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Intravascular dispositives

Rishi Puri, Stephen J Nicholls, Julie St John, E Murat Tuzcu, Samir R Kapadia, Kiyoko Uno, Yu Kataoka, Kathy Wolski, Steven E Nissen
We explored for geographic variations in coronary atheroma progression rates in the United States compared to other world regions (Canada, Latin America, Western Europe, and Central-Eastern Europe) and sought to ascertain if this associated with regional differences in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization). Across 7 randomized trials with a global recruitment pattern, 5,451 participants with angiographic coronary disease underwent serial coronary intravascular ultrasonography during 18 or 24 months, with adjudicated MACE...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Michael Weiss, Tom C Krejcie, Michael J Avram
Knowledge of factors influencing the heterogeneity of blood transit times is important in cardiovascular physiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on blood transit time dispersion in awake, anxious volunteers. Recirculatory modelling of the disposition of intravascular markers using parametric forms for transit time distributions, such as the inverse Gaussian distribution, provides the opportunity to estimate the systemic and pulmonary transit time dispersion in vivo...
August 24, 2015: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Christian Mueller, Michael Christ, Martin Cowie, Louise Cullen, Alan S Maisel, Josep Masip, Oscar Miro, John McMurray, Frank W Peacock, Susanna Price, Salvatore DiSomma, Hector Bueno, Uwe Zeymer, Alexandre Mebazaa
Acute heart failure (AHF) continues to have unacceptably high rates of mortality and morbidity. This position paper highlights the need for more intense interdisciplinary cooperation as one key element to overcome the challenges associated with fragmentation in the care of AHF patients. Additional aspects discussed include the importance of early diagnosis and treatment, options for initial treatment, referral bias as a potential cause for treatment preferences among experts, considerable uncertainty regarding patient disposition, the diagnosis of accompanying acute myocardial infarction, the need for antibiotic therapy, as well as assessment of intravascular volume status...
June 29, 2015: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Shane Kappler, Sarah Ronan-Bentle, Autumn Graham
Thrombocytopenia, strictly defined as a platelet count less than 150,000, is common in the emergency department. Recognition, diagnostic investigation, and proper disposition of a thrombocytopenic patient are imperative. One group of disorders leading to thrombocytopenia is the thrombotic microangiopathies, hallmarked by platelet destruction. These thrombotic microangiopathies include thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, low platelet count (HELLP), which should be distinguished from similar disease processes such as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)...
August 2014: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Jeffrey Zilberstein, Michael T McCurdy, Michael E Winters
BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is the quintessential critical illness in emergency medicine. Symptoms are rapid in onset and death can occur within minutes. Approximately 1500 patients die annually in the United States from this deadly disorder. It is imperative, therefore, that emergency care providers be able to diagnose and appropriately treat patients with anaphylaxis. Any delays in recognition or initiation of therapy can result in unnecessary increases in patient morbidity and mortality...
August 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Matthew R Murnin, Petra Sonder, Gladys N Janssens, Connie L Henry, Kees H Polderman, Jon C Rittenberger, Cameron Dezfulian
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to reduce ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest. The variables that predict heat generation by patients receiving TH are uncertain, as is how this heat generation relates to neurologic outcome. We hypothesized that patient characteristics, medication use, inflammation, and organ injury would be associated with heat generation. We further hypothesized that neurologic outcome would be most strongly associated with heat generation...
June 2014: Journal of the American Heart Association
Olivier Hamel, Pierre Corre, Stéphane Ploteau, Olivier Armstrong, Jean-Michel Rogez, Roger Robert, Antoine Hamel
PURPOSE: Ciliary ganglion is a pre-visceral vegetative ganglion, relay of ocular bulb vegetative pathways, concerning three types of fibers: parasympathetic, sympathetic and somatosensory. The objective of this study was to describe the different patterns of distribution of those fibers around the ciliary ganglion to explain rare post-traumatic or postoperative ocular symptoms. METHODS: Dissection of 20 orbits, from cavernous sinus to ocular bulb, after intravascular injection of colored latex...
December 2012: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Soon Jun Hong, Dongming Hou, Todd J Brinton, Brian Johnstone, Dongni Feng, Pamela Rogers, William F Fearon, Paul Yock, Keith L March
OBJECTIVES: To examine the comparative fate of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as well as their impact on coronary microcirculation following either retrograde coronary venous (RCV) or arterial delivery. BACKGROUND: Local delivery of ASCs to the heart has been proposed as a practical approach to limiting the extent of myocardial infarction. Mouse models of mesenchymal stem cell effects on the heart have also demonstrated significant benefits from systemic (intravenous) delivery, prompting a question about the advantage of local delivery...
January 1, 2014: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
J L Otero, N Mestorino, J O Errecalde
The disposition of enrofloxacin in sheep was investigated after single-dose intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein at predetermined times after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin were simultaneously determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The data collected were subjected to non-compartmental and compartmental kinetic analysis. Statistical model theory was used to determine non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters...
December 2009: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Elif Elmas, Nenad Suvajac, Bernd Jilma, Hartmut Weiler, Martin Borggrefe, Carl-Erik Dempfle
Disseminated intravascular coagulation in sepsis is associated with microvascular thrombosis and organ dysfunction. It was expected that prothrombotic disposition such as factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation would worsen clinical outcome. Astonishingly, clinical trial and animal experimental data indicate that FVL can be associated with improved survival. This study investigated the effect of FVL on the response to endotoxin of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system in humans. Fourteen healthy male subjects without FVL and 15 healthy males with heterozygous FVL received an intravenous bolus dose of endotoxin, 2 ng/kg of body weight...
