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Juan J Barrero, Effrosyni Papanikou, Jason C Casler, Kasey J Day, Benjamin S Glick
FK506-binding protein (FKBP) is a monomer that binds to FK506, rapamycin, and related ligands. The F36M substitution, in which Phe36 in the ligand-binding pocket is changed to Met, leads to formation of antiparallel FKBP dimers, which can be dissociated into monomers by ligand binding. This FKBP(M) mutant has been employed in the mammalian secretory pathway to generate aggregates that can be dissolved by ligand addition to create cargo waves. However, when testing this approach in yeast, we found that dissolution of FKBP(M) aggregates was inefficient...
July 2016: Cellular Logistics
Esben M Quistgaard, Ulrich Weininger, Yonca Ural-Blimke, Kristofer Modig, Pär Nordlund, Mikael Akke, Christian Löw
BACKGROUND: Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) catalyze cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds, which is often rate-limiting for protein folding. SlyD is a two-domain enzyme containing both a PPIase FK506-binding protein (FKBP) domain and an insert-in-flap (IF) chaperone domain. To date, the interactions of these domains with unfolded proteins have remained rather obscure, with structural information on binding to the FKBP domain being limited to complexes involving various inhibitor compounds or a chemically modified tetrapeptide...
2016: BMC Biology
B Li, H Luo, Q Weng, S Wang, Z Pan, Z Xie, W Wu, H Liu, Q Li
FK506-binding protein 6 (FKBP6) is essential for meiosis during mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the molecular regulation of FKBP6 during spermatogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we performed molecular characterization of the meiosis-specific gene FKBP6 in yak testes. Yak FKBP6 encodes a polypeptide of 295 amino acid residues with an FK506-binding domain (FKBP_C) and three tetratricopeptide repeat domains. The methylation level of the FKBP6 promoter in testes was significantly higher in cattle-yak with male sterility than in yak, and the FKBP6 promoter was methylated in liver tissues in which FKBP6 is not expressed...
September 22, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Yusuke Nakatsu, Yasuka Matsunaga, Takeshi Yamamotoya, Koji Ueda, Yuki Inoue, Keiichi Mori, Hideyuki Sakoda, Midori Fujishiro, Hiraku Ono, Akifumi Kushiyama, Tomoichiro Asano
Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer's disease...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sung-Bae Kim, Ryo Nishihara, Koji Suzuki
Optical imaging of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) facilitates comprehensive elucidation of intracellular molecular events. The present protocol demonstrates an optical measure for visualizing molecular tension triggered by any PPI in mammalian cells. A unique design of single-chain probes was fabricated, in which a full-length artificial luciferase (ALuc(®)) was sandwiched between two model proteins of interest, e.g., FKBP and FRB. A molecular tension probe comprising ALuc23 greatly enhances the bioluminescence in response to varying concentrations of rapamycin, and named "tension probe (TP)...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Theo Rein
This review portraits FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 as "reactivity protein" and collates recent publications to develop the concept of FKBP51 as contributor to different levels of adaptation. Adaptation is a fundamental process that enables unicellular and multicellular organisms to adjust their molecular circuits and structural conditions in reaction to environmental changes threatening their homeostasis. FKBP51 is known as chaperone and co-chaperone of heat shock protein (HSP) 90, thus involved in processes ensuring correct protein folding in response to proteotoxic stress...
