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equipment contamination

Omar Silverman-Retana, Edson Serván-Mori, Sandra I McCoy, Sarah Larney, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among prisoners and this prevalence estimates reach 64% among prisoners who inject illicit drugs. Prisons are important sites for HCV transmission in the absence of access to sterile injecting equipment; hence, it can be transmitted between prisoners who share contaminated needles and syringes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of risk factors for anti-HCV prevalence, with particular interest on injecting behavior, and to assess correlates of anti-HCV positivity among Mexico City prisoners...
October 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrea J Etter, Susan R Hammons, Sherry Roof, Courtenay Simmons, Tongyu Wu, Peter W Cook, Alex Katubig, Matthew J Stasiewicz, Emily Wright, Steven Warchocki, Jill Hollingworth, Hilary S Thesmar, Salam A Ibrahim, Martin Wiedmann, Haley F Oliver
In a recent longitudinal surveillance study in 30 U.S. retail delicatessens, 9.7% of environmental surfaces were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and we found substantial evidence of persistence. In this study, we aimed to reduce the prevalence and persistence of L. monocytogenes in the retail deli environment by developing and implementing practical and feasible intervention strategies (i.e., sanitation standard operating procedures; SSOPs). These SSOPs were standardized across the 30 delis enrolled in this study...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Sunday Etim Bassey, Elijah Ige Ohimain
Cassava is majorly processed into gari by smallholders in Southern Nigeria. During processing, large volume of effluents are produced in the pressing stage of cassava tuber processing. The cassava mill effluents are discharged into the soil directly and it drain into nearby pits, surface water, and canals without treatment. Cassava mill effluents is known to alter the receiving soil and water characteristics and affects the biota in such environments, such as fishes (water), domestic animals, and vegetation (soil)...
October 16, 2017: Toxics
Messika Revel, Amélie Châtel, Catherine Mouneyrac
In recent years, the implication of genomics into ecotoxicological studies has been studied closely to allow a better understanding of organism's responses to environmental contaminants including engineering nanomaterials (ENMs). ENMs are increasingly produced for various applications including cosmetics, electronics, sports equipment, biomedicine and agriculture. Because of their small size, ENMs possess chemical or physical characteristics improved compared to the corresponding macro-sized material. As their application expend, the release of manufactured ENMs into the environment is likely to increase and concern over impacts for the aquatic ecosystem is growing...
October 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
A Inuwa, A Lunt, C Czuprynski, G Miller, S A Rankin
Although frozen dairy desserts have a strong record of safety, recent outbreaks of foodborne disease linked to ice creams have brought new attention to this industry. There is concern that small-scale frozen dessert equipment may not comply with or be reviewed against published comprehensive design and construction sanitation specifications (National Sanitation Foundation or 3-A sanitary standards). Equipment sanitary design issues may result in reduced efficacy of cleaning and sanitation, thus increasing the likelihood of postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Jéssica Alves Nogueira, Hamilton Varela
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) fed with H2 contaminated with CO may exhibit oscillatory behavior when operated galvanostatically. The self-organization of the anodic overpotential is interesting because it can be accompanied by an increase in the average performance. Herein we report experimental studies of voltage oscillations that emerge in a PEMFC equipped with a Pd/C or PdPt/C anode and fed with H2 contaminated with CO (100 ppm). We used on-line mass spectrometry to investigate how the mass fragments associated with CO2 and CO (m/z 44 and 28, respectively) varied with the voltage oscillations...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
Noa Ben-Ishay, Hilla Oknin, Doron Steinberg, Zipi Berkovich, Ram Reifen, Moshe Shemesh
Biofilms on the surfaces of milk-processing equipment are often a major source of contamination of dairy products. Members of the genus Bacillus appear to be among the most commonly found bacteria in dairy farms and processing plants. Bacillus species may thrive in dairy farm equipment and in dairy products since they can form robust biofilms during growth within milk. We found that fortification of milk with magnesium mitigated biofilm formation by Bacillus species, and thus could notably reduce dairy product spoilage...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Ulrike Beilenhoff, Holger Biering, Reinhard Blum, Jadranka Brljak, Monica Cimbro, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Cesare Hassan, Michael Jung, Christiane Neumann, Michael Pietsch, Lionel Pineau, Thierry Ponchon, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jean-François Rey, Verona Schmidt, Jayne Tillett, Jeanin van Hooft
Patients should be informed about the benefits and risks of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)Only specially trained and competent personnel should carry out endoscope reprocessing.Manufacturers of duodenoscopes should provide detailed instructions on how to use and reprocess their equipment.In the case of modifications to their equipment, manufacturers should provide updated instructions for use.Detailed reprocessing protocols based on the manufacturer's instructions for use should clearly lay out the different reprocessing steps necessary for each endoscope model...
October 16, 2017: Endoscopy
N Dinar, D Celeste, P Puzo, M Silari
CERN Radiation Protection group has recently developed a novel radiation survey meter called B-RAD able to operate in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The B-RAD will be equipped with a series of probes for gamma dose rate, gamma spectrometry and surface contamination measurements. The feasibility of developing a probe for neutron dose rate and possibly spectral measurements is being investigated. The determination of the breakdown voltage of the SiPM as well as its uniformity between the pixels was performed...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Kyle M Ewart, Greta J Frankham, Ross McEwing, Lucy M I Webster, Sherryn A Ciavaglia, Adrian M T Linacre, Dang Tat The, Kanitia Ovouthan, Rebecca N Johnson
Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia. Improved wildlife forensic techniques, such as validated tests for species identification of seized horns, are critical to aid current enforcement and prosecution efforts and provide a deterrent to future rhino horn trafficking...
