Read by QxMD icon Read

Adrenal function

Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Dexamethasone (DEX) is used to prevent prenatal virilization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Since treatment has to be started before the genotype of the fetus is known, 7 out of 8 fetuses will be exposed to DEX without benefit. Previously, we have observed negative effects on cognition and behavior in DEX treated children. Here we evaluated neuropsychological functions, psychopathology and autistic traits in non-CAH DEX-treated adults exposed during the first trimester of fetal life (duration 6...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nicole C M Korten, Brenda W J H Penninx, Didi Rhebergen, Dorly J H Deeg, Hannie C Comijs
Inconsistent results are found in the involvement of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis in cognitive functioning. This study examined the association between various saliva cortisol measures (the 1-h awakening cortisol, evening cortisol, diurnal change, and cortisol suppression) and cognitive functioning (episodic memory, processing speed, interference control, and working memory). Participants were older adults, between 60 and 93 years with (N = 328) and without (N = 119) a depressive disorder from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older adults...
December 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
N J C Stapelberg, R Pratt, D L Neumann, D H K Shum, S Brandis, V Muthukkumarasamy, B Stantic, M Blumenstein, J P Headrick
BACKGROUND: Biological pathways underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) can be viewed as systems biology networks. The psycho-immune-neuroendocrine (PINE) network comprises central nervous, immune, endocrine and autonomic systems, integrating biological mechanisms of MDD. Such networks exhibit recurrent motifs with specific functions, including positive and negative feedback loops, and are subject to critical transitions, influenced by feedback loop transitions (FLTs). AIMS: We aim to identify critical feedback loops and their FLTs, as well sentinel network nodes (SNNs), key network nodes that drive FLTs, within the PINE network...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Eric P Hoffman, Valerie Riddle, Maxime A Siegler, Daniel Dickerson, Miroslav Backonja, William G Kramer, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Jesse M Damsker, John M McCall
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid drugs are highly effective anti-inflammatory agents, but chronic use is associated with extensive pharmacodynamic safety concerns that have a considerable negative impact on patient quality of life. PURPOSE: Vamorolone (VBP15) is a first-in-class steroidal multi-functional drug that shows potent inhibition of pro-inflammatory NFkB pathways via high-affinity binding to the glucocorticoid receptor, high affinity antagonism for the mineralocorticoid receptor, and membrane stabilization properties...
March 7, 2018: Steroids
Risto J Kaaja, M Gary Nicholls
Studies in the early 1990s suggested that a hormone identical to ouabain or an isomer of ouabain is secreted by the adrenal glands into the circulation and plays a role in the regulation of arterial pressure and cardiac and renal function. This hormone, known as endogenous ouabain (EO), was claimed to contribute to the pathophysiology of a number of disorders including heart failure, renal failure, pregnancy-induced, and essential hypertension. However, some research groups have been unable to confirm the presence of EO in the human circulation and the issue remains in dispute...
March 10, 2018: BioFactors
A Acevedo-Rodriguez, A S Kauffman, B D Cherrington, C S Borges, T A Roepke, M Laconi
Reproduction and fertility are regulated via hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Control of this reproductive axis occurs at all levels, including the brain and pituitary, and allows for promotion or inhibition of gonadal sex steroid secretion and function. In addition to guiding proper gonadal development and function, gonadal sex steroids also act in negative and positive feedback loops to regulate reproductive circuitry in the brain, including kisspeptin neurons, thereby modulating overall HPG axis status...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jamie Maguire
GABA is well-known to be a critical regulator of the body's physiological response to stress through tight regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
R J T Mocking, J Assies, H G Ruhé, A H Schene
Continuous research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and schizophrenia, suggests an important role for metabolism. This narrative review will provide an up-to-date summary of how metabolism is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders. We will focus on (I) the important role of fatty acids in these metabolic alterations, (II) whether fatty acid alterations represent epiphenomena or risk factors, and (III) similarities and dissociations in fatty acid alterations between different psychiatric disorders...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Carlos R Dostal, Megan Carson Sulzer, Keith W Kelley, Gregory G Freund, Robert H McCusker
Stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune system eliciting changes in cognitive function, mood and anxiety. An important link between stress and altered behavior is stimulation of the Kynurenine Pathway which generates neuroactive and immunomodulatory kynurenines. Tryptophan entry into this pathway is controlled by rate-limiting indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DOs: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2). Although implicated as mediating changes in behavior, detecting stress-induced DO expression has proven inconsistent...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
Georgia Ntali, Eva Kassi, Maria Alevizaki
Cancer immunotherapy has introduced a novel class of drugs known as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). They enhance antitumour immunity by blocking negative regulators (checkpoints) of T cell function that exist on both immune and tumour cells. ICIs targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1/PDL-1 have dramatically changed the outcome of patients with several advanced-stage malignancies but they may lead to a variety of inflammatory toxicities and autoimmune consequences. The main endocrine immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) include hypophysitis, primary thyroid dysfunction, adrenalitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Emilia Sbardella, Marianna Minnetti, Denise D'Aluisio, Laura Rizza, Maria Rosaria Di Giorgio, Fabio Vinci, Riccardo Pofi, Elisa Giannetta, Mary Anna Venneri, Annarita Vestri, Sergio Morelli, Andrea Lenzi, Andrea M Isidori
BACKGROUND: Low-grade incomplete post-dexamethasone cortisol suppression in patients with adrenal incidentalomas -recently defined as possible autonomous cortisol secretion (pACS)- has been associated with increased cardiovascular events and mortality. However, prospective studies documenting cardiac abnormalities in these patients are lacking. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Between July 2016 and September 2017, 71 consecutive patients with adrenal lesions were prospectively screened for hypercortisolism by dexamethasone suppression test (NCT02611258)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Sebastian Cozma, Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc, Lisandra Damian, Vittorio Pasquali, Angelo Saponaro, Elena Catalina Lupusoru, Francesca Romana Patacchioli, Lucia Corina Dima-Cozma
INTRODUCTION: The vestibular acute stress induces reversible alert-like reactions that involve the sympathetic adrenal-medullar system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. The present study aimed to evaluate salivary α-amylase and salivary cortisol production in relation with cardiovascular reactivity induced by acute stress in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight young healthy male volunteers were examined under basal conditions and at various times after reaching the maximal nystagmic reaction following air caloric vestibular test...
