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Vytas Raulinaitis, Helena Tossavainen, Olli Aitio, Jarmo T Juuti, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Vesa Kontinen, Perttu Permi
We introduce LytU, a short member of the lysostaphin family of zinc-dependent pentaglycine endopeptidases. It is a potential antimicrobial agent for S. aureus infections and its gene transcription is highly upregulated upon antibiotic treatments along with other genes involved in cell wall synthesis. We found this enzyme to be responsible for the opening of the cell wall peptidoglycan layer during cell divisions in S. aureus. LytU is anchored in the plasma membrane with the active part residing in the periplasmic space...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Uwe Walschus, Andreas Hoene, Maciej Patrzyk, Silke Lucke, Birgit Finke, Martin Polak, Gerold Lukowski, Rainer Bader, Carmen Zietz, Andreas Podbielski, J Barbara Nebe, Michael Schlosser
Copper (Cu) could be suitable to create anti-infective implants based on Titanium (Ti), for example by incorporating Cu into the implant surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (Cu-PIII). The cytotoxicity of Cu might be circumvented by an additional cell-adhesive plasma polymerized allylamine film (PPAAm). Thus, this study aimed to examine in vivo local inflammatory reactions for Ti6Al4V implants treated with Cu-PIII (Ti-Cu), alone or with an additional PPAAm film (Ti-Cu-PPAAm), compared to untreated implants (Ti)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ash E Philliber, Heather Hirsch, Claire D Brindis, Rita Turner, Susan Philliber
Objectives The uptake and actual use of the current guidelines from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) is unknown. Methods Family planning providers across Colorado and Iowa were surveyed as part of statewide initiatives to reduce unintended pregnancy in 2010 and 2012, both before and after the release of the guidelines. These initiatives focused on the promotion of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants. These surveys included questions on providers' views regarding the suitability and safety of the copper T IUD, hormonal IUD, and single rod implant for various subgroups of clients...
July 13, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Y Chen, O Tezcan, D Li, N Beztsinna, B Lou, T Etrych, K Ulbrich, J M Metselaar, T Lammers, W E Hennink
Multidrug resistance (MDR) contributes to failure of chemotherapy. We here show that biodegradable polymeric nanogels are able to overcome MDR via folic acid targeting. The nanogels are based on hydroxyethyl methacrylamide-oligoglycolates-derivatized poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylamide-co-N-(2-azidoethyl)methacrylamide) (p(HEMAm-co-AzEMAm)-Gly-HEMAm), covalently loaded with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) and subsequently decorated with a folic acid-PEG conjugate via copper-free click chemistry. pH-Responsive drug release is achieved via the acid-labile hydrazone bond between DOX and the methacrylamide polymeric network...
July 12, 2017: Nanoscale
F Freitas, S Lunardi, L B Souza, J S C von der Osten, R Arruda, R L T Andrade, L D Battirola
Aquatic macrophytes have properties and mechanisms which are useful for the removal of substances in solution, commonly used in phytoremediation processes in aquatic environments. This study evaluated the performance of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salvinia biloba Raddi (Salviniaceae) in different metal concentrations (1, 3 and 5 µg mL-1), as well as the control treatment, measured at intervals of 0, 7 and 14 days under laboratory conditions, with control as to pH and luminosity. After the experiment, the S...