September 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Alex Dickson, Samuel D Lotz
The binding of ligands with their molecular receptors is of tremendous importance in biology. Although much emphasis has been placed on characterizing binding sites and bound poses that determine the binding thermodynamics, the pathway by which a ligand binds importantly determines the binding kinetics. The computational study of entire unbiased ligand binding and release pathways is still an emerging field, made possible only recently by advances in computational hardware and sampling methodologies. We have developed one such method (WExplore) that is based on a weighted ensemble of trajectories, which we apply to ligand release for the first time, using a set of three previously characterized interactions between low-affinity ligands and the protein FKBP-12 (FK-506 binding protein)...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Robyn T Rebbeck, Florentin R Nitu, David Rohde, Patrick Most, Donald M Bers, David D Thomas, Razvan L Cornea
S100A1 has been suggested as a therapeutic agent to enhance myocyte Ca(2+) cycling in heart failure, but its molecular mode of action is poorly understood. Using FRET, we tested the hypothesis that S100A1 directly competes with calmodulin (CaM) for binding to intact, functional ryanodine receptors type I (RyR1) and II (RyR2) from skeletal and cardiac muscle, respectively. Our FRET readout provides an index of acceptor-labeled CaM binding near donor-labeled FKBP (FK506-binding protein 12.6) on the cytoplasmic domain of RyR in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Joe Z Zhang, Helen M M Waddell, Ella Wu, Jhanvi Dholakia, Chidinma A Okolo, Janet C McLay, Peter P Jones
FK506-binding proteins 12.6 (FKBP12.6) and 12 (FKBP12) tightly associate with the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). Studies suggest that dissociation of FKBP12.6 from mutant forms of RyR2 contributes to store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR) and Ca(2+)-triggered arrhythmias. However, these findings are controversial. Previous studies focused on the effect of FKBP12.6 on the initiation of SOICR and did not explore changes in the termination of Ca(2+) release. Less is known about FKBP12. We aimed to determine the effect of FKBP12...
July 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Nam K Tonthat, Praveen Rao Juvvadi, Hengshan Zhang, Soo Chan Lee, Ron Venters, Leonard Spicer, William J Steinbach, Joseph Heitman, Maria A Schumacher
UNLABELLED: Invasive fungal infections remain difficult to treat and require novel targeting strategies. The 12-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) is a ubiquitously expressed peptidyl-prolyl isomerase with considerable homology between fungal pathogens and is thus a prime candidate for future targeting efforts to generate a panfungal strategy. Despite decades of research on FKBPs, their substrates and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here we describe structural, biochemical, and in vivo analyses of FKBP12s from the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Aspergillus fumigatus Strikingly, multiple apo A...
2016: MBio
(no author information available yet)
Cover legend: Distribution of organelles that bound TYRP1-FKBP-mCherry (red) and mitochondria revealed with MitoTracker Deep Red dye (green) in the cytoplasm of a Xenopus melanophore. Rezaul et al. show TYRP1-FKBP-mCherry specifically binds to pigment granules and in the presence of rapalog recruits exogenous microtubule motor protein kinesin-1-EGFP-FRB, which changes net direction of granule movement. See Rezaul et al Traffic 2016; 17(5):475-486. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12385.
May 2016: Traffic
Kalin V Vasilev, Eugenio Gallo, Nathaniel Shank, Jonathan W Jarvik
We describe a novel biosensor system for reporting proximity between cell surface proteins in live cultured cells. The biosensor takes advantage of recently developed fluorogen-activating proteins (FAPs) that display fluorescence only when bound to otherwise-nonfluorescent fluorogen molecules. To demonstrate feasibility for the approach, two recombinant rapamycin-binding proteins were expressed as single-pass plasma membrane proteins in HeLa cells; one of the proteins (scAvd- FRB) carried an extracellular avidin tag; the other (HL1-TO1-FKBP) carried an extracellular FAP...
2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Yue-Yue Wang, Xiao-Sheng Zhang, Hong-Dou Luo, Ni-Ni Ren, Xin-Hang Jiang, Hui Jiang, Yong-Quan Li
Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) play essential roles in both primary metabolisms and secondary metabolisms via post-translational modification of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs). In this study, an industrial FK506 producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19, together with Streptomyces avermitilis, was identified to contain the highest number (five) of discrete PPTases known among any species thus far examined. Characterization of the five PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 unveiled that stw ACP, an ACP in a type II PKS, was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT1, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; sts FAS ACP, the ACP in fatty acid synthase (FAS), was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT2, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; TcsA-ACP, an ACP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by two PPTases FKPPT3 and FKACPS; FkbP-PCP, an PCP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by all of these five PPTases FKPPT1-4 and FKACPS...
