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pediatric airway management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217159/managing-tracheal-extubation-in-infants-with-stridor-and-congenital-neuraxial-anomalies
#1
Deepti Saigal, Pragati Ganjoo, Megha U Sharma, Daljit Singh
Stridor is a serious complication of congenital neuraxial anomalies, which though, can get completely resolved with early neurosurgical correction of the anomaly. However, stridor relief may or may not be achieved soon after surgery. Persistent postoperative stridor can potentially cause extubation failure that may be difficult to handle in small children. There are no extubation guidelines for difficult pediatric airways as yet, and fewer appropriate airway-assist devices for routine use. Management of an infant with occipital encephalocele, hydrocephalus and bilateral abductor vocal cord palsy, who developed post-extubation respiratory distress due to stridor is discussed, together with the relevant tracheal extubation issues in such cases...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208178/lingual-tonsillectomy-for-treatment-of-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-meta-analysis
#2
Kun-Tai Kang, Peter J Koltai, Chia-Hsuan Lee, Ming-Tzer Lin, Wei-Chung Hsu
Importance: Evidence indicates correlations between lingual tonsil hypertrophy and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, to our knowledge, a meta-analysis of surgical outcomes for lingual tonsillectomy in children with OSA has not been conducted. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of lingual tonsillectomy for treatment of pediatric OSA. Data Sources: The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42015027053). PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Reviews databases were searched independently by 2 authors for relevant articles published by September 2016...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206886/guideline-for-monitoring-and-management-of-pediatric-patients-before-during-and-after-sedation-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-procedures-update-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical/dental supervision, careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications, appropriate fasting for elective procedures and a balance between the depth of sedation and risk for those who are unable to fast because of the urgent nature of the procedure, a focused airway examination for large (kissing) tonsils or anatomic airway abnormalities that might increase thepotential for airway obstruction, a clear understanding of the medication's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects and drug interactions, appropriate training and skills in airway management to allow rescue of the patient, age- and size-appropriate equipment for airway management and venous access, appropriate medications and reversal agents, sufficient numbers of staff to both carry out the procedure and monitor the patient, appropriate physiologic monitoring during and after the procedure, a properly equipped and staffed recovery area, recovery to the presedation level of consciousness before discharge from medical/dental supervision, and appropriate discharge instructions...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176512/respiratory-adverse-events-during-upper-digestive-endoscopies-in-children-under-ketamine-sedation
#4
Jose C Flores-González, Alfonso M Lechuga Sancho, Mónica Saldaña Valderas, Gema Jimenez Gonzalez, Maria D Cruzado Garcia, Cristina Perez Aragon, Jose A Blanca Garcia
BACKGROUND: There is no evidence of the need for oxygen supplementation during upper digestive endoscopies under Ketamine sedation in children, and the latest recommendations specifically state that it is not mandatory for the procedure. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of respiratory adverse events during upper digestive endoscopies in children under Ketamine sedation when performed without oxygen supplementation, in accordance with the latest recommendations. METHODS: 88 children undergoingketamine sedation for programmed upper digestive endoscopy at our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit were included...
February 7, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159434/-and-if-it-happened-to-children-adapting-medical-care-during-terrorist-attacks-with-multiple-pediatric-victims
#5
L Alix-Séguin, N Lodé, G Orliaguet, E Chamorro, F Kerroué, C Lorge, A Moreira
In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management...
January 31, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130577/radiological-evaluation-of-tube-depth-and-complications-of-prehospital-endotracheal-intubation-in-pediatric-trauma-a-descriptive-study
#6
T Simons, T Söderlund, L Handolin
PURPOSE: Pediatric prehospital endotracheal intubation (PHETI) is a difficult and rarely performed procedure that remains the gold standard for prehospital airway management when ventilation and/or anesthesia is required, but high complications rates, including malposition continue to concern. We reviewed the experience in our institution of pediatric intubations with particular emphasis on the position of the endotracheal tube (ETT) tip within the trachea and related complications. METHOD: Intubated pediatric patients presenting directly from the scene to our level 1 trauma center, between 2006 and 2014, were included in our study...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124736/high-flow-nasal-cannula-hfnc-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ncpap-for-the-initial-respiratory-management-of-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-tramontane-study
#7
Christophe Milési, Sandrine Essouri, Robin Pouyau, Jean-Michel Liet, Mickael Afanetti, Aurélie Portefaix, Julien Baleine, Sabine Durand, Clémentine Combes, Aymeric Douillard, Gilles Cambonie
PURPOSE: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is currently the gold standard for respiratory support for moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). Although oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used, evidence of its efficacy and safety is lacking in infants. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was performed in five pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) to compare 7 cmH2O nCPAP with 2 L/kg/min oxygen therapy administered with HFNC in infants up to 6 months old with moderate to severe AVB...
