatment options are available. To our knowledge, this is the first report of home high-flow nasal cannula as an alternative therapy to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and surgical procedures in a pediatric patient with severe extensive tracheomalacia...
May 15, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497033/intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-as-an-airway-clearance-technique-during-venoarterial-extracorporeal-life-support-in-an-infant-with-pertussis
#17
Conrad Krawiec, Ken Ballinger, E Scott Halstead
Initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is often followed by complete opacification of pulmonary parenchyma and volume loss. The optimal mechanical ventilator management and lung recruitment strategy of a pediatric patient requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is not known. We present a case of a 4-week old infant who developed a severe pertussis infection requiring ECLS. The severity of his illness and pertussis infection-associated intraluminal bronchiole obstruction made medical management challenging...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492439/retrobulbar-block-in-pediatric-vitreoretinal-surgery-eliminates-the-need-for-intraoperative-fentanyl-and-postoperative-analgesia-a-randomized-controlled-study
#18
Lan Yao, Hong Zhao, Bailin Jiang, Yi Feng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pediatric ophthalmologic surgery is traditionally accomplished by general anesthesia with opioids, but respiratory depression remains a major concern. Our study compared the efficacy of retrobulbar block with systemic fentanyl on pain, hemodynamic, and stress response in pediatric vitreoretinal surgery. METHODS: A prospective double-blind, randomized controlled study was performed comparing retrobulbar block with intravenously administered fentanyl in 28 children aged 1 to 6 years undergoing vitreoretinal surgery...
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483239/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-the-flexible-fiber-co2-laser-delivery-system-in-the-endoscopic-management-of-pediatric-airway-problems-our-long-term-experience
#19
Gi Soo Lee, Alexandra Irace, Reza Rahbar
OBJECTIVE: To report the use of flexible fiber CO2 laser in the endoscopic management of pediatric airway cases. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent CO2 laser-assisted airway procedures between September 2007 and January 2014 at a tertiary pediatric hospital. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients underwent 80 procedures utilizing flexible fiber CO2 laser. Procedures included supraglottoplasty (n = 32), laryngeal cleft repair (type I [n = 10], type II [n = 7], type III [n = 6]), suprastomal granuloma excision (n = 6), cordotomy (n = 4), laryngeal neurofibroma excision (n = 4), laryngeal granulomatous mass excision (n = 1), subglottic stenosis excision (n = 6), division of glottic web (n = 2), subglottic cyst excision (n = 1), and supraglottic biopsy (n = 1)...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483222/endoscopic-management-of-bilateral-vocal-fold-paralysis-in-newborns-and-infants
#20
Sahba Sedaghat, Mario Tapia, Felipe Fredes, Pablo Rojas
INTRODUCTION: Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in adducted position (BVCPAd) is a severe cause of airway obstruction and usually debuts with stridor and airway distress necessitating immediate intervention. Tracheostomy has long been the gold standard for treating this condition, but has significant associated morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. New conservative procedures have emerged to treat this condition thus avoiding tracheostomy, like endoscopic anterior and posterior cricoid split (EAPCS)...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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