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Adrenal function and sepsis

Nicolas Mongardon, Guillaume Savary, Guillaume Geri, Marie-Rose El Bejjani, Stéphane Silvera, Florence Dumas, Julien Charpentier, Frédéric Pène, Jean-Paul Mira, Alain Cariou
BACKGROUND: Adrenal gland volume is associated with survival in septic shock. As sepsis and post-cardiac arrest syndrome share many pathophysiological features, we assessed the association between adrenal gland volume measured by computerized tomography (CT)-scan and post-cardiac arrest shock and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, in a large cohort of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. We also investigated the association between adrenal hormonal function and both adrenal gland volume and outcomes...
May 28, 2018: Resuscitation
Eashaa Kumar, Michael T McCurdy, Christian A Koch, Abdurrahman Hamadah, Tibor Fülöp, Kamel A Gharaibeh
Unexplained hypotension in the intensive care unit is commonly attributed to volume depletion, cardiorespiratory failure, sepsis, or relative adrenal insufficiency. In these acute conditions, thyroid hormone levels measured in blood, serum or plasma are often altered and solely attributed to critical illness. We report a series of 3 critically ill patients with prolonged respiratory failure, suppressed mental status and unexplained hypotension. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels ranged from normal to mildly elevated (2...
March 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Mariko Sue, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a key component of the stress system in the human body. Multiple direct and paracrine interactions between different cell types and their progenitors take place within the adrenal gland microenvironment. These unique interactions are supported by high vascularization and the adrenal cortex extracellular matrix. Alterations in the adrenal gland microenvironment are known to influence the progression of several pathological conditions, such as obesity and sepsis, and to be influenced by these disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ming-Hung Tsai, Hui-Chun Huang, Yun-Shing Peng, Yung-Chang Chen, Ya-Chung Tian, Chih-Wei Yang, Jau-Min Lien, Ji-Tseng Fang, Cheng-Shyong Wu, Sen-Yung Hsieh, Fa-Yauh Lee
BACKGROUND: Cirrhotic patients are susceptible to sepsis and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a corticotropin-dependent adrenal androgen, which has immunostimulating and antiglucocorticoid effects. Considering the synchronized synthesis of cortisol and DHEAS and their opposing effects to each other, investigators have proposed measuring these two hormones as a ratio. Severe sepsis has been associated with low DHEAS, especially relative to high cortisol...
August 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ana R Pérez, Flavia Lambertucci, Florencia B González, Eduardo A Roggero, Oscar A Bottasso, Juliana de Meis, Maria T Ronco, Silvina R Villar
Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrated that acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection promotes an intense inflammation along with a sepsis-like dysregulated adrenal response characterized by normal levels of ACTH with raised glucocorticoid secretion. Inflammation was also known to result in adrenal cell apoptosis, which in turn may influence HPA axis uncoupling. To explore factors and pathways which may be involved in the apoptosis of adrenal cells, together with its impact on the functionality of the gland, we carried out a series of studies in mice lacking death receptors, such as TNF-R1 (C57BL/6-Tnfrsf1a tm1Imx or TNF-R1-/- ) or Fas ligand (C57BL/6 Fas-deficient lpr mice), undergoing acute T...
October 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Catarina Roque, Ricardo Fonseca, Carlos Tavares Bello, Carlos Vasconcelos, António Galzerano, Sância Ramos
Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare malignancy. It frequently presents bilaterally and with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Amiodarone may induce secondary organ dysfunction, and thyrotoxicosis develops in 15% of cases. The symptomatology of both conditions is nonspecific, especially in the elderly, and a high suspicion index is necessary for appropriate diagnosis. A 78-year-old female presented to the emergency department with confusion, nausea and vomiting. She had recently been to the emergency department with urinary tract infection, vomiting and acute hypochloremic hyponatremia...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Te Wang, Changdong Liu, Pihong Wei, Lili Lv, Zaiqi Yang
This study aims to explore the effect of intravenous anesthesia on the adrenal gland functions of rats with sepsis as well as on their lungs and adrenal gland tissues in order to provide a theoretical reference for the cure of sepsis. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were taken as the research objects in this study. Venous channels of rats were constructed by catheterization through the external jugular vein, and the cecal ligation and puncture technique was adopted to duplicate the sepsis rat models. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and necrocytosis was observed by the fluorescent staining method...
June 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Baran Balcan, Şehnaz Olgun, Türkay Akbaş, Emel Eryüksel, Sait Karakurt
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of adrenomedullin, after evaluation of adrenal function in sepsis patients. We also evaluated other prognostic factors such as APACHE II score, proBNP, and CRP and their prediction in mortality. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study. We enrolled 48 patients, who were admitted to the intensive care unit due to sepsis according to surviving sepsis campaign criteria...
September 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Baran Balcan, Şehnaz Olgun, Türkay Akbaş, Emel Eryüksel, Sait Karakurt
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of adrenomedullin, after evaluation of adrenal function in sepsis patients. We also evaluated other prognostic factors such as APACHE II score, proBNP, and CRP and their prediction in mortality. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study. We enrolled 48 patients, who were admitted to the intensive care unit due to sepsis according to surviving sepsis campaign criteria...