February 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106514/endonasal-management-of-pediatric-congenital-transsphenoidal-encephaloceles-nuances-of-a-modified-reconstruction-technique-technical-note-and-report-of-3-cases
#8
Mehdi Zeinalizadeh, Seyed Mousa Sadrehosseini, Zohreh Habibi, Farideh Nejat, Harley Brito da Silva, Harminder Singh
OBJECTIVE Congenital transsphenoidal encephaloceles are rare malformations, and their surgical treatment remains challenging. This paper reports 3 cases of transsphenoidal encephalocele in 8- to 24-month-old infants, who presented mainly with airway obstruction, respiratory distress, and failure to thrive. METHODS The authors discuss the surgical management of these lesions via a minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal approach, as compared with the traditional transcranial and transpalatal approaches. A unique endonasal management algorithm for these lesions is outlined...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100946/management-of-young-patients-with-temporomandibular-joint-ankylosis-a-surgical-and-anesthetic-challenge
#9
REVIEW
Devalina Goswami, Sweta Singh, Ongkila Bhutia, Dalim Baidya, Chhavi Sawhney
Temporomandibular joint ankylosis is a unique disease where fracture of the mandibular condyle or any other cause leading to ankylosis of the joint can lead to multiple problems if not detected and treated early. If affected in early years of life, it may cause facial dysmorphism, restricted mouth opening, and difficulty in eating, speech, and sleep. Early surgery and physiotherapy can restore the joint function to a great extent. Anesthetizing a pediatric patient with this disorder is a definite challenge which needs expertise in difficult airway management...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094480/anesthetic-complications-during-general-anesthesia-without-intravenous-access-in-pediatric-ophthalmologic-clinic-assessment-of-5216-cases
#10
Chun W Hung, Lauren Licina, David H Abramson, Vittoria Arslan-Carlon
BACKGROUNDː General anesthesia utilizing inhalational agents without intravenous (IV) access for minor procedures is controversial1. Eliminating IV access increases efficiency and patient satisfaction; however, the ability to introduce rapid acting medications into the circulation during an unanticipated emergency becomes challenging. The objective of this study was to examine complication risk following pediatric ophthalmologic examinations under anesthesia (EUA) without IV placement. METHODSː A retrospective review of consecutive pediatric patients who underwent EUA for retinoblastoma management was performed from 2004 to 2014...
January 17, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089059/management-of-hospitalized-asthmatic-children-before-transport
#11
Brande Mazzeo, Rami Bzeih, Robert Schultz, Melissa Tavolieri, Alicia Fraser, Sabrina M Heidemann
Asthmatic children are at risk for respiratory failure and should be appropriately treated before transport. The objectives were to find out if the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines for asthma treatment were followed in the emergency department (ED); to determine if additional treatment during transport or within the first 2 hours of admission was needed; and to compare the management of intubated asthmatics by the ED, transport team, and the intensive care unit (ICU) physician. The records for children diagnosed with acute asthma over 7 years who were transported by the intensive care transport team were reviewed...
