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Carlo Alberto Scirè, Cristina Rossi, Leonardo Punzi, Augusto Genderini, Claudio Borghi, Walter Grassi
Despite being regarded as an easily-treatable disease, gout diagnosis and management can be challenging. We discuss here current issues in gout management and propose some potential solutions. Gout diagnosis should be reached as early as possible and often requires specific tests, such as synovial fluid analysis or imaging techniques that are not available in most centers, leaving health care professionals to rely only on clinical presentations and their experience. In addition, gout management requires the evaluation of multiple aspects, such as monitoring of serum uric acid (sUA) level (which should be reduced to <6 mg/dL) to ensure adherence and efficacy of treatment, evaluation of patient's risk profile and comorbidities, and continuous assessments to manage clinical manifestations...
March 19, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Hoang Thi My Nhung, Bui Viet Anh, Truong Linh Huyen, Doan Trung Hiep, Chu Thi Thao, Phung Nam Lam, Nguyen Thanh Liem
Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer with the highest cancer-associated mortality rates worldwide, as well as in Vietnam. Numerous studies have demonstrated that higher numbers and higher rate of activity of infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the tumor are closely correlated with positive prognosis, tumor size decrease and longer survival of lung cancer patients. In the present study, the effectiveness of BINKIT® kit in the ex vivo expansion of NK cells and CTLs in the peripheral blood of 7 patients aged between 30 and 84 years with metastatic lung cancer was evaluated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Dong Gao, Yongguang Cai, Yanyuan Chen, Wang Li, Chih-Chang Wei, Xiaoling Luo, Yuhuan Wang
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists have been applied in combination with chemo-, radio- or immunotherapy for lymphoma, and used as topical drugs for the treatment of viral skin lesions and skin tumors. In the present study, the role of an adenine analog, 9-(4-carboxyphenyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-adenine [termed Gao Dong (GD)], a novel TLR7 agonist, in the activation of cytokine-induced killer/natural killer (CIK/NK) cells was determined. The results of the present study indicated that GD was able to activate CIK/NK cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Fen Huang, Bo Wang, Jiangzheng Zeng, Shenggang Sang, Junhua Lei, Yanda Lu
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an oncogene associated with suppressing proliferation and cytokine production of T cells in the progression of liver cancer. microRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression via specific binding to the target 3'untranslated region of mRNA. In the present study, miR-374b was indicated to interact with PD-1 and affect the tumor-targeting capacity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. miR-374b inhibitor significantly increased PD-1 expression in CIK cells. A synthetic small interfering (si)RNA targeting PD-1 was employed to silence the expression level of PD-1 in CIK cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
You-Take Oh, Guoqing Qian, Jiusheng Deng, Shi-Yong Sun
Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein-1 (MCPIP1; also called Regnase-1) encoded by the ZC3H12A gene critically regulates inflammatory responses and immune homeostasis primarily by RNase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. However, the relationship of MCPIP1 with apoptosis and cancer and the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. The current study has demonstrated a previously uncovered connection between MCPIP1 and the negative regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5; also known as TRAIL-R2 or killer/DR5), a cell surface receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is produced endogenously by various immune cells such as T cells...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Fang Xiao, Guo Ai, Weiming Yan, Xiaoyang Wan, Xiaoping Luo, Qin Ning
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic autoimmune disease with the primary focus on autoreactive Th1-mediated response and cytotoxic T cells reaction. The contribution of natural killer cells (NK cells) to AIH remains poorly understood. In this project, we revealed that the frequency of peripheral NK cells, more accurately CD56dim NK subset, was reduced in AIH patients. The reduction of CD56dim NK was negatively correlated with disease progression. In experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH), hepatic accumulation of NK cells is observed along with a decrease of NK cells in the periphery...
December 21, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Jacqueline Garcia Duarte, Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Patrícia Rocha Martins, Débora d'Ávila Reis
Megaesophagus is one of the major manifestations of the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Its primary symptom is generally dysphagia due to disturbance in the lower esophageal sphincter. Microscopically, the affected organ presents denervation, which has been considered as consequence of an inflammatory process that begins at the acute phase and persists in the chronic phase. Inflammatory infiltrates are composed of lymphocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. In this study, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (NGF), and of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), molecules that are well known for having a relevant role in neuroimmune communication in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Wannee Kantakamalakul, Suwalee Jangkhum, Silawun Ampol, Porurtai Burupharat, Rutt Chuachoowong, Ruengpung Sutthent, Kovit Pattanapanyasat
BACKGOUND: Intravenous drug users (IVDUs) are among the high-risk groups who are most vulnerable to HIV infection. Several illicit drugs alter host immune function with increased incidence of infections including that of HIV. Many studies of the immune response of NK cells in HIV-1 seronegative IVDUs and HIV-1 seropositive IVDUs have been published from the Western countries and yet no data is available from Thailand. OBJECTIVE: To determine natural killer cell cytotoxicity and lymphocyte subsets in Thai HIV-1 infected intravenous drug users...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Ugur Sahin, Klara Dalva, Funda Gungor, Celalettin Ustun, Meral Beksac
Impact of donor-recipient killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene-gene matching on transplant outcomes is still inconclusive. Recent data suggest that killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) regulated natural killer cell (NK cell) activity may contribute to graft versus leukemia (GvL) effects and graft versus host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This case-control study aims to evaluate the effects of both aKIR and iKIR donor-recipient genotype matching on the outcomes of T cell replete HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCTs in a homogenous young patient population with myeloid leukemias...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Ameera Gaafar, Atia Sheereen, Fahad Almohareb, Abdelmoneim Eldali, Naeem Chaudhri, Said Y Mohamed, Amr Hanbali, Marwan Shaheen, Feras Alfraih, Riad El Fakih, Alia Iqneibi, Riad Youniss, Tusneem Elhassan, Shahrukh Hashmi, Mahmud Aljurf, Khalid Alhussein
NK cell activity is tuned by a balance of activating and inhibitory signals transmitted via their respective receptors, including killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). The impact of NK cells on graft-versus-leukemia following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is well established. These effects sometimes lead to GvHD. The link between KIR/HLA interaction and GvHD remains unclear. Herein, we studied the impact of the KIR/HLA interaction on HSCT outcomes in a longitudinal follow-up study of a highly consanguineous HLA-matched related cohort...