September 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Mariko Sue, Stefan R Bornstein
Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress, adrenal gland rapidly responds with increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure, and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Maria Helena Palma Sircili, Tania Sartori Sanchez Bachega, Guiomar Madureira, Larissa Gomes, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Francisco Tibor Dénes
PURPOSE: Genital reconstruction in female patients with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is very challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the techniques employed to treat complications after failure of primary urogenital sinus (UGS) surgery, as well as the result of these reoperations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty girls with virilizing CAH who were previously submitted to genitoplasty in our service and elsewhere had recurrent UGS stenosis and vaginal introitus stenosis that required surgical treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Na Liu, Yu Zhang, Jun-Yu Xiong, Shan Liu, Jie Zhu, Shen Lv
BACKGROUND: Both hyperinflammation during sepsis and etomidate can suppress adrenal function. In this study, we explored whether treatment with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) relieves adrenal suppression in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=7 per group), including the sham group, sepsis group (CLP group), sepsis and etomidate group (CLP+ETO group), PACAP group, and etomidate alone group (ETO group)...
August 2016: Neuropeptides
Kazumasa Emori, Nobuhiro Takeuchi, Junichi Soneda
A 50-year-old male was brought to our emergency department by ambulance with complaints of pain and numbness in both legs. At arrival, purple spots were evident on his neck and face. Examination of the vital sign indicated septic shock. Laboratory data and blood gas analysis revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiple organ failure, and metabolic acidosis. Peripheral blood smears revealed Howell-Jolly bodies, indicating decreased splenic function. A rapid urinary pneumococcal antigen test was also found to be positive...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Offer Erez, Giuseppe Loverro, Edoardo Di Naro, Adi Yehuda Weintraub, Dan Tirosh, Joel Baron, Reli Hershkovitz
Preterm parturition is a syndrome that may result from many underlying mechanisms. Infection and inflammation are the prominent ones. Intrauterine infection and inflammation have an effect akin to sepsis, and that is similar to systemic inflammatory response in adults. Indeed, there is evidence to support the association of a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) to systemic infection and inflammation. The utilization of invasive procedures for the prenatal diagnosis of FIRS is associated with a risk for complications resulting from the invasive method...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Carla Jennewein, Nguyen Tran, Waldemar Kanczkowski, Lars Heerdegen, Ajith Kantharajah, Stefan Dröse, Stefan Bornstein, Bertram Scheller, Kai Zacharowski
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis and septic shock are commonly present in the ICU and accompanied by significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. The frequency of secondary adrenal insufficiency in sepsis remains open to debate and a challenge to identify and treat appropriately. Animal models of sepsis using genetic or surgical initiation of adrenal insufficiency resulted in increased mortality, but the mechanisms are still unclear. The present study investigates the impact of adrenal inflammation in septic mice challenged with cecal ligation and puncture...
April 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Junting Ai, Ling Guo, Zhong Zheng, Shu-Xia Wang, Bing Huang, Xiang-An Li
OBJECTIVES: Corticosteroid therapy is frequently used in septic patients given the rationale that there is an increased demand for corticosteroid in sepsis, and up to 60% of severe septic patients experience adrenal insufficiency. However, the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy and whether the therapy should be based on the results of adrenal function testing are highly controversial. The lack of an adrenal insufficiency animal model and our poor understanding of the pathogenesis caused by adrenal insufficiency present significant barriers to address this long-standing clinical issue...
November 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Yukiko Hata, Takashi Chiba, Maki Ohtani, Shin Ishizawa, Naoki Nishida
We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) associated with Streptococcus pneumonia infection in a previously healthy man. Although he once visited a hospital about 6 hours before death, the both physical and serological examination did not show any sign of overwhelming infection. Autopsy showed massive adrenal hemorrhage without inflammation, and showed proliferation of gram positive cocci and microthrombosis in the vessels of many organs. The pathological change of respiratory tract was extremely minimal...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Kusum Menon, Hector R Wong
OBJECTIVE: To identify the issues needing to be resolved to design, implement, and complete a definitive randomized controlled trial of adjunctive corticosteroid use in children with septic shock. DESIGN: Pediatric studies from MEDLINE (1946 to January 2015) and Embase (1947 to January 2015) that addressed adrenal function or steroid use in critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, or septic shock were reviewed and their relevant points discussed...
October 2015: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Rongqin Ren, John A Cidlowski
As major mediators of stress regulation, glucocorticoids have an essential role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis under both physiological and pathological conditions. The release of glucocorticoids into the peripheral circulation is adjusted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to various pathological challenges such as sepsis, starvation, and psychological stress. Clinically, dysregulation of the glucocorticoid-mediated signaling as a result of either excess ligand or receptor hypersensitivity is connected with the progression of unfavorable cardiovascular events such as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease...
December 1, 2010: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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