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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938026/hiv-exposed-seronegative-hesn-compared-to-hiv-infected-individuals-have-higher-frequencies-of-telomeric-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-kir-b-motifs-contribution-of-kir-b-motif-encoded-genes-to-nk-cell-responsiveness
#1
Elise Jackson, Cindy Xinyu Zhang, Zahra Kiani, Irene Lisovsky, Benjamin Tallon, Alexa Del Corpo, Louise Gilbert, Julie Bruneau, Réjean Thomas, Pierre Côté, Benoit Trottier, Roger LeBlanc, Danielle Rouleau, Cécile Tremblay, Christos M Tsoukas, Jean-Pierre Routy, Xiaoyan Ni, Tsoarello Mabanga, Nicole F Bernard
Previously, we showed that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR)3DS1 homozygotes (hmz) are more frequent in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) than in recently HIV infected (HIV+) individuals. KIR3DS1 encodes an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKR). The link between KIR genotype and HIV outcomes likely arises from the function that NK cells acquire through expression of particular NKRs. An initial screen of 97 HESN and 123 HIV+ subjects for the frequency of KIR region gene carriage observed between-group differences for several telomeric KIR region loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937372/age-related-reference-intervals-for-immunoglobulin-levels-and-lymphocyte-subsets-in-indian-children
#2
Gaurav Narula, Shanaz Khodaiji, Arun Bableshwar, Manjeet Singh Bindra
BACKGROUND: In children, innate and adaptive immunity varies with age, disease status, and ethnicity, reflected by lymphocyte subsets and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels. The paucity of such data from the Indian subcontinent necessitated this study. AIMS: This study aims to determine reference ranges of Ig and lymphocyte subsets in Indian children from birth to 5 years. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Neonates, infants, and children from a tertiary care hospital were selected and categorized into 5 groups from cord blood/newborn to 5 years...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937369/study-of-association-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-lymphomas-by-epstein-barr-virus-encoded-rna-in-situ-hybridization-an-indian-perspective-from-a-tertiary-care-cancer-institute
#3
Roshani Gala, Jatin S Gandhi, Gurudutt Gupta, Shrruti K Grover, Anila Sharma, Sunil Pasricha, Anurag Mehta
BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4, is a virus of the herpes family. The EBV-associated lymphomas include Burkitt lymphoma, classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), lymphomas arising in immunocompromised individuals, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, and other rare histotypes. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the role of EBV as an etiologic agent in various lymphomas and determined an Indian perspective in a tertiary care cancer center compared to that of Western literature...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936226/challenges-in-modeling-complexity-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-a-review-of-dynamics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
REVIEW
Swati DebRoy, Olivia Prosper, Austin Mishoe, Anuj Mubayi
OBJECTIVES: Neglected tropical diseases (NTD), account for a large proportion of the global disease burden, and their control faces several challenges including diminishing human and financial resources for those distressed from such diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-largest parasitic killer (after malaria) and an NTD affects poor populations and causes considerable cost to the affected individuals. Mathematical models can serve as a critical and cost-effective tool for understanding VL dynamics, however, complex array of socio-economic factors affecting its dynamics need to be identified and appropriately incorporated within a dynamical modeling framework...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936212/how-viruses-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#5
Ellen Brisse, Carine H Wouters, Graciela Andrei, Patrick Matthys
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening, hyperinflammatory syndrome, characterized by the uncontrolled activation of macrophages and T cells, eliciting key symptoms such as persistent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, hemophagocytosis, hyperferritinemia, and coagulopathy. Viral infections are frequently implicated in the onset of active HLH episodes, both in primary, genetic HLH as in the secondary, acquired form. Infections with herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus are the most common...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935847/cd56bright-nk-regulatory-cells-in-filgrastim-primed-donor-blood-or-marrow-products-regulate-chronic-gvhd-cbmtg-randomized-0601-study-results
#6
Amina Kariminia, Sabine Ivison, Bernard Ng, Jacob Rozmus, Susanna Sung, Avani Varshney, Mahmoud Aljurf, Silvy Lachance, Irwin Walker, Cindy Toze, Jeff Lipton, Stephanie J Lee, Jeff Szer, Richard Doocey, Ian Lewis, Clayton Smith, Naeen Chaudhri, Megan K Levings, Raewyn Broady, Gerald Devins, David Szwajcer, Ronan Foley, Sara Mostafavi, Steven Pavletic, Donna A Wall, Stephen Couban, Tony Panzarella, Kirk R Schultz
Randomized trials have conclusively shown higher rates of chronic graft-versus-host disease with filgrastim-stimulated apheresis peripheral blood as a donor source than unstimulated bone marrow. The Canadian Blood and Marrow Transplant Group conducted a phase 3 study of adults who received either filgrastim-stimulated apheresis peripheral blood or filgrastim-stimulated bone marrow from human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling donors. Because all donors received the identical filgrastim dosing schedule, this study allowed for a controlled evaluation of the impact of stem cell source on development of chronic graft-versus-host disease...
