Read by QxMD icon Read

Adrenal function

M S Gastón, M P Cid, N A Salvatierra
Ghrelin is a peptide of 28 amino acids with a homology between species, which acts on the central nervous system to regulate different actions, including the control of growth hormone secretion and metabolic regulation. It has been suggested that central ghrelin is a mediator of behavior linked to stress responses and induces anxiety in rodents and birds. Previously, we observed that the anxiogenic-like behavior induced by ghrelin injected into the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) of the forebrain was blocked by bicuculline (a GABAA receptor competitive antagonist) but not by diazepam (a GABAA receptor allosteric agonist) in neonatal meat-type chicks (Cobb)...
October 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
O Nemes, N Kovacs, Sz Szujo, B Bodis, L Bajnok, A Buki, T Doczi, E Czeiter, E Mezosi
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic hypopituitarism is a major complication after severe head trauma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible role of early clinical parameters in the development of endocrine deficits. METHODS: Data on endocrine function, on-admission clinical-, laboratory-, and ICU-monitored parameters were available in 63 patients of the surviving 86 severe head injury patients (post-resuscitation GCS under 8) treated at one neurosurgical center during a 10-year period...
October 25, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Eungu Kang, Ja Hyang Cho, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo
PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty (GIPP). METHODS: The study included 16 patients (14 female and 2 male patients) who manifested secondary sexual characteristics, elevated sex hormones, or adrenal androgens with prepubertal luteinizing hormone levels after gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation diagnosed between May 1994 and December 2015...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
M Pruessner, L Bechard-Evans, S Pira, R Joober, D L Collins, J C Pruessner, A K Malla
BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and reduced hippocampal volume (HV) are established correlates of stress vulnerability. We have previously shown an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR) and associations with HV specifically in male first-episode psychosis patients. Findings in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis regarding these neurobiological markers are inconsistent, and assessment of their interplay, accounting for sex differences, could explain incongruent results...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Stephanie Seneff, Nancy L Swanson, Gerald Koenig, Chen Li
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), a rare side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, is a debilitating disorder with a poorly understood etiology. FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) provides the opportunity to investigate this disease. Our goals were to analyze FAERS data to discover possible relationships between ONJ and specific conditions and drugs and then to consult the scientific literature to deduce biological explanations. Our methodology revealed a very strong association between gastroesophageal reflux and bisphosphonate-induced ONJ, suggesting acidosis as a key factor...
2016: Disease Markers
Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kwon, Sang A Ji, Hye Ryoun Jang, Sin-Ho Jung, Jung-Han Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Wooseong Huh, Yoon-Goo Kim, Dae Joong Kim, Ha Young Oh
Primary aldosteronism (PA) may induce significant decline of renal function and structural damage of kidney. However, it is difficult to evaluate accurate renal function in patients with PA, because glomerular hyperfiltration and aldosterone escape can conceal renal impairment. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared changes in renal function after unilateral adrenalectomy between patients with PA and patients with other adrenal diseases. Risk factors associated with postoperative renal impairment in patients with PA were analyzed...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
James Sm Cuffe, Eleanor L Turton, Lisa K Akison, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Karen M Moritz
Maternal stress can impair fetal development and program sex-specific disease outcomes in offspring through the actions of maternally produced glucocorticoids, predominantly corticosterone (Cort) in rodents. We have demonstrated in mice that male but not female offspring prenatally exposed to Cort (33µg/kg/h for 60h beginning at E12.5) develop cardiovascular/renal dysfunction at 12 months. At 6 months of age, renal function was normal but male offspring had increased plasma aldosterone concentrations, suggesting altered adrenal function may precede disease...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Ramona Jühlen, Dana Landgraf, Angela Huebner, Katrin Koehler
It has been shown that the nucleoporin ALADIN plays a significant role in the redox homeostasis of the cell but its function in steroidogenesis contributing to adrenal atrophy in triple A syndrome remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify new interaction partners of ALADIN, co-immunoprecipitation followed by proteome analysis was conducted in different expression models using the human adrenocortical tumour cell line NCI-H295R. Our results suggest an interaction of ALADIN with the microsomal protein PGRMC2...