2018: PloS One
Xu-Bo Li, An Liu, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Yu-Mei Wu, Ming-Gao Zhao, Shui-Bing Liu
The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is primarily localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of the protein's main functions is transporting substrate cholesterol into the mitochondria in a prerequisite process for steroid synthesis. Clinical trials have indicated that TSPO ligands might be valuable in treating some neuropathies and psychopathies. However, limited information is known about the role of TSPO in postpartum depression (PPD)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Brain
Kai Kou, Haiwen Zhang, Conggui Zhang, Enbo Xie, Yuguo Chen, Guangyi Wang, Guoyue Lv
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, heterogeneous malignancy with a poor prognosis. ACCs are classified as functioning and non-functioning. The pathogenesis of ACC remains elusive, and diagnosis of ACC is currently based on pathology. In the absence of other effective approaches, surgical resection is the preferred treatment option. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of ACC in the retroperitoneum. The patient underwent radical adrenalectomy and remained disease-free throughout a 6-month follow-up...
March 5, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Eleni Angeli, Terpsichori Korpa, Elizabeth O Johnson, Filia Apostolakou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Panagiota Pervanidou
There is growing evidence for dysregulation of the stress system in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The stress system includes neuroanatomical and functional components that function in concert to maintain homeostasis and its main effectors are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic/adrenomedullary nervous system (SNS). As stress system activity demonstrates a distinct circadian variation, we aimed to describe simultaneously, diurnal rhythms of both the HPA axis and the SNS in children with ADHD and a comparison group...
February 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Elena Roca, Pier Paolo Mattogno, Teresa Porcelli, Luigi Poliani, Francesco Belotti, Alberto Schreiber, Filippo Maffezzoni, Marco Maria Fontanella, Francesco Doglietto
INTRODUCTION: Plurihormonal adenomas (PHA) represent 10-15% of all functioning pituitary adenomas. The most frequent hormonal association is represented by prolactin and growth hormone (GH). AIM: To describe a rare case of functional ACTH and GH microadenoma, together with a systematic literature review on PHA. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms "plurihormonal pituitary adenoma", "ACTH, GH pituitary adenoma", and "Acromegaly AND Cushing's disease"...
February 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Tomoshige Kino
Glucocorticoid hormones, end products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, virtually influence all human functions both in a basal homeostatic condition and under stress. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a nuclear hormone receptor superfamily protein, mediates these actions of glucocorticoids by acting as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Because glucocorticoid actions are diverse and strong, many biological pathways adjust them in local tissues by targeting the GR signaling pathway as part of the regulatory loop coordinating complex human functions...
February 28, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Yutaka Endo, Minoru Kitago, Akira Miyajima, Isao Kurihara, Kaori Kameyama, Masahiro Shinoda, Hiroshi Yagi, Yuta Abe, Taizo Hibi, Chisato Takagi, Yutaka Nakano, Wataru Koizumi, Osamu Itano, Yuko Kitagawa
INTRODUCTION: von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL disease) is a hereditary disease in which tumors and cysts develop in many organs, in association with central nervous system hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas, and pancreatic tumors. We herein report a case of vHL disease (type 2A) associated with bilateral pheochromocytomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET), and cerebellar hemangioblastomas treated via pancreatectomy after adrenalectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old woman presented with a cerebellar tumor, bilateral hypernephroma, and pancreatic tumor detected during a medical checkup...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Sheela Verjee, Anna Weston, Christiane Kolb, Heba Kalbhenn-Aziz, Veronika Butterweck
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important part in the development of depressive symptoms. In this study, the effects of a commercial St. John's wort extract (STW3-VI), hyperforin, miquelianin, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on the expression of genes relevant to HPA axis function were investigated in human neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with STW3-VI (20 µg/mL), hyperforin (1 µM), miquelianin (10 µM), or citalopram (10 µM) in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX,10 µM) for 6 h and 48 h, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Jared D Martin, Heather C Abercrombie, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, Paula M Niedenthal
When people are being evaluated, their whole body responds. Verbal feedback causes robust activation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. What about nonverbal evaluative feedback? Recent discoveries about the social functions of facial expression have documented three morphologically distinct smiles, which serve the functions of reinforcement, social smoothing, and social challenge. In the present study, participants saw instances of one of three smile types from an evaluator during a modified social stress test...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"