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Adrenal function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169191/the-latest-developments-of-functional-molecular-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-primary-aldosteronism
#1
Mitsuhide Naruse, Hironobu Umakoshi, Mika Tsuiki, Maki Yokomoto, Tetsuya Tagami, Akiyo Tanabe, Akira Shimatsu
Differentiation of unilateral from bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is the essential step in the clinical practice of primary aldosteronism (PA). Although adrenal venous sampling (AVS) has been established as the most standard test recommended by the guideline, its invasive and technically difficult nature has facilitated the approach to develop non-invasive functioning imaging as an alternative test. Compared to the conventional adrenocortical scintigraphy with cholesterol derivatives as tracer, the first-generation imaging, both of (11)C-MTO/PET and (123)I-IMTO/SPECT/CT, the second-generation imaging, bind with high specificity and affinity to CYP11B enzymes and have advantages in shortening the time for obtaining specific images, reducing the radiation exposure to the patient, and resolution of the images...
November 23, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165597/gsta1-expression-is-correlated-with-aldosterone-level-in-kcnj5-mutated-adrenal-aldosterone-producing-adenoma
#2
Xintao Li, Baojun Wang, Lu Tang, Yu Zhang, Luyao Chen, Liangyou Gu, Fan Zhang, Jinzhi Ouyang, Xu Zhang
Context: KCNJ5 mutation is a major cause of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). The development of APA apart from KCNJ5 mutation is less investigated. Objective: To investigate other mechanisms affecting aldosterone secretion apart from KCNJ5. Patients and Methods: Six pairs of KCNJ5-mutated, high and low aldosterone-secreting APAs, five non-KCNJ5-mutated APAs and four normal adrenal glands were assayed by Affymetrix Genechip Human Transcriptome Array 2...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165577/quantitative-mri-brain-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-vivo-assessment-of-the-cognitive-and-structural-impact-of-steroid-hormones
#3
Emma A Webb, Lucy Elliott, Dominic Carlin, Martin Wilson, Kirsty Hall, Jennifer Netherton, Julie Reed, Tim G Barrett, Vijay Salwani, Jon D Clayden, Wiebke Arlt, Nils Krone, Andrew C Peet, Amanda G Wood
Context: Brain white matter hyper-intensities are seen on routine clinical imaging in 46% of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The extent and functional relevance of these abnormalities have not been studied using quantitative MRI analysis. Objective: To examine white matter microstructure, neural volumes and CNS metabolites in CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) and to determine whether identified abnormalities are associated with cognition, glucocorticoid and androgen exposure...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165002/adrenal-dependent-and-independent-stress-induced-per1-mrna-in-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-male-and-female-rats
#4
Lauren E Chun, Jenny Christensen, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Sarah J Morton, Laura R Hinds, Robert L Spencer
Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues...
November 22, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164484/association-between-cortisol-to-dhea-s-ratio-and-sickness-absence-in-japanese-male-workers
#5
Kumi Hirokawa, Yasuhito Fujii, Toshiyo Taniguchi, Jiro Takaki, Akizumi Tsutsumi
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. METHOD: A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162649/effects-of-sympathectomy-on-ovarian-follicular-development-and-steroid-secretion
#6
Maritza Paola Garrido, Daniela Fernandois, Mauricio Venegas, Alfonso Paredes
Recently, the influence of adrenergic activity over ovarian function, and thus fertility, has begun to gain importance. Previous studies have shown that adrenergic activity through norepinephrine (NE) participates in the control of follicular development and steroidal secretion from the ovary, among other functions. To examine this phenomenon, the denervation of the gonad has been widely used to observe changes in the ovary's performance. Nevertheless, the effect of the absence of adrenergic nerves in the ovary has only been studied in short times periods...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162191/childhood-adversity-moderates-the-influence-of-proximal-episodic-stress-on-the-cortisol-awakening-response-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#7
Lisa R Starr, Kimberly Dienes, Catherine B Stroud, Zoey A Shaw, Y Irina Li, Fanny Mlawer, Meghan Huang
Childhood adversity (CA) is known to predict sensitization to proximal stressors. Researchers have suggested that disruptions in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning may be a biological mechanism. If so, CA may predict altered associations between proximal life stress and markers of cortisol secretion. We examined whether CA moderates associations between recent episodic stress and (a) the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and (b) depressive symptoms, in 241 adolescents aged 14-17 years (cortisol n = 196)...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162174/exploring-longitudinal-associations-between-neighborhood-disadvantage-and-cortisol-levels-in-early-childhood