September 21, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935491/measurement-of-uterine-natural-killer-unk-cell-percentage-in-the-peri-implantation-endometrium-from-fertile-women-and-women-with-recurrent-reproductive-failure-establishment-of-a-reference-range
#7
Xiaoyan Chen, Najat Mariee, Lingming Jiang, Yingyu Liu, Chi Chiu Wang, Tin Chiu Li, Susan Laird
BACKGROUND: Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the major leucocytes present in the peri-implantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uNK cell percentage in women suffering from recurrent reproductive failure, compared with fertile controls. OBJECTIVE: To compare the uNK cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. STUDY DESIGN: It was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935347/geographic-variations-in-lung-cancer-lobectomy-outcomes-the-general-thoracic-surgery-database
#8
A Laurie Shroyer, Jacquelyn A Quin, Maria V Grau-Sepulveda, Andrzej S Kosinski, Babatunde A Yerokun, John D Mitchell, Thomas V Bilfinger
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer ranks as the top cancer killer in the United States. Using The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database (GTSD), the geographic variability of lung cancer lobectomy for operative mortality and major morbidity were examined. METHODS: From January 2009 to June 2015, the GTSD lung cancer lobectomy records (excluding robotic procedures) were assigned to a US Census region using hospital location. Surgeons performing fewer than seven lung cancer lobectomies per year were categorized as "low volume...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935344/tailoring-natural-killer-cell-immunotherapy-to-the-tumour-microenvironment
#9
REVIEW
Alexander David Barrow, Marco Colonna
Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic and cytokine-secreting cells that can mediate potent anti-tumour activity. Accumulating evidence indicates that NK cell functions are severely compromised within the confines of the tumour microenvironment thus impairing the efficacy and development of NK cell-based therapies. Here we review the various cellular and molecular pathways that tumours have supplanted to evade NK cell surveillance. We highlight novel strategies designed to alleviate or circumvent the immunosuppressive conditions of the tumour microenvironment in order to emancipate NK cell function and stifle the inexorable growth and metastasis of malignant cells...
September 18, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#10
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933961/17%C3%AE-estradiol-induces-proliferation-of-endometrial-nk-cells-cd56-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
T Sho, T Hachisuga, C Koi, T Kurita, S Kagami, T Kawagoe, Y Matsuura, K Yoshimura, M Hisaoka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report was to evaluate the impact of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on lymphocytic infiltration of the endometrium in postmenopausal women. METHOD: This study included 58 Japanese patients who had undergone hysterectomy at the University Hospital of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. Before surgery, nine patients had received 17β-estradiol (E2), 0.72 mg transdermally for 2-8 weeks (E2 group); 16 patients had received an Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,16α, 17β-triol (E3) vaginal tablet 0...
September 21, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933361/lysosomal-storage-disorders-and-malignancy
#12
REVIEW
Gregory M Pastores, Derralynn A Hughes
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are infrequent to rare conditions caused by mutations that lead to a disruption in the usual sequential degradation of macromolecules or their transit within the cell. Gaucher disease (GD), a lipidosis, is among the most common LSD, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 40,000 among the Caucasian, non-Jewish population. Studies have indicated an increased frequency of polyclonal and monoclonal gammopathy among patients with GD. It has been shown that two major sphingolipids that accumulate in GD, namely, β-glucosylceramide 22:0 (βGL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells...