October 17, 2016: Biology Open
Beata Banaszewska, Joanna Wrotyńska-Barczyńska, Robert Z Spaczynski, Leszek Pawelczyk, Antoni J Duleba
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of PCOS. Studies on isolated ovarian theca-interstitial cells suggest that resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, reduces androgen production. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate endocrine and metabolic effects of resveratrol on PCOS. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a randomized (1:1) double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated the effects of resveratrol over a period of 3 months in an academic hospital...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Marko Poglitsch
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is severe form of hypertension characterized by a strongly increased aldosterone secretion mediated by adenomas or other forms of adrenal hyper-activity. Once detected, PA can be usually cured by either surgical intervention or by appropriate pharmacologic treatments. The incidence of PA among hypertensive patients varies strongly between different studies, which is in part caused by the complex state-of-the-art testing procedure that is unfortunately far away from being a versatile PA screening tool...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xiao-Fan Zhang, Wei Zou, Yuan Yang
Depression is an important post-stroke sequela with negative impact on mortality, functional outcome and quality of life. Changes in cytokines have been hypothesized to be associated with the etiology of post-stroke depression (PSD). The altere dhypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning is associated with the onset of depression. The activity of HPA could induce the fluctuations of cortisol levels. In this study, we prospectively checked interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cortisol levels in patients with early ischemic stroke...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Koshiro Nishimoto, Minae Koga, Tsugio Seki, Kenji Oki, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Mitsuhide Naruse, Tomokazu Sakaguchi, Shinya Morita, Takeo Kosaka, Mototsugu Oya, Tadashi Ogishima, Masanori Yasuda, Makoto Suematsu, Yasuaki Kabe, Masao Omura, Tetsuo Nishikawa, Kuniaki Mukai
Our group previously purified human and rat aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 and Cyp11b2, respectively) from their adrenals and verified that it is distinct from steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 or Cyp11b1), the cortisol- or corticosterone-synthesizing enzyme. We now describe their distributions immunohistochemically with specific antibodies. In rats, there is layered functional zonation with the Cyp11b2-positive zona glomerulosa (ZG), Cyp11b1-positive zona fasciculata (ZF), and Cyp11b2/Cyp11b1-negative undifferentiated zone between the ZG and ZF...
October 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sophie E Walker, Aurélie Papilloud, Damien Huzard, Carmen Sandi
Aggressive behavior is not uniform, including proactive and reactive forms of aggression. Aberrant functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently associated with abnormal aggression. Here, we review the rodent literature in order to assess whether developmental abnormalities in the HPA axis can be causally linked with the emergence of abnormal aggression. We examine studies that involve genetic models and life challenges (e.g., early life stress, drug exposure) that course with developmental alterations in the HPA axis...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Tanveer Ahmad, Shankaragouda Patil, Ashwini Kumar Pasarad, Nandakumar Neralakere Maheshwarappa, Kolkebaile Sadanand Kishore
Paragangliomas, extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas, are rare catecholamine-secreting tumor. A 34-year-old lady admitted with diagnosis of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. Left ventricular function, severely depressed, returned to normal after initial stabilization. Coronary angiogram was normal. A para-aortic paraganglioma was diagnosed during the patient's work-up with biochemical studies, computed tomography of abdomen and functional radioisotopes imaging and was eventually surgically resected...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
S Noe, A von Werder, R Iakoubov, H Schneider, M Thaler, P Luppa, B Neu
Purpose: To investigate the kinetics of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) following oral metyrapone administration and describe differences between ACTH-deficient and non-ACTH-deficient subjects. Methods: Patients from a tertiary endocrine center at a University Hospital in Munich, Germany, were tested for secondary adrenal insufficiency in a regular patient care setting. Metyrapone (Metopirone, HRA Pharma, France) was administered with a dosage of 40 mg/kg bodyweight at 8 a.m. Consecutive levels of ACTH were determined at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min...
October 17, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"