October 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Rob Lynch, David B, Kathleen Bellorado, Peter Canisius, Douglas Heathcote, Alan Johnson, Ned Wymann, Derek Willison-Parry
In multi-product Biopharma facilities, the protection from product contamination due to the manufacture of multiple products simultaneously, is paramount to assure product quality. To that end, the use of traditional changeover methods (elastomer change-out, full sampling, etc.) have been widely used within the industry and have been accepted by regulatory agencies. However, with the endorsement of Quality Risk Management , the use of risk based approaches may be applied to assess and continuously improve established changeover processes...
October 12, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Taíse Toniazzo, Helena Galeskas, Gustavo C Dacanal, Samantha C Pinho
Liposomes are colloidal structures capable of encapsulating, protecting, and releasing hydrophobic bioctives, as flavonoids. Quercetin is a flavonoid with high antioxidant activity that provides benefits to health. The wet-agglomeration processes in high-shear equipment are useful to produce granules from binary mixtures, obtaining a powder with homogeneous composition and without segregation or elutriation of fine particles. In this study, the binary mixtures containing microparticles of native cornstarch and nanoparticles of quercetin liposomes were aggregated in high-shear batches, using maltodextrin solution as binder agent...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Ziru Niu, Ronald T K Pang, Weimin Liu, Qian Li, Ranran Cheng, William S B Yeung
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles released by cells and act as media for transfer of proteins, small RNAs and mRNAs to distant sites. They can be isolated by different methods. However, the biological activities of the purified EVs have seldom been studied. In this study, we compared the use of ultracentrifugation (UC), ultra-filtration (UF), polymer-based precipitation (PBP), and PBP with size-based purification (PBP+SP) for isolation of EVs from human endometrial cells and mouse uterine luminal fluid (ULF)...
2017: PloS One
Thaila Quatrini Corrêa, Kate Cristina Blanco, Natalia Mayumi Inada, Maisa de Fátima Hortenci, Angela Aparecida Costa, Evaine da Silveira Silva, Patricia Pereira da Costa Gimenes, Soraya Pompeu, Raphael Luiz de Holanda E Silva, Walter Manso Figueiredo, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new handheld equipment based on a mercury low-pressure vapor lamp. The Surface UV(®) device was tested in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, two strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and other clinical microorganisms isolated from different surfaces of a public health hospital. BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence of hospital infections has increased in recent years...
October 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Jeramy R Jasmann, Phillip B Gedalanga, Thomas Borch, Shaily Mahendra, Jens Blotevogel
Biodegradation of the persistent groundwater contaminant 1,4-dioxane is often hindered by the absence of dissolved oxygen and the co-occurrence of inhibiting chlorinated solvents. Using flow-through electrolytic reactors equipped with Ti/IrO2-Ta2O5 mesh electrodes, we show that combining electrochemical oxidation with aerobic biodegradation produces an over-additive treatment effect for degrading 1,4-dioxane. In reactors bioaugmented by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 with 3.0 V applied, 1,4-dioxane was oxidized 2...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Suzanne Fraser, Carla Treloar, Sandra Gendera, Jake Rance
BACKGROUND: In the West, hepatitis C is predominantly transmitted via the sharing of contaminated drug-injecting equipment. Although the majority of this sharing occurs between sexual partners, the responsibility for avoiding transmission has long been conceived as an individual responsibility, with prevention measures such as the distribution of sterile injecting equipment such as injecting packs ('fitpacks') aimed at individuals without regard for the social contexts of injecting. In this article we draw on the work of Bruno Latour to reconceptualise the fitpack...
October 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Eva J Scharinger, Richard Dietrich, Tobias Wittwer, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kristina Schauer
The ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is responsible for severe meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants associated with ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). The current ISO method for isolation and detection of Cronobacter spp. is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. In this study, a multiplexed lateral flow test strip was developed to rapidly detect and simultaneously serotype O1 and O2 C. sakazakii serotypes. The assay is based on two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that specifically bind to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of these pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hana Trigui, Kristen Lee, Alexandre Thibodeau, Simon Lévesque, Nilmini Mendis, Philippe Fravalo, Ann Letellier, Sébastien P Faucher
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of campylobacteriosis in the developed world. Although most cases are caused by consumption of contaminated meat, a significant proportion is linked to ingestion of contaminated water. The differences between C. jejuni strains originating from food products and those isolated from water are poorly understood. Working under the hypothesis that water-borne C. jejuni strains are better equipped at surviving the nutrient-poor aquatic environment than food-borne strains, the present study aims to characterize these differences using outbreak strains 81116 and 81-176...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
I García-Bautista, T Toledano-Thompson, E Dantán-González, J González-Montilla, R Valdez-Ojeda
Marine environments are a reservoir of relevant information on dangerous contaminants such as hydrocarbons, as well as microbial communities with probable degradation skills. However, to access microbial diversity, it is necessary to obtain high-quality DNA. An inexpensive, reliable, and effective metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) extraction protocol from marine sediments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was established in this study from modifications to Zhou's protocol. The optimization included pretreatment of sediment with saline solutions for the removal of contaminants, a second precipitation and enzymatic degradation of RNA, followed by purification of mgDNA extracted by electroelution...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
S Sanooja Pinki, Ganesh Mohan, Aboobacker Mohamed Rafi, Susheela Jacob Innah, Tom Thomas
BACKGROUND: Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) should be thawed before transfusing to the patient. Prolonged or uncontrolled thawing can denature plasma proteins. The potential risk of contamination by wet thawing had always been a point of concern. AIMS: Here, we compared and evaluated the effect of thawing on clotting factor activities by two different methods (wet and dry) and other factors such as risk of bacterial contamination, throughput, turnaround time, and efficacy of thawing...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
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