January 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056150/trends-in-otolaryngology-consultation-patterns-at-an-academic-quaternary-care-center
#12
Kevin J Choi, Russel R Kahmke, Matthew G Crowson, Liana Puscas, Richard L Scher, Seth M Cohen
Importance: The consultation patterns of an otolaryngology-head and neck surgery service have not previously been reported. The time, resources, and attention required to operate such a consultation service are unknown. Objective: To assess trends in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery consultations conducted in emergency departments (EDs) and inpatient services. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the medical records of patients at a quaternary care center receiving inpatient otolaryngology consultations from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052557/adenotonsillectomy-to-treat-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-it-enough
#13
REVIEW
A Boudewyns, F Abel, E Alexopoulos, M Evangelisti, A Kaditis, S Miano, M P Villa, S L Verhulst
Although adenotonsillectomy is the first line treatment for children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (0SAS),(1) improvement in objectively documented outcomes is often inadequate and a substantial number of children have residual disease. Early recognition and treatment of children with persistent OSAS is required to prevent long-term morbidity. The management of these children is frequently complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required as most of them have additional risk factors for OSAS and comorbidities...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025241/clinical-tools-to-assess-asthma-control-in-children
#14
Chitra Dinakar, Bradley E Chipps
Asthma affects an estimated 7 million children and causes significant health care and disease burden. The most recent iteration of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute asthma guidelines, the Expert Panel Report 3, emphasizes the assessment and monitoring of asthma control in the management of asthma. Asthma control refers to the degree to which the manifestations of asthma are minimized by therapeutic interventions and the goals of therapy are met. Although assessment of asthma severity is used to guide initiation of therapy, monitoring of asthma control helps determine whether therapy should be maintained or adjusted...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012533/a-review-of-acute-postoperative-sialadenitis-in-children
#15
Michael T Yim, Yi-Chun C Liu, Julina Ongkasuwan
OBJECTIVE: Acute postoperative sialadenitis is a previously described rare entity that has occurred following general anesthesia and has also been associated with prolonged neurosurgical procedures. We aim to better characterize this entity while performing a literature review regarding potential etiologies, diagnosis, airway management and treatment options. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed at a pediatric tertiary care center from 2000 to 2014...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012513/minimally-invasive-endoscopic-treatment-for-pediatric-combined-high-grade-stenosis-as-a-laryngeal-manifestation-of-epidermolysis-bullosa
#16
Dora Palinko, Vera Matievics, Ilona Szegesdi, Balazs Sztano, Laszlo Rovo
Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited mucocutaneous diseases. Laryngotracheal lesions are momentous regarding the risk of sudden airway obstruction. The traditional treatment is tracheostomy. This case report highlights the advantages of minimally invasive interventions. A successful combined endoscopic management of a life-threatening respiratory crisis is presented in a 4-year-old child. Combined commissure stenosis with supraglottic spread was treated by CO2 laser dissection and bilateral endoscopic arytenoid abduction lateropexy, supplemented with mitomycin C application...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937086/exposure-control-practices-for-administering-nitrous-oxide-a-survey-of-dentists-dental-hygienists-and-dental-assistants
#17
James M Boiano, Andrea L Steege, Marie H Sweeney
Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931463/guideline-for-monitoring-and-management-of-pediatric-patients-before-during-and-after-sedation-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-procedures-update-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical/dental supervision, careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications, appropriate fasting for elective procedures and a balance between the depth of sedation and risk for those who are unable to fast because of the urgent nature of the procedure, a focused airway examination for large (kissing) tonsils or anatomic airway abnormalities that might increase thepotential for airway obstruction, a clear understanding of the medication's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects and drug interactions, appropriate training and skills in airway management to allow rescue of the patient, age- and size-appropriate equipment for airway management and venous access, appropriate medications and reversal agents, sufficient numbers of staff to both carry out the procedure and monitor the patient, appropriate physiologic monitoring during and after the procedure, a properly equipped and staffed recovery area, recovery to the presedation level of consciousness before discharge from medical/dental supervision, and appropriate discharge instructions...
October 2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930414/an-update-on-pediatric-airway-management
#19
Cheryl K Gooden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: International Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923646/role-of-the-allergist-immunologist-and-upper-airway-allergy-in-sleep-disordered-breathing
#20
Dennis Shusterman, Fuad M Baroody, Timothy Craig, Samuel Friedlander, Talal Nsouli, Bernard Silverman
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing in general and obstructive sleep apnea in particular are commonly encountered conditions in allergy practice. Physiologically, nasal (or nasopharyngeal) obstruction from rhinitis, nasal polyposis, or adenotonsillar hypertrophy are credible contributors to snoring and nocturnal respiratory obstructive events. Nevertheless, existing practice parameters largely relegate the role of the allergist to adjunctive treatment in cases of continuous positive airway pressure intolerance...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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