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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793167/improvement-of-neuronal-differentiation-by-carbon-monoxide-role-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#1
Ana S Almeida, Nuno L Soares, Catarina O Sequeira, Sofia A Pereira, Ursula Sonnewald, Helena L A Vieira
Over the last decades, the silent-killer carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to also be an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and modulate mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal metabolism is mostly oxidative and neurons also use glucose for maintaining their anti-oxidant status by generation of reduced glutathione (GSH) via the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP). It is established that neuronal differentiation depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and signalling, however there is a lack of information about modulation of the PPP during adult neurogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791877/enzyme-assisted-extraction-chemical-characteristics-and-immunostimulatory-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-korean-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#2
Young-Ran Song, Su-Kyung Sung, Mi Jang, Tae-Gyu Lim, Chang-Won Cho, Chun-Ji Han, Hee-Do Hong
In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was used to isolate functional polysaccharides from Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) and the physicochemical and biological properties of the extracted polysaccharides were investigated, comparing with those from traditional hot-water extraction (FGWP). In macrophages, their effects on cytokines production could be ordered as FGEP-CA ≥ FGEP-A > FGEP-C > FGWP, suggesting that FGEP-CA (combined cellulase- and α-amylase-extracted polysaccharide) is a potent immunostimulator...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791718/alopecia-areata-a-review-of-disease-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
F Rajabi, L A Drake, M M Senna, N Rezaei
Alopecia areata is a disorder that results in non-scarring hair loss. The psychological impact can be significant, leading to feelings of depression and social isolation. The disease remains incurable though it has been studied for years. Available treatment options at best, are beneficial for milder cases, and the rate of relapse is high. Understanding the exact mechanisms of hair loss in alopecia areata is therefore of utmost importance to help identify potential therapeutic targets. The main theory of alopecia areata pathogenesis is that it is an autoimmune phenomenon resulting from a disruption in hair follicle immune privilege...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790466/association-of-anger-expression-out-with-nk-cell-counts-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#4
Estela Kakoo-Brioso, Luís Costa, Sílvia Ouakinin
INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence describing the relation between psychological factors and the progression of colorectal cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed but the one showing more promising evidence relies on the modulation of the antitumoral immune response by psychological factors, particularly through natural killer cells. We aimed to study the relation between natural killer cell count and anxiety, depression and anger state, trait and expression in 54 pre-surgical colorectal cancer patients...
March 29, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789862/activating-and-inhibitory-receptors-expressed-on-innate-lymphoid-cells
#5
REVIEW
Sophie Guia, Aurore Fenis, Eric Vivier, Emilie Narni-Mancinelli
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells located in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. They are particularly abundant at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are present in humans and mice: group 1 ILCs (comprising natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s), ILC2s, and ILC3s. ILCs are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of immunity. This review focuses on the extensive array of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by ILCs for communication with other cell types and their environment in health and disease...
May 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789149/the-expanding-role-of-murine-class-ib-mhc-in-the-development-and-activation-of-natural-killer-cells
#6
REVIEW
Katharine J Goodall, Angela Nguyen, Lucy C Sullivan, Daniel M Andrews
Major Histocompatibility Complex-I (MHC-I) molecules can be divided into class Ia and class Ib, with three distinct class Ib families found in the mouse. These families are designated as Q, T and M and are largely unexplored in terms of their immunological function. Among the class Ib MHC, H2-T23 (Qa-1b) has been a significant target for Natural Killer (NK) cell research, owing to its homology with the human class Ib human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E. However, recent data has indicated that members of the Q and M family of class Ib MHC also play a critical role in the development and regulation NK cells...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787950/macroporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-delivering-bcl2-function-converting-peptide-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-cancer-cells
#7
Weixia Xu, Pengjin Ge, Boning Niu, Xiaokun Zhang, Jie Liu, Jingjing Xie
The abundance of B cell lymphoma gene 2 (Bcl-2) is closely correlated with the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents, and a peptide derived from orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 can convert Bcl-2 from a protector to a killer of cancer cells. However, successful application of the Bcl-2-converting peptide to treat drug-resistant cancer cells depends on an efficient delivery carrier. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been extensively studied as promising candidates for small molecule drug delivery...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787436/immunological-markers-of-chronic-occupational-radiation-exposure
#8
Valentina L Rybkina, Maria V Bannikova, Galina V Adamova, Harald Dörr, Harry Scherthan, Tamara V Azizova
