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Chemo safety

Uhi Toh, Shuko Saku, Mina Okabe, Nobutaka Iwakuma, Yuko Kimitsuki, Momoko Akashi, Etsuyo Ogo, Akira Yamada, Shigeki Shichijo, Kyogo Itoh, Yoshito Akagi
Our previous phase II clinical trial showed that therapeutically selected personalized peptide vaccines(PPVs)were effective at boosting anticancer immunity; the immune response after PPV was associated with a clinical outcome as a prognostic factor for metastatic breast cancer(mBC). We conducted an early phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new regimen using multiple peptide vaccines(KRM-19)for patients with metastatictriple -negative breast cancer. KRM-19 consisted of 19 mixed peptides chosen from the previously reported 31 PPVs according to their anti-tumor immunologiceffec ts and safety profiles for patients with mBC...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Egle Ramelyte, Sabrina A Schindler, Reinhard Dummer
Introduction The introduction of immunotherapies into clinical practice has substantially improved the prognosis of metastatic melanoma patients as well as patients suffering from other cancers. The two FDA-approved checkpoint inhibitors against PD-1 (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) have been shown to significantly improve patient survival while being less toxic than previous treatment options. Areas covered The current scientific literature on safety and adverse events (AEs) related to anti-PD-1 therapies has been investigated with special attention to case reports and to the latest results announced at the major clinical cancer and melanoma meetings, including ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology), ESMO (European Society of medical Oncology) and EADO (European Association of Dermato-Oncology) annual meetings...
October 13, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Tomokazu Aoki, Yoshiki Arakawa, Tetsuya Ueba, Masashi Oda, Namiko Nishida, Yukinori Akiyama, Tetsuya Tsukahara, Koichi Iwasaki, Nobuhiro Mikuni, Susumu Miyamoto
The objective of this phase I/II study was to examine the efficacy and toxicity profile of temozolomide (TMZ) plus nimustine (ACNU). Patients who had received a standard radiotherapy with one or two previous chemo-regimens were enrolled. In phase I, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) by TMZ (150 mg/m(2)/day) (Day 1-5) plus various doses of ACNU (30, 35, 40, 45 mg/m(2)/day) (Day 15) per 4 weeks was defined on a standard 3 + 3 design. In phase II, these therapeutic activity and safety of this regimen were evaluated...
October 11, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Ana Vanessa Nascimento, Amit Singh, Hassan Bousbaa, Domingos Ferreira, Bruno Sarmento, Mansoor M Amiji
: Efficiency of chemotherapy is often limited by low therapeutic index of the drug as well as emergence of inherent and acquired drug resistance in cancer cells. As a common strategy to overcome drug resistance, higher doses of chemo-agents are administered. However, adverse side effects are usually increased as a consequence. A potentially effective approach is to combine chemotherapy with other therapeutic strategies such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that allow the use of lower yet efficient doses of the anticancer drugs...
September 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Pulok K Mukherjee, Ranjit K Harwansh, Shiv Bahadur, Subhadip Banerjee, Amit Kar, Joydeb Chanda, Sayan Biswas, Sk Milan Ahmmed, C K Katiyar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ayurveda entails a scientific tradition of harmonious living and its origin can be traced from ancient knowledge contained in Rigveda and Atharvaveda. Ayurveda is a traditional healthcare system of Indian medicine since time immortal. Several Ayurvedic medicines have been exploiting for treatment and management of various diseases in human beings. The several drugs have been developed and practiced from Ayurveda since ancient time to modern practice as 'tradition to trend'...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jochen Fleckenstein, Michael Jelden, Stephanie Kremp, Philippe Jagoda, Jonas Stroeder, Fadi Khreish, Samer Ezziddin, Arno Buecker, Christian Rübe, Guenther K Schneider
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) vs. PET-CT of the thorax in the determination of gross tumor volume (GTV) in radiotherapy planning of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with NSCLC who were supposed to receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy were prospectively recruited. For MRI, a respiratory gated T2-weighted sequence in axial orientation and non-gated DWI (b = 0, 800, 1,400 and apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC]) were acquired on a 1...
2016: PloS One
Maria-Ioanna Christodoulou, Andreas Scorilas
Metformin, a natural product from Galga officinalis, is an oral drug, now in the forefront of the therapeutic management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. A series of clinical observations of the last decades, support that metformin may contribute to lowering the risk of cancer development in diabetic patients, and also to improvement of response-to-therapy and survival in individuals with certain types of malignancies. Moreover, several preclinical in-vitro and in-vivo data indicate that metformin indeed exerts anti-proliferative capacities upon tumor cells mediated through a variety of mechanisms...
September 7, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Issam El Naqa
Oncology, with its unique combination of clinical, physical, technological, and biological data provides an ideal case study for applying big data analytics to improve cancer treatment safety and outcomes. An oncology treatment course such as chemoradiotherapy can generate a large pool of information carrying the 5Vs hallmarks of big data. This data is comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of patient demographics, radiation/chemo dosimetry, multimodality imaging features, and biological markers generated over a treatment period that can span few days to several weeks...
August 29, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Jayanth Suryanarayanan Shankaranarayanan, Jagat R Kanwar, Afrah Jalil Abd Al-Juhaishi, Rupinder K Kanwar
Advanced, metastatic, castration resistant and chemo-resistant prostate cancer has triggered change in the drug development landscape against prostate cancer. Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is currently attracting attention in clinics for its anti-cancer properties and proven safety profile. bLf internalises into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis, boosts immunity and complements chemotherapy. We employed bLf as an excellent functional carrier protein for delivering doxorubicin (Dox) into DU145 cells, CD44+/EpCAM+ double positive enriched DU145 3D prostaspheres and drug resistant ADR1000-DU145 cells, thus circumventing Dox efflux, to overcome chemo-resistance...
2016: Scientific Reports
Limin Gao, Jivin Joseph, Marcelle Santoro-Levy, Alan S Multz, Vladimir K Gotlieb
BACKGROUND: With the advances in cancer treatments, mortality rates in the United States have been consistently falling but they are accompanied by substantial increases in the cost of cancer care. Patient and prescription assistance programs (PPAPs) are offered by pharmaceutical manufacturers to provide free medications to medically indigent patients. To assist the Cancer Care Center (CCC) at Nassau University Medical Center (NUMC) with drug costs for chemotherapies, the pharmacy department uses a patient assistance program (PAP) to obtain medications from the drug companies at no cost...
July 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Lester M Davids, Jennifer C Van Wyk, Nonhlanhla P Khumalo
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant naturally occurring non-protein thiol that protects mammalian cells from oxidative stress. Intravenous (IV) GSH for skin lightening