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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650903/thigh-ultrasound-monitoring-identifies-decreases-in-quadriceps-femoris-thickness-as-a-frequent-observation-in-critically-ill-children
#1
Frederic V Valla, David K Young, Muriel Rabilloud, Uvaraj Periasami, Manoj John, Florent Baudin, Carole Vuillerot, Aurélie Portefaix, Deborah White, Jenna A Ridout, Rosan Meyer, Bénédicte Gaillard Le Roux, Etienne Javouhey, Nazima Pathan
OBJECTIVES: Significant muscle wasting develops in critically ill adults, with subsequent worse outcomes. In the pediatric setting, occurrence and effects of muscle wasting are undescribed; this is in part due to a lack of validated, objective methods for assessing muscle wasting. A single measurement of quadriceps femoris thickness has failed to show consistent reproducibility. We hypothesized that averaging repeated measurements could afford good reproducibility to allow for quadriceps femoris thickness decline detection and monitoring...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650239/use-of-gadoxetic-acid-for-computed-tomographic-cholangiography-in-healthy-dogs
#2
Jennifer Chau, Juan M Podadera, Alex C Young, Mariano A Makara
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of gadoxetic acid (contrast) dose on biliary tract enhancement, determine the optimal time after contrast injection for CT image acquisition, and assess the feasibility of CT cholangiography in sedated dogs. ANIMALS 8 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES The study had 2 parts. In part 1, 4 dogs were anesthetized and underwent CT cholangiography twice. Gadoxetic acid was administered IV at a low dose (0.025 mmol/kg) for the first procedure and high dose (0.3 mmol/kg) for the second procedure...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650149/rplc-hilic-and-sfc-with-mass-spectrometry-polarity-extended-organic-molecule-screening-in-environmental-water-samples
#3
Stefan Bieber, Giorgia Greco, Sylvia Grosse, Thomas Letzel
Trace organic compounds are important in environmental analysis, because they impact water quality and introduce potential (eco)toxicological effects. Current analytical methods mostly rely on gas chromatography (GC) or reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with (tandem) mass spectrometry. However, neither method can easily separate very polar molecules. This study presents, two chromatographic separation strategies, a serial RPLC- hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (RPLC-HILIC) coupling and an analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system, and validates their separation effectiveness as polarity-extended chromatographic methods for 274 environmentally relevant compounds...
June 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650134/risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hbv-cirrhotic-patients-assessed-by-the-combination-of-mir-122-afp-and-pivka-ii
#4
Gian P Caviglia, Maria L Abate, Silvia Gaia, Elisa Petrini, Caterina Bosco, Antonella Olivero, Chiara Rosso, Alessia Ciancio, Rinaldo Pellicano, Giorgio M Saracco, Mario Rizzetto, Antonina Smedile
BACKGROUND: Reliable biomarkers for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis are lacking. We evaluated the use of miR-122, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin k absence/antagonist II (PIVKA-II) for HCC risk prediction in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis under surveillance. METHODS: We first analyzed a group of 63 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis of whom 33 had HCC. Then we performed a retrospective analysis on another group of 13 cirrhotic patients who developed HCC during surveillance, of whom serial serum samples were available (at time of HCC diagnosis [T0], 6-9 months [T-1] and 12-18 months [T-2] before HCC detection)...
June 23, 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649487/rapid-decrease-of-circulating-tumor-dna-predicted-the-treatment-effect-of-nivolumab-in-a-lung-cancer-patient-within-only-5-days
#5
Yuki Iijima, Yosuke Hirotsu, Kenji Amemiya, Seishi Higashi, Yoshihiro Miyashita, Masao Omata
A 77-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of low back pain and was diagnosed as having stage IV EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. After treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and cytotoxic chemotherapy, nivolumab was started as fourth-line therapy. Remarkable regression of the primary tumor was observed, suggesting high anti-tumor activity of nivolumab. We retrospectively investigated the change in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) variant allele fractions in serial plasma samples before and after the nivolumab therapy...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648566/disrupted-implicit-motor-sequence-learning-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-revealed-with-ambidextrous-serial-reaction-time-task
#6
Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Grzegorz Przemysław Siwek, Anna Tereszko, Weronika Janeczko, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Marcin Siwek, Dominika Dudek
BACKGROUND: Impairment of implicit motor sequence learning was shown in schizophrenia (SZ) and, most recently, in bipolar disorder (BD), and was connected to cerebellar abnormalities. The goal of this study was to compare implicit motor sequence learning in BD and SZ. METHODS: We examined 33 patients with BD, 33 patients with SZ and 31 healthy controls with a use of ambidextrous Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), which allows exploring asymmetries in performance depending on the hand used...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648435/current-concepts-of-diagnosis-and-management-of-pericardial-cysts
#7
REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar Kar, Tanmoy Ganguly
Pericardial cysts are rare with an incidence of about 1 in every 100,000 persons and one in 10 pericardial cysts may actually be a pericardial diverticulum. Pericardial cysts and diverticula share similar developmental origin and may appear as an incidental finding in chest roentgenogram in an asymptomatic patient. CT scan is considered as best modality for diagnosis and delineation of the surrounding anatomy. Cardiac MRI is recommended in the evaluation of the compressive effects caused by the pericardial cysts...