This study aimed to identify immunological biomarkers for prolonged occupational radiation exposure and thus studied a random sample of the Mayak Production Association worker cohort (91 individuals). The control group included 43 local individuals never employed at the Mayak Production Association. To identify biomarkers, two groups of workers were formed: the first one included workers chronically exposed to external gamma rays at cumulative doses of 0.5-3.0 Gy (14 individuals); the second one included workers exposed to combined radiation-external gamma rays at doses ranging from 0...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785561/reptb-a-gene-ontology-based-drug-repurposing-approach-for-tuberculosis
#9
Anurag Passi, Neeraj Kumar Rajput, David J Wild, Anshu Bhardwaj
Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's leading infectious killer with 1.8 million deaths in 2015 as reported by WHO. It is therefore imperative that alternate routes of identification of novel anti-TB compounds are explored given the time and costs involved in new drug discovery process. Towards this, we have developed RepTB. This is a unique drug repurposing approach for TB that uses molecular function correlations among known drug-target pairs to predict novel drug-target interactions. In this study, we have created a Gene Ontology based network containing 26,404 edges, 6630 drug and 4083 target nodes...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785433/the-immunomodulatory-activity-and-mechanism-of-docosahexenoic-acid-dha-on-immunosuppressive-mice-models
#10
Lirong Han, Huanna Lei, Ziwei Tian, Xu Wang, Dai Cheng, Chunling Wang
In this study, the immunomodulatory activity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the immunosuppressive BALB/c mice model and its molecular mechanism are elucidated. It was found that the weight indexes of the spleen and thymus were significantly increased by DHA (44.0 mg kg-1 and 88.0 mg kg-1) treatment in the prevention or cure groups. The result of macrophages showed that DHA (44.0 mg kg-1 and 88.0 mg kg-1) could promote the proliferation and phagocytosis activity of macrophages in the prevention or cure groups...
May 22, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785315/a-very-rare-case-of-hypereosinophilic-syndrome-secondary-to-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma
#11
Takanori Yamamoto, Atsushi Kamijo, Tadao Nakazawa, Kei Nakajima, Keita Kirito, Norio Komatsu, Keisuke Masuyama
Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a systemic disease characterized by an increased peripheral blood eosinophil count accompanied by systemic organ dysfunction. HES is classified into idiopathic HES, primary (neoplastic) HES (HESN ), and secondary (reactive) HES (HESR ). In this case report, a patient who developed peripheral blood eosinophilia and granulation tissue in the pharynx and paranasal sinus, which was initially diagnosed as chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), categorized as HESN , but was eventually identified after the patient had died as natural killer/T-cell (NK/T) lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), categorized as HESR , is presented...
2018: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784636/adaptive-nk-cells-resist-regulatory-t-cell-suppression-driven-by-il-37
#12
Dhifaf Sarhan, Keli L Hippen, Amanda Lemire, Skyler Hying, Xianghua Luo, Todd Lenvik, Julie Curtsinger, Zachary Davis, Bin Zhang, Sarah Cooley, Frank Cichocki, Bruce R Blazar, Jeffrey S Miller
Natural Killer (NK) cells are capable of fighting viral infections and cancer. However, these responses are inhibited by immune suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor progression promotes the recruitment and generation of intratumoral regulatory T cells (Tregs), associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here, we show that canonical NK cells are highly susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression, in contrast to highly resistant CD57+ FcεRγ-NKG2C+ adaptive (CD56+CD3-) NK cells that expand in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-exposed individuals...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783667/bone-marrow-defects-and-platelet-function-a-focus-on-mds-and-cll
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Luu, Elizabeth E Gardiner, Robert K Andrews
The bloodstream typically contains >500 billion anucleate circulating platelets, derived from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. This review will focus on two interesting aspects of bone marrow dysfunction and how this impacts on the quality of circulating platelets. In this regard, although megakaryocytes are from the myeloid lineage leading to granulocytes (including neutrophils), erythrocytes, and megakaryocytes/platelets, recent evidence has shown that defects in the lymphoid lineage leading to B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells also result in abnormal circulating platelets...
May 18, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782967/deficient-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-il-2-activated-nk-cells-correlates-with-impaired-pgc1-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-elderly-humans
#14
Dante Miranda, Claudia Jara, Sophia Mejias, Viviana Ahumada, Marcelo Cortez-San Martin, Jorge Ibañez, Sandra Hirsch, Margarita Montoya
Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782949/early-detection-of-pancreatic-cancers-in-liquid-biopsies-by-ultrasensitive-fluorescence-nanobiosensors
#15
Madumali Kalubowilage, Obdulia Covarrubias-Zambrano, Aruni P Malalasekera, Sebastian O Wendel, Hongwang Wang, Asanka S Yapa, Lauren Chlebanowski, Yubisela Toledo, Raquel Ortega, Katharine E Janik, Tej B Shrestha, Christopher T Culbertson, Anup Kasi, Stephen Williamson, Deryl L Troyer, Stefan H Bossmann
Numerous proteases, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP's), cathepsins (CTS), and urokinase plasminogen activator (UpA), are dysfunctional (that is, over- or under-expressed) in solid tumors, when compared to healthy human subjects. This offers the opportunity to detect early tumors by liquid biopsies. This approach is of particular advantage for the early detection of pancreatic cancer, which is a "silent killer". We have developed fluorescence nanobiosensors for ultrasensitive (sub-femtomolar) arginase and protease detection, consisting of water-dispersible Fe/Fe3 O4 core/shell nanoparticles and two tethered fluorescent dyes: TCPP (Tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) and cyanine 5...