August 5, 2010: Blood
Nigel J Waters, Franco Lombardo
Volume of distribution (VD) is a key pharmacokinetic property that together with clearance determines the half-life or residence time of drug in the body. It is commonly expressed as steady-state volume of distribution VD(ss) with a physiological basis for its understanding developed by Øie and Tozer in 1979. The Øie-Tozer equation uses terms for plasma protein binding (f(up)), tissue binding (f(ut)), and the extravascular/intravascular ratio of albumin as well as constants for the volumes of plasma, extracellular fluid, and tissue...
July 2010: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Akira M Murakami, Stephan W Anderson, Jorge A Soto, Jennifer L Kertesz, Al Ozonoff, James T Rhea
The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and management implications of the finding of active extravasation in blunt or penetrating trauma patients evaluated with abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) using 64MDCT technology. This HIPAA compliant, retrospective study was IRB-approved, and the need for consent was waived. All adult patients scanned with 64MDCT who sustained blunt or penetrating abdomino-pelvic trauma and had findings of active extravasation at our Level I trauma center during a 30-month period were included...
September 2009: Emergency Radiology
S Sahin, E Sayar, M S Kaynak, A A Hincal
Hepatic disposition of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and the liver distributional volumes were investigated in the in situ perfused rat liver preparation. Perfusion experiments were conducted using Krebs-bicarbonate buffer delivered via the portal vein (15 ml/min) in a single-pass mode. Erythrocytes (intravascular marker) and Evans blue (extracellular marker) were used for the estimation of liver distributional volumes, and desiccation and freeze-drying methods were used for the estimation of liver water content...
March 2008: Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
Jeff S Volek, Maria Luz Fernandez, Richard D Feinman, Stephen D Phinney
Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and dyslipidemia play an intimate role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The availability of glucose and insulin predominate as upstream regulatory elements that operate through a collection of transcription factors to partition lipids toward anabolic pathways. The unraveling of the details of these cellular events has proceeded rapidly, but their physiologic relevance to lifestyle modification has been largely ignored. Here we highlight the role of dietary input, specifically carbohydrate intake, in the mechanism of metabolic regulation germane to metabolic syndrome...
September 2008: Progress in Lipid Research
Michael Weiss, Tom C Krejcie, Michael J Avram
A pharmacokinetic model was developed to estimate physiologically meaningful parameters of distribution kinetics from plasma concentration-time data. The model is based on simultaneously measured disposition curves of drug and vascular marker. Employing residence time distribution theory, a recirculatory model with two subsystems, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, was constructed. In addition to intravascular mixing, the axially distributed model of the systemic circulation accounts for transcapillary transport of solutes, quantified by permeability-surface area product (PS) and diffusional equilibration time...
April 2007: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Michael Weiss, Tom C Krejcie, Michael J Avram
We present an in vivo method for analyzing the distribution kinetics of physiological markers into their respective distribution volumes utilizing information provided by the relative dispersion of transit times. Arterial concentration-time curves of markers of the vascular space [indocyanine green (ICG)], extracellular fluid (inulin), and total body water (antipyrine) measured in awake dogs under control conditions and during phenylephrine or isoproterenol infusion were analyzed by a recirculatory model to estimate the relative dispersions of transit times across the systemic and pulmonary circulation...
August 2006: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Michael J Avram, Tom C Krejcie, Thomas K Henthorn, Claus U Niemann
Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers decrease intravenous anesthetic dose requirements. The present study determined the effect of propranolol on indocyanine green and antipyrine disposition from the moment of rapid intravenous injection. Anti-pyrine is a physiological marker that distributes to a volume as large as total body water in a blood flow-dependent manner and is a pharmacokinetic surrogate for many lipophilic drugs, including intravenous anesthetics. Antipyrine and indocyanine green disposition were determined twice in five healthy adult males in this Institutional Review Board-approved study, once during propranolol infusion...
November 2004: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Toshinobu Seki, Osamu Hosoya, Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Takeshi Sato, Yuko Saso, Kazuhiko Juni, Kazuhiro Morimoto
A rabbit ear flap single-pass perfusion system was examined as an experimental method for studying the relationship between the physiological conditions of tissues and drug disposition after topical applications. Tyrode solutions containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sucrose or flurbiprofen (FP), used as a model drug, were perfused through the vessel in the ear flap to evaluate the physiological conditions prior to the application of FP to the skin surface. The extracellular volume and distribution properties of FP in the perfused ear were similar to those in an in vivo experimental system...
May 19, 2004: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Yuying Xue, Yoko Hieda, Yoji Saito, Takeshi Nomura, Junko Fujihara, Koji Takayama, Kojiro Kimura, Haruo Takeshita
Benzalkonium chloride (BZK) is a cationic surfactant used widely as a disinfectant, preservative and sanitizer in hospitals, at home and many public places. The toxicity of BZK is not well established although several human fatalities have been reported over the years. In this study, distribution and disposition of BZK following oral administration (PO) and intravascular (jugular vein (JV), femoral artery (FA), femoral vein (FV) and jugular artery (JA)) administration in rats were investigated along with pathological examinations...
March 14, 2004: Toxicology Letters
Qing Ma, Christopher Schultz, Brian Neville, Walter Jeske, Debra Hoppensteadt, Umberto Cornelli, John Lee, Stanley Lorens, Israel Hanin, Jawed Fareed
The heparin-derived oligosaccharide C3 (C3) is currently underdevelopment for the prevention and treatment of vascular dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer's type. C3 exhibits a molecular weight of 2200-2500 Da with a narrow distribution. The objective of the present study was to assess the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of C3 in non-human primates. C3 was administered as an intravenous or subcutaneous bolus dose of 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg. Anti-factor Xa activity, Heptest clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time were measured to determine pharmacodynamic effects of C3 in plasma...
2003: Thrombosis Research
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