July 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Jun-Woo Kim, Neil M Price
Thalassiosira oceanica (CCMP 1005) was grown over a range of copper concentrations at saturating and sub-saturating irradiance to test the hypothesis that Cu and light were interacting essential resources. Growth was a hyperbolic function of irradiance in Cu-replete medium (263 fmol Cu' · L(-1) ) with maximum rates achieved at 200 μmol photons · m(-2) · s(-1) . Lowering the Cu concentration at this irradiance to 30.8 fmol Cu' · L(-1) decreased cellular Cu quota by 7-fold and reduced growth rate by 50%...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Robert Walder, Marc-Andre LeBlanc, William John Van Patten, Devin Edwards, Jacob A Greenberg, Ayush Adhikari, Stephen R Okoniewski, Ruby May Arana Sullan, David Rabuka, Marcelo Carlos Sousa, Thomas T Perkins
Atomic-force-microscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is a powerful yet accessible means to characterize mechanical properties of biomolecules. Historically, accessibility relies upon the nonspecific adhesion of biomolecules to a surface and a cantilever and, for proteins, the integration of the target protein into a polyprotein. However, this assay results in a low yield of high-quality data, defined as the complete unfolding of the polyprotein. Additionally, nonspecific surface adhesion hinders studies of α-helical proteins, which unfold at low forces and low extensions...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Cian Cummins, Matthew T Shaw, Michael A Morris
Polymer brush films with chemical functionality to attach to site specific substrate areas are introduced for area selective deposition (ASD) application. It is demonstrated that polymer brushes with chemically defined end sites can be selectively bound to copper-specific regions of patterned copper/silica (Cu/SiO2 ) substrates. The process described overcomes various limitations of currently used technology including cost, complexity, and throughput, with potential implications for future electronic devices and nanomanufacturing...
July 3, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
H Sawada, T Daykin, H S McLean, H Chen, P K Patel, Y Ping, F Pérez
Simultaneous monochromatic crystal imaging at 4.5 and 8.0 keV with x-rays produced by a single short-pulse laser is presented. A layered target consisting of thin foils of titanium and copper glued together is irradiated by the 50 TW Leopard short-pulse laser housed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. Laser-accelerated MeV fast electrons transmitting through the target induce Kα fluorescence from both foils. Two energy-selective curved crystals in the imaging diagnostic form separate monochromatic images on a single imaging detector...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Edgar C Mapunda, Othman C Othman, Leonard D Akwilapo, Hindrik Bouwman, Haji Mwevura
Concentrations of metallic elements in kidney, liver and lung tissues of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus from coastal waters of Zanzibar were determined using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy. Cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were quantifiable in all tissues at concentration ranges of 0.10-150, 0.08-3.2, 1.1-88 and 14-210μg/g dry mass, respectively. Copper and zinc was significantly higher in liver, and females had significantly higher Cd in liver, and chromium in lung...
June 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
A Sciortino, A Madonia, M Gazzetto, L Sciortino, E J Rohwer, T Feurer, F M Gelardi, M Cannas, A Cannizzo, F Messina
Fluorescent carbon nanodots are a novel family of carbon-based nanoscale materials endowed with an outstanding combination of properties that make them very appealing for applications in nanosensing, photonics, solar energy harvesting and photocatalysis. One of the remarkable properties of carbon dots is their strong sensitivity to the local environment, especially to metal ions in solution. These interactions provide a testing ground for their marked photochemical properties, highlighted by many studies, and frequently driven by charge transfer events...
June 29, 2017: Nanoscale
A Abboud, C Kirchlechner, J Keckes, T Conka Nurdan, S Send, J S Micha, O Ulrich, R Hartmann, L Strüder, U Pietsch
The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determination using polychromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy range from 5 to 23 keV. Microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction patterns were collected from a copper micro-bending beam along the central axis (centroid of the cross section)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Rachel Trammell, Yi Yang See, Aaron T Herrmann, Nan Xie, Daniel E Díaz, Maxime A Siegler, Phil S Baran, Isaac Garcia-Bosch
The use of copper in directed C-H oxidation has been relatively underexplored. In a seminal example, Schönecker showed that copper and O2 promoted the hydroxylation of steroid-containing ligands. Recently, Baran (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137, 13776) improved the reaction conditions to oxidize similar substrates with excellent yields. In both reports, the involvement of Cu2O2 intermediates was suggested. In this collaborative article, we study the hydroxylation mechanism in great detail, resulting in the overhaul of the previously accepted mechanism and the development of improved reaction conditions...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Zhenzhen Chen, Yaxin Niu, Guiying Cheng, Lili Tong, Guanglu Zhang, Feng Cai, Tingting Chen, Bao Liu, Bo Tang
The development of fast, sensitive, selective and flexible methods for the detection of iodide is highly demanded and is of great significance. In this work, single-stranded DNA-templated copper nanoparticles (ssDNA-CuNPs) generated by sodium ascorbate reduction of Cu(2+) along the single-stranded DNA of poly-T were utilized as a fluorescent probe for the determination of iodide ions (I(-)). The detection scheme is based on the instant quenching of the fluorescence of ssDNA-CuNPs by iodide ions. I(-) can be quantified in the concentration range from 0...