May 18, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780393/immunomodulatory-drugs-exert-anti-leukemia-effects-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-by-direct-and-immunostimulatory-activities
#16
Aude Le Roy, Thomas Prébet, Rémy Castellano, Armelle Goubard, Florence Riccardi, Cyril Fauriat, Samuel Granjeaud, Audrey Benyamine, Céline Castanier, Florence Orlanducci, Amira Ben Amara, Frédéric Pont, Jean-Jacques Fournié, Yves Collette, Jean-Louis Mege, Norbert Vey, Daniel Olive
Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are anticancer drugs with immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenesis, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic properties. IMiDs are currently used for the treatment of multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and B-cell lymphoma; however, little is known about efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We proposed in this study to investigate the relevance of IMiDs therapy for AML treatment. We evaluated the effect of IMiDs on primary AML blasts ( n  = 24), and the impact in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunosurveillance of AML...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780258/influence-of-different-ex-vivo-cell-culture-methods-on-the-proliferation-and-anti-tumor-activity-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-from-gastric-cancer-patients
#17
Bin Shi, Aixia Sun, Xiaorui Zhang
Purpose: In cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell therapy, the phenotypes and the numbers of CIK cells have a great influence on the therapeutic effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different ex vivo cell culture methods on the proliferation and cytotoxicity of CIK cells that were obtained from gastric cancer patients. Patients and methods: CIK precursor (Pre-CIK) cells were collected by either hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation (HES method, unpurified group) or Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation (Ficoll method, purified group)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776993/tumor-immune-evasion-arises-through-loss-of-tnf-sensitivity
#18
Conor J Kearney, Stephin J Vervoort, Simon J Hogg, Kelly M Ramsbottom, Andrew J Freeman, Najoua Lalaoui, Lizzy Pijpers, Jessica Michie, Kristin K Brown, Deborah A Knight, Vivien Sutton, Paul A Beavis, Ilia Voskoboinik, Phil K Darcy, John Silke, Joseph A Trapani, Ricky W Johnstone, Jane Oliaro
Immunotherapy has revolutionized outcomes for cancer patients, but the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly defined. We used a series of whole-genome clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based screens performed in vitro and in vivo to identify mechanisms of tumor immune evasion from cytotoxic lymphocytes [CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells]. Deletion of key genes within the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling, and antigen presentation pathways provided protection of tumor cells from CD8+ T cell-mediated killing and blunted antitumor immune responses in vivo...
May 18, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775592/dietary-and-microbial-oxazoles-induce-intestinal-inflammation-by-modulating-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-responses
#19
Shankar S Iyer, Thomas Gensollen, Amit Gandhi, Sungwhan F Oh, Joana F Neves, Frederic Collin, Richard Lavin, Carme Serra, Jonathan Glickman, Punyanganie S A de Silva, R Balfour Sartor, Gurdyal Besra, Russell Hauser, Anthony Maxwell, Amadeu Llebaria, Richard S Blumberg
Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease, while epidemiological studies have emphasized that pathogenesis likely involves host interactions with environmental elements whose source and structure need to be defined. Here, we identify a class of compounds derived from dietary, microbial, and industrial sources that are characterized by the presence of a five-membered oxazole ring and induce CD1d-dependent intestinal inflammation. We observe that minimal oxazole structures modulate natural killer T cell-dependent inflammation by regulating lipid antigen presentation by CD1d on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774968/granulysin-mediated-apoptosis-of-trophoblasts-in-blighted-ovum-and-missed-abortion
#20
Tamara Gulic, Gordana Laskarin, Marin Dominovic, Lana Glavan Gacanin, Emina Babarović, Zeljka Rubesa, Herman Haller, Daniel Rukavina
PROBLEM: Granulysin (GNLY) is a cytotoxic molecule mostly present in decidual natural killer (NK) cells. Blighted ovum (BO) and missed abortion (MA) represent the early pathological pregnancies with hindered development of the embryoblast or a dead embryo. We investigated the GNLY-mediated apoptotic mechanism potentially responsible for delayed termination of pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: We performed immunohistological and immunofluorescence labeling of decidual tissues (GNLY, Apaf-1, NF-κB)...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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