May 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648239/great-british-medalists-a-commentary-based-on-a-developmental-systems-theory-perspective
#8
Martin I Jones, Mark R Wilson
In their target article, Hardy and colleagues outline some psychosocial factors that were proposed to underpin the development of serial sporting champions. In this commentary, we suggest that the psychodynamic compensatory mechanisms model described by Hardy et al. is limited by its failure to consider the role of the broader developmental systems in which an individual exists (including funding structure, community, culture, and historical niche). We suggest that any workable talent development model needs to consider the bidirectional relationships between individuals and their contexts, and as such, should be guided by a more dynamic, developmental systems theory approach...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648230/the-psychosocial-development-of-world-class-athletes-additional-considerations-for-understanding-the-whole-person-and-salience-of-adversity
#9
Daniel F Gucciardi
In the target article, Hardy and colleagues provided an incisive analysis of retrospectively reported psychosocial factors associated with the development and careers of 32 former athletes from Olympic sports. They found that Super-Elite athletes ("serial" medal winners at major international championships, i.e., World Championship or Olympic Games) differed from matched Elite performers (won medals at international competitions but not major championships) with regard to several important psychosocial factors (e...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648172/serial-parallel-and-hierarchical-decision-making-in-primates
#10
Ariel Zylberberg, Jeannette Am Lorteije, Brian G Ouellette, Chris I De Zeeuw, Mariano Sigman, Pieter Roelfsema
The study of decision-making has mainly focused on isolated decisions where choices are associated with motor actions. However, problem-solving often involves considering a hierarchy of sub-decisions. In a recent study (Lorteije et al. 2015), we reported behavioral and neuronal evidence for hierarchical decision making in a task with a small decision tree. We observed a first phase of parallel evidence integration for multiple sub-decisions, followed by a phase in which the overall strategy formed. It has been suggested that a 'flat' competition between the ultimate motor actions might also explain these results...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648083/temporal-signal-pattern-recognition-in-mass-spectrometry-a-method-for-rapid-identification-and-accurate-quantification-of-biomarkers-for-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-quality-assurance
#11
Alicia DiBattista, Nathan McIntosh, Monica Lamoureux, Osama Al-Dirbashi, Pranesh Chakraborty, Philip Britz-McKibbin
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic initiatives that use conventional separation techniques are limited by low sample throughput and complicated data processing that contribute to false discoveries. Herein, we introduce a new strategy for unambiguous identification and accurate quantification of biomarkers for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) from dried blood spots (DBS) with quality assurance. A multiplexed separation platform based on multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS) was developed to provide comparable sample throughput to flow injection analysis-tandem MS (FIA-MS/MS), but with greater selectivity as required for confirmatory testing and discovery-based metabolite profiling of volume-restricted biospecimens...