June 27, 2017: Analyst
Abigail P Ferrieri, Ricardo A R Machado, Carla C M Arce, Danny Kessler, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Nutrients are distributed unevenly in the soil. Phenotypic plasticity in root growth and proliferation may enable plants to cope with this variation and effectively forage for essential nutrients. However, how micronutrients shape root architecture of plants in their natural environments is poorly understood. We employed a combination of field and laboratory-based assays to determine the capacity of Nicotiana attenuata to direct root growth towards localized nutrient patches in its native environment. Plants growing in nature displayed a particular root phenotype consisting of a single primary root and a few long, shallow lateral roots...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Amin Shakiba, Sagar L Patil, Oussama Zenasni, Monika E Schmitt, Preethi H Gunaratne, T Randall Lee
This Article describes the generation and study of surfaces modified with custom-crafted poly(l-lysine) (PLL) coatings for use in the loading and delivery of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The experimental strategy utilizes bidentate dithiol adsorbates to generate stably bound azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold possessing an oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) spacer. Consequent to the molecular assembly on gold, the azide termini are covalently attached to a maleimide linker moiety via a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne "click" reaction...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S Flachsbarth, M Kruse, T Burmester
Haemocyanin is the copper-containing respiratory protein present in many arthropods. In the hexapods, respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary as sufficient O2 was thought to be obtained via the trachea. Nevertheless, many ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod species actually possess haemocyanin. Here we investigated the occurrence of haemocyanin in Collembola (springtails). Haemocyanin was found in 22 collembolan species of the suborders Symphypleona, Tomoceroidea and Entomobryomorpha, demonstrating its widespread occurrence...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Angel T Martínez, Francisco J Ruiz-Dueñas, Susana Camarero, Ana Serrano, Dolores Linde, Henrik Lund, Jesper Vind, Morten Tovborg, Owik M Herold-Majumdar, Martin Hofrichter, Christiane Liers, René Ullrich, Katrin Scheibner, Giovanni Sannia, Alessandra Piscitelli, Cinzia Pezzella, Mehmet E Sener, Sibel Kılıç, Willem J H van Berkel, Victor Guallar, Maria Fátima Lucas, Ralf Zuhse, Roland Ludwig, Frank Hollmann, Elena Fernández-Fueyo, Eric Record, Craig B Faulds, Marta Tortajada, Ib Winckelmann, Jo-Anne Rasmussen, Mirjana Gelo-Pujic, Ana Gutiérrez, José C Del Río, Jorge Rencoret, Miguel Alcalde
Fungi produce heme-containing peroxidases and peroxygenases, flavin-containing oxidases and dehydrogenases, and different copper-containing oxidoreductases involved in the biodegradation of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds. Heme peroxidases comprise the classical ligninolytic peroxidases and the new dye-decolorizing peroxidases, while heme peroxygenases belong to a still largely unexplored superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins. Nevertheless, basidiomycete unspecific peroxygenases have the highest biotechnological interest due to their ability to catalyze a variety of regio- and stereo-selective monooxygenation reactions with H2O2 as the source of oxygen and final electron acceptor...
June 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
R F A Sousa, V M Almeida, J E Neto, C W A Nascimento, G X Medeiros, R M T Medeiros, F Riet-Correa, F S Mendonça
The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor...
July 2017: Veterinary Pathology
J Ahmad, M A Siddiqui, M J Akhtar, H A Alhadlaq, A Alshamsan, S T Khan, R Wahab, A A Al-Khedhairy, A Al-Salim, J Musarrat, Q Saquib, M Fareed, M Ahamed
Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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