#8
Eric D Finegood, Jason R D Rarick, Clancy Blair
Children who grow up in poverty are more likely to experience chronic stressors that generate "wear" on stress regulatory systems including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This can have long-term consequences for health and well-being. Prior research has examined the role of proximal family and home contributions to HPA axis functioning. However, there is evidence to suggest that more distal levels of context, including neighborhoods, also matter. Prior evidence has primarily focused on adolescents and adults, with little evidence linking the neighborhood context with HPA activity in infancy and toddlerhood...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161707/a-novel-animal-model-simulating-the-beginning-of-combat-exposure
#9
Dongsoo Kim, Chang Yul Kim, Hyojin Koo, Yong Heo, Kicheol Cheon
OBJECTIVE: Predator stress, social defeat stress, and fear conditioning animal models have been applied to investigate combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no animal model psychopharmacological studies have investigated prevention of somatization of increased mental stress and fatigue at the beginning of combat exposure. This study utilized a novel animal model simulating the beginning of combat exposure that aided specification of a set of biomarkers. METHODS: Psychological stress was induced by both inescapable electric foot shock and noise stimuli...
November 22, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161636/infant-hpa-axis-as-a-potential-mechanism-linking-maternal-mental-health-and-infant-telomere-length
#10
Benjamin W Nelson, Nicholas B Allen, Heidemarie Laurent
Maternal depression has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) functioning and shorter telomere length in offspring. In contrast, research suggests that individual differences in mindfulness may act as a protective factor against one's own telomere degradation. Currently, research has yet to investigate the association between longitudinal changes in maternal mental health (depressive symptoms and mindfulness) and salivary infant telomere length, and whether such changes might be mediated by alterations in infant cortisol response...
November 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157938/-vascular-adrenal-cyst-causing-difficult-to-control-high-blood-pressure
#11
D García Escudero, M Torres Roca, M E Hernández Contreras, C Sánchez Rodríguez, J Oñate Celdrán
Hypertension is a prevalent disease in developed countries. Adrenal masses, and especially adrenal cysts, are a rare and usually asymptomatic finding, which can go unnoticed or be detected as incidental findings in imaging tests. These circumstances make the multidisciplinary approach mandatory. The case is presented on a 72 year-old woman with uncontrolled high blood pressure referred to the Urology Department due to the incidental finding of a right retroperitoneal mass. A functional and imaging study was performed, establishing a diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing hypertensive symptoms...
November 17, 2017: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157486/nouveaut%C3%A3-s-dans-l%C3%A2-hyperplasie-cong%C3%A3-nitale-des-surr%C3%A3-nales-new-insights-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#12
L Dumeige, C Bouvattier, M Lombès
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an autosomal recessive disease due to functional abnormalities of adrenal steroid enzymes. The most common form of the disease is due to a 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The classical forms (most severe) are characterized by a deficiency in cortisol and sometimes in aldosterone, which may compromise the vital prognosis of neonates, and by an increase in androgen synthesis, leading to the virilization of girls' external genitalia at birth, followed by clinical signs of hyperandrogenism during childhood and adolescence...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157485/la-chirurgie-d%C3%A2-%C3%A3-pargne-surr%C3%A3-nalienne-du-cortex-%C3%A3-la-m%C3%A3-dulla-cortical-sparing-surgery-from-cortex-to-medulla
#13
A Ferriere, V Kerlan, A Tabarin
The 2017 Endocrine Society annual meeting included several communications and debates on the conservative adrenal surgery in bilateral hereditary pheochromocytomas (BHP), bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (BAMH) and primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA). The general principle is to preserve a part of the adrenal cortex to prevent the occurrence of a definitive adrenal insufficiency. In BHP, cortical sparing surgery allows more than 50% of patients to maintain normal corticotropic function at 10 years with a low recurrence rate (~ 10%)...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155264/modulation-of-adrenal-steroidogenesis-by-testosterone-in-the-lizard-coleonyx-elegans
#14