June 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647814/the-effects-of-variable-practice-on-locomotor-adaptation-to-a-novel-asymmetric-gait
#12
Jacob W Hinkel-Lipsker, Michael E Hahn
Very little is known about the effects of specific practice on motor learning of predictive balance control during novel bipedal gait. This information could provide an insight into how the direction and magnitude of predictive errors during acquisition of a novel gait task influence transfer of balance control, as well as yield a practice protocol for the restoration of balance for those with locomotor impairments. This study examined the effect of a variable practice paradigm on transfer of a novel asymmetric gait pattern in able-bodied individuals...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646647/successful-maintenance-of-key-physiological-parameters-in-preterm-lambs-treated-with-ex%C3%A2-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy-for-a-period-of-1-week
#13
Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Yuichiro Miura, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Hideyuki Ikeda, Shinichi Sato, Takushi Hanita, Tadashi Matsuda, Alan H Jobe, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants born at the border of viability (22-24 weeks' gestation) have high rates of death and lasting disability. Ex vivo uterine environment therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy that provides gas exchange using parallel membranous oxygenators connected to the umbilical vessels, sparing the extremely preterm cardiopulmonary system from ventilation-derived injury. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to refine our ex vivo uterine environment therapy platform to eliminate fetal infection and inflammation, while simultaneously extending the duration of hemodynamically stable ex vivo uterine environment therapy to 1 week...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646626/sexual-dimorphism-in-umbilical-vein-blood-flow-during-the-second-half-of-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Christian Widnes, Kari Flo, Tom Wilsgaard, Anthony O Odibo, Ganesh Acharya
OBJECTIVES: To investigate gestational age-specific serial changes in umbilical vein (UV) volume blood flow during the second half of normal pregnancy and establish sex-specific reference ranges. METHODS: This work was a prospective longitudinal study of singleton low-risk pregnancies. The UV diameter and maximum blood flow velocity were serially measured by sonography at the intra-abdominal portion of the UV over 19 to 41 weeks. Umbilical vein volume blood flow was calculated and normalized for estimated fetal weight...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646621/the-hydrophobic-side-chain-of-oseltamivir-influences-type-a-subtype-selectivity-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors
#15
Xiong Lin, Chen Qin-Hua, Li Peng, Li Chun-Lei, Yang Guang-De
Neuraminidase, which plays a critical role in the influenza virus life cycle, is a target for new therapeutic agents. The study of structure-activity relationships revealed that the C-5 position amino group of oseltamivir was pointed to 150-cavity of the neuraminidase in group-1. This cavity is important for selectivity of inhibitors against N1 versus N2 NA. A serial of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors with the oseltavimir scaffold containing lipophilic side chains at the C-5 position have been synthesized and evaluated for their influenza neuraminidase inhibitory activity and selectivity...
June 24, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646618/tryptophan-as-a-surrogate-prognostic-marker-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Chien-An Chou, Chia-Ni Lin, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu, I-Wen Chen, Szu-Tah Chen
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, reliable surrogate markers for predicting the prognostic outcome of diabetic nephropathy were as yet absent. In order to find new markers in predicting the progression of diabetic nephropathy, we conducted a prospective study by investigating the correlation between serum metabolites and the annual change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2013 to September 2015, 52 diabetic patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were enrolled...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646501/progressive-aortic-root-dilatation-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients
#17
Shagun Sachdeva, Liyun Zhang, Pippa Simpson, Peter C Frommelt
BACKGROUND: To determine prevalence, clinical implication, and risk factors for aortic root dilation (ARD) in pediatric heart transplant recipients. METHODS: Serial echocardiograms were reviewed in all pediatric heart transplant recipients from 1999 to 2014 to assess maximal systolic diameter at the aortic annulus, aortic sinus, aortic sino-tubular (ST) junction, and ascending aorta. ARD was defined by a sinus/annulus ratio >1.56, ST junction/annulus ratio >1...
June 23, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646455/human-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells-becoming-senescent-using-different-treatments-exhibit-a-similar-transcriptional-profile-of-catabolic-and-inflammatory-genes
#18
Sotiris-Spyros Vamvakas, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas
PURPOSE: Chronic low back pain has been associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases and inflammatory molecules in the degenerate tissue. IVD degeneration could be the outcome of natural organismal ageing and/or of the exposure of the disc to cumulative stressful environmental stimuli and is accompanied by an increased population of senescent cells in the tissue. On the other hand, senescent cells are known to secrete proteolytic enzymes and inflammatory molecules, which can contribute to ECM catabolism...
June 23, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646432/asynchronus-bilateral-ovarian-torsions-in-girls-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Maja Raicevic, Amulya Kumar Saxena
BACKGROUND: Bilateral ovarian torsions with complete loss of ovaries is devastating. This study analyzed the literature on bilateral ovarian torsions in girls to evaluate surgical options and outcomes. METHODS: Literature was searched on Pubmed® (1987-2014) using terms "bilateral", "adnexal", "ovary", "torsion" and "children". Data were collected on age, surgical preference, pathology and outcomes. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified, and 9 met the inclusion criteria (5 case reports, 4 original articles); and analyzed 17 girls (mean age: 8...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646303/three-dimensional-fine-structure-of-the-organization-of-microtubules-in-neurite-varicosities-by-ultra-high-voltage-electron-microscope-tomography
#20
Tomoki Nishida, Ryoichi Yoshimura, Yasuhisa Endo
Neurite varicosities are highly specialized compartments that are involved in neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator release and provide a physiological platform for neural functions. However, it remains unclear how microtubule organization contributes to the form of varicosity. Here, we examine the three-dimensional structure of microtubules in varicosities of a differentiated PC12 neural cell line using ultra-high voltage electron microscope tomography. Three-dimensional imaging showed that a part of the varicosities contained an accumulation of organelles that were separated from parallel microtubule arrays...
June 23, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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