March 16, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Neda Nemat-Gorgani, Hugo G Hilton, Brenna M Henn, Meng Lin, Christopher R Gignoux, Justin W Myrick, Cedric J Werely, Julie M Granka, Marlo Möller, Eileen G Hoal, Makoto Yawata, Nobuyo Yawata, Lies Boelen, Becca Asquith, Peter Parham, Paul J Norman
The functions of human NK cells in defense against pathogens and placental development during reproduction are modulated by interactions of killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) with HLA-A, -B and -C class I ligands. Both receptors and ligands are highly polymorphic and exhibit extensive differences between human populations. Indigenous to southern Africa are the KhoeSan, the most ancient group of modern human populations, who have highest genomic diversity worldwide. We studied two KhoeSan populations, the Nama pastoralists and the ≠Khomani San hunter-gatherers...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Nicolle H R Litjens, Lotte van der Wagen, Jurgen Kuball, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause significant complications after transplantation, but recent emerging data suggest that CMV may paradoxically also exert beneficial effects in two specific allogeneic transplant settings. These potential benefits have been underappreciated and are therefore highlighted in this review. First, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell-replete grafts, CMV reactivation is associated with protection from leukemic relapse...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
M Killer-Oberpfalzer, N Kocer, C J Griessenauer, H Janssen, T Engelhorn, M Holtmannspötter, J H Buhk, T Finkenzeller, G Fesl, J Trenkler, W Reith, A Berlis, K Hausegger, M Augustin, C Islak, B Minnich, M Möhlenbruch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endoluminal reconstruction with flow-diverting stents represents a widely accepted technique for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. This European registry study analyzed the initial experience of 15 neurovascular centers with the Flow-Redirection Intraluminal Device (FRED) system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with the FRED between February 2012 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Yung-Che Chen, Meng-Chih Lin, Chih-Hung Lee, Shih-Feng Liu, Chin-Chou Wang, Wen-Feng Fang, Tung-Ying Chao, Chao-Chien Wu, Yu-Feng Wei, Huang-Chih Chang, Chia-Cheng Tsen, Hung-Chen Chen
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists in previous studies on macrophage M1/M2 polarization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that formyl peptide receptor (FPR), a marker of efferocytosis and mediator of M1/M2 polarization, may be involved in the development of COPD. METHODS: We examined FPR 1/2/3 expressions of blood M1/M2a monocyte, neutrophil, natural killer (NK) cell, NK T cell, T helper (Th) cell, and T cytotoxic (Tc) cell by flowcytometry method in 40 patients with cigarette smoking-related COPD and 16 healthy non-smokers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Rose Nabatanzi, Stephen Cose, Moses Joloba, Sarah Rowland Jones, Damalie Nakanjako
HIV infection causes upregulation of markers of inflammation, immune activation and apoptosis of host adaptive, and innate immune cells particularly monocytes, natural killer (NK) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4 T-cell counts, the persistent aberrant activation of monocytes, NK and ILCs observed likely contributes to the incomplete recovery of T-cell effector functions. A better understanding of the effects of HIV infection and ART on the phenotype and function of circulating monocytes, NK, and ILCs is required to guide development of novel therapeutic interventions to optimize immune recovery...
March 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Jessica E Martin, Dale A Sandercock, Victoria Sandilands, Julian Sparrey, Laurence Baker, Nick H C Sparks, Dorothy E F McKeegan
Council Regulation (EC) no. 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing restricts the use of manual cervical dislocation in poultry on farms in the European Union (EU) to birds weighing up to 3 kg and 70 birds per person per day. However, few studies have examined whether repeated application of manual cervical dislocation has welfare implications and whether these are dependent on individual operator skill or susceptibility to fatigue. We investigated the effects of repeated application (100 birds at a fixed killing rate of 1 bird per 2 min) and multiple operators on two methods of killing of broilers, laying hens, and turkeys in commercial settings...
March 15, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Francisco S Barreto, Adriano J M Chaves Filho, Márcia C C R de Araújo, Manoel O de Moraes, Maria E A de Moraes, Michael Maes, David F de Lucena, Danielle S Macedo
Both depression and cancer are related to a dysregulation of inflammatory and immune pathways. Indeed, depression is associated with increased expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In contrast, reductions of the activity of major histocompatibility complex protein molecules - class I and class II and natural killer cells are also observed. Similarly, cancers present elevated levels of TNF-α, reduced major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and natural killer cells...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Dávid Szamosvári, Sina Rütschlin, Thomas Böttcher
Bacteria engage in numerous collaborative and competitive interactions, which are often mediated by small molecule metabolites. Bacterial competition involves for example the production of compounds that effectively kill or inhibit growth of their neighbours but also the secretion of siderophores that allow securing the essential and fiercely embattled resource of ferric iron. Yet, the enormous diversity of metabolites produced has remained puzzling in many cases. We here present examples of both types of competition from our recent work...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Alexandra Witze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Nature
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