Rocco V Carsia, Patrick J McIlroy, Henry B John-Alder
Our previous work with adrenocortical cells from several Sceloporus lizard species suggests that gonadal hormones influence the steroidogenic capacity and the sensitivity to ACTH. However, there are discrepancies in these cellular response parameters suggesting that the effects of gonadal hormones on adrenocortical function vary with species, sex, age, season, and environmental/experimental conditions. To gain further insight into these complex interactions, here we report studies on Coleonyx elegans, Eublepharidae (Yucatán Banded Gecko), which is only distantly related to Sceloporus lizards via a basal common ancestor and in captivity, reproduces throughout the year...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155262/glucocorticoids-and-cbg-during-pregnancy-in-mammals-diversity-pattern-and-function
#15
REVIEW
Phoebe D Edwards, Rudy Boonstra
Pregnancy is one of the defining characteristics of placental mammals. Key in the growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy are the dynamics of glucocorticoids (GCs) and their binding protein - corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which determines how much of the GCs are free and biologically active. Out of more than 5,000 species of placental mammals in 19 different orders, our understanding of the dynamics of maternal GCs and CBG during pregnancy is largely limited to the detailed study of 3 groups - sheep, laboratory rodents, and humans...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155247/cells-have-sex-chromosomes-and-circadian-clocks-implications-for-organismal-level-functions
#16
Rae Silver
A great number of stakeholders have a keen interest in issues surrounding sex differences. These participants in the discourse often use the same evidence to draw opposite conclusions, with implications for individuals and society as a whole. One part of the maelstrom and associated emotionality derives from confounds between the concepts of "sex" vs. "gender", even among professionals. Here, the oft-repeated point is made that evidence for gender differences can't be derived from the animal research, once the generally accepted conception of gender as a process unique to humans, is acknowledged...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154201/neuroendocrine-disorder-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#17
Slavica Tomic, Snezana Brkic, Dajana Lendak, Daniela Maric, Milica Medic Stojanoska, Aleksandra Novakov Mikic
Background/aim: Neuroendocrine disorders are considered a possible pathogenetic mechanism in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aim of our study was to determine the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and thyroid function in women of reproductive age suffering from CFS. Materials and methods: The study included 40 women suffering from CFS and 40 healthy women (15-45 years old). Serum levels of cortisol (0800 and 1800 hours), ACTH, total T4, total T3, and TSH were measured in all subjects...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150654/primary-aldosteronism-patients-show-skin-alterations-and-abnormal-activation-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-keratinocytes
#18
Julia Boix, Judit Bigas, Lisa M Sevilla, Maurizio Iacobone, Marilisa Citton, Francesca Torresan, Brasilina Caroccia, Gian Paolo Rossi, Paloma Pérez
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a disease characterized by high aldosterone levels caused by benign adrenal tumors being the most frequent cause of secondary hypertension. Aldosterone plays vital physiological roles through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) but in certain cell types, it can also activate the glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR). Both MR and GR are structurally and functionally related and belong to the same family of ligand-dependent transcription factors that recognize identical GC regulatory elements (GREs) on their target genes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150144/atypical-depression-and-non-atypical-depression-is-hpa-axis-function-a-biomarker-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Mario F Juruena, Mariia Bocharova, Bruno Agustini, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149147/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis-suppression-following-a-single-epidural-injection-of-methylprednisolone-acetate
#20
Aleem Jameel Abdul, Babita Ghai, Dipika Bansal, Naresh Sachdeva, Anil Bhansali, Saravdeep Singh Dhatt
BACKGROUND: Epidural injections (EIs) are the most commonly performed minimally invasive intervention in managing chronic low back pain (CLBP). There is inconsistency in data to accurately predict the degree of hypothalamic-piuitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in patients receiving exogenous steroid therapy, especially in the form of epidural steroid injections (ESIs). OBJECTIVE: We aim to quantify the degree and duration of HPA axis suppression after a single ESI of 80 mg methyl prednisolone acetate in patients with CLBP...
November 2017: Pain Physician
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