2016: Scientific Reports
Markus Geisler, Aurélien Bailly, Maria Ivanchenko
Plant development and architecture are greatly influenced by the polar distribution of the essential hormone auxin. The directional influx and efflux of auxin from plant cells depends primarily on AUX1/LAX, PIN, and ABCB/PGP/MDR families of auxin transport proteins. The functional analysis of these proteins has progressed rapidly within the last decade thanks to the establishment of heterologous auxin transport systems. Heterologous co-expression allowed also for the testing of protein-protein interactions involved in the regulation of transporters and identified relationships with members of the FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP) and cyclophilin protein families, which are best known in non-plant systems as cellular receptors for the immunosuppressant drugs, FK506 and cyclosporin A, respectively...
April 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Hee-Yeon Kim, Joong-jae Lee, Nury Kim, Won Do Heo, Hak-Sung Kim
Probing protein-protein interactions in living cells is crucial for understanding the protein functions and developing drugs. Small-sized protein binders are considered effective and useful for such analysis. Here we describe the development and use of a repebody, which is a protein binder composed of LRR (Leucine-rich repeat) modules, for tracking protein-protein interaction and localization in real-time through live-cell imaging. A repebody with high affinity for a red fluorescent protein was selected through a phage display, fused with a green fluorescent protein, and applied for tracing a red fluorescent protein-fused target protein in mammalian cells...
February 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Min Xu, Amedeo Caflisch, Peter Hamm
The binding of small molecules (e.g., natural ligands, metabolites, and drugs) to proteins governs most biochemical pathways and physiological processes. Here, we use molecular dynamics to investigate the unbinding of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) from two distinct states of a small rotamase enzyme, the FK506-binding protein (FKBP). These states correspond to the FKBP protein relaxed with and without DMSO in the active site. Since the time scale of ligand unbinding (2-20 ns) is faster than protein relaxation (100 ns), a novel methodology is introduced to relax the protein without having to introduce an artificial constraint...
March 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Pulak Ranjan Nath, Guangyu Dong, Alex Braiman, Noah Isakov
Members of the Crk family of adaptor proteins are key players in signal transduction from a variety of cell surface receptors. CrkI and CrkII are two alternative-spliced forms of a single gene which possess an N-terminal SH2 domain and an SH3 domain that mediate interaction with other proteins. CrkII possesses an additional C-terminal linker region plus an extra SH3 domain, which does not interact with other proteins, but operates as regulatory moiety. Utilizing human Jurkat T cells, we demonstrate that CrkII-SH3N binding of C3G is inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) plus FK506 that inhibit the cyclophilin A (CypA) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases; also termed immunophilins), respectively...
February 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tomonao Inobe, Nobuyuki Nukina
Most proteins form larger protein complexes and perform multiple functions in the cell. Thus, artificial regulation of protein complex formation controls the cellular functions that involve protein complexes. Although several artificial dimerization systems have already been used for numerous applications in biomedical research, cellular protein complexes form not only simple dimers but also larger oligomers. In this study, we showed that fusion proteins comprising the induced heterodimer formation proteins FRB and FKBP formed various oligomers upon addition of rapamycin...
July 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Pawel Stocki, Maxime Sawicki, Charles E Mays, Seo Jung Hong, Daniel C Chapman, David Westaway, David B Williams
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders for which there is no effective treatment. Because the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is required for propagation of the infectious scrapie form of the protein, one therapeutic strategy is to reduce PrP(C) expression. Recently FK506, an inhibitor of the FKBP family of peptidyl prolyl isomerases, was shown to increase survival in animal models of prion disease, with proposed mechanisms including calcineurin inhibition, induction of autophagy, and reduced PrP(C) expression...
March 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Wenlin An, Rachel E Jackson, Paul Hunter, Stefanie Gögel, Michiel van Diepen, Karen Liu, Martin P Meyer, Britta J Eickholt
Targeting protein stability with small molecules has emerged as an effective tool to control protein abundance in a fast, scalable and reversible manner. The technique involves tagging a protein of interest (POI) with a destabilizing domain (DD) specifically controlled by a small molecule. The successful construction of such fusion proteins may, however, be limited by functional interference of the DD epitope with electrostatic interactions required for full biological function of proteins. Another drawback of this approach is the remaining endogenous protein...
2015: PloS One
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