February 27, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932646/reconstitution-of-multifunctional-cd56-low-cd16-low-natural-killer-cell-subset-in-children-with-acute-leukemia-given-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-depleted-hla-haploidentical-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Stabile Helena, Nisti Paolo, Peruzzi Giovanna, Fionda Cinzia, Pagliara Daria, Pomonia Brescia Letizia, Merli Pietro, Locatelli Franco, Angela Santoni, Angela Gismondi
We recently described the CD56(low)CD16(low) subset of Natural Killer (NK) cells that both mediate cytotoxic activity and produce IFNγ, being more abundant in bone marrow (BM) than in peripheral blood (PB) of pediatric normal subjects. Given the multifunctional properties of this subset, we examined its development and functional recovery in a cohort of children undergoing α/β T-cell depleted HLA-haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The results obtained indicate that CD56(low)CD16(low) NK cells are present in both PB and BM already at one month post-HSCT, with an increased frequency in BM of graft recipients as compared with normal subjects...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932644/romidepsin-alone-or-in-combination-with-anti-cd20-chimeric-antigen-receptor-expanded-natural-killer-cells-targeting-burkitt-lymphoma-in-vitro-and-in-immunodeficient-mice
#14
Yaya Chu, Ashlin Yahr, Brian Huang, Janet Ayello, Matthew Barth, Mitchell S Cairo
Facilitating the development of alternative targeted therapeutic strategies is urgently required to improve outcome or circumvent chemotherapy resistance in children, adolescents, and adults with recurrent/refractory de novo mature B-cell (CD20) non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), has been used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We have demonstrated the significant anti-tumor effect of anti-CD20 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified expanded peripheral blood natural killer (exPBNK) against rituximab-sensitive and -resistant BL...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932640/co-delivery-of-the-nkt-agonist-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-and-tumor-antigens-to-cross-priming-dendritic-cells-breaks-tolerance-to-self-antigens-and-promotes-antitumor-responses
#15
Reem Ghinnagow, Julie De Meester, Luis Javier Cruz, Caroline Aspord, Stéphanie Corgnac, Elodie Macho-Fernandez, Daphnée Soulard, Josette Fontaine, Laurence Chaperot, Julie Charles, Fabrice Soncin, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Joel Plumas, Christelle Faveeuw, François Trottein
Vaccines designed to abrogate the tolerance of tumor self-antigens and amplify cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells (CTLs) have promise for the treatment of cancer. Type I natural killer (NKT) cells have attracted considerable interest in the cancer therapy field. In the current study, we have exploited the unique ability of NKT cells to serve as T-helper cells to license dendritic cells (DCs) for cross priming with the aim to generate efficient CTL antitumor responses. To this end, we designed a nanoparticle-based vaccine to target cross-priming DCs via the Clec9a endocytic pathway...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932630/the-safety-efficacy-and-treatment-outcomes-of-a-combination-of-low-dose-decitabine-treatment-in-patients-with-recurrent-ovarian-cancer
#16
Yan Zhang, Qian Mei, Yang Liu, Xiang Li, Malcolm V Brock, Meixia Chen, Liang Dong, Lu Shi, Yao Wang, Mingzhou Guo, Jing Nie, Weidong Han
Purpose: DNA demethylating agents have shown clinical effectiveness in hematological and solid tumors. This trial tested the safety, efficacy, and treatment outcomes of decitabine-based chemotherapy or combined with immunotherapy in recurrent ovarian cancer patients. Patients and methods: Fifty-five patients with recurrent ovarian cancer were enrolled and 52 were assessable for clinical response and survival. Patients either received 5-d decitabine treatment, followed by reduced-dose of paclitaxel/carboplatin administration (DTC cohort), or the aforementioned regimen combined with cytokine-induced killer cells therapy (DTC+CIK cohort)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932388/appeal-to-fear-in-health-care-appropriate-or-inappropriate
#17
J Keith Simpson
AIM: This paper examines appeal to fear in general: its perceived positive aspects, its negative characteristics, its appropriate as well as its fallacious use. BACKGROUND: Appeal to fear is a commonly used marketing method that attempts to change behaviour by creating anxiety in those receiving a fearful message. It is regularly used in public health initiatives such as anti-smoking, anti-drunk driving campaigns as well as in hypertension awareness campaigns. Some chiropractors appear to use appeal to fear to promote subluxation awareness and thereby encourage the use of chiropractic treatment...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931097/-approaching-new-pharmacotherapy-options-in-pain-treatment
#18
András Telekes
The evolution of medicine is noticeable in most therapeutic areas, the worse the current therapeutic result, the more quick the improvement. This is especially true in such areas that require substantial social resources, namely oncology, diabetology and CNS diseases. Pain is not a disease, it is a symptom. Pain is one of the most important components of human suffering thus it deserves special attention. In recent years new formulations of old medicines were introduced rather than new medicines. Maybe ziconitide is the last pain killer with new mechanism of action which was approved by FDA in 2004...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930684/tumor-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-use-distinct-mechanisms-to-block-the-activity-of-natural-killer-cell-subsets
#19
Sabine Galland, Joanna Vuille, Patricia Martin, Igor Letovanec, Anne Caignard, Giulia Fregni, Ivan Stamenkovic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display pleiotropic functions, which include secretion of soluble factors with immunosuppressive activity implicated in cancer progression. We compared the immunomodulatory effects on natural killer (NK) cells of paired intratumor (T)- and adjacent non-tumor tissue (N)-derived MSCs from patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC). We observed that T-MSCs were more strongly immunosuppressive than N-MSCs and affected both NK function and phenotype, as defined by CD56 expression...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930520/molecular-evolution-of-hemagglutinin-gene-of-influenza-a-virus
#20
Antara De
In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. The 1918-1919 'Spanish flu' killed 20-50 million people worldwide. According to a report from WHO, there have been four pandemics, several epidemics and recurrent seasonal outbreaks of influenza in different parts of the world. The virus is a potential bioterrorism threat with biological 'Chernobyl-like disaster' that occurred in Soviet Russia in 1977. Here, the author reviews the biology of the surface exposed hemagglutinin of the influenza virus, a gene under constant positive selection pressure to evade host immunity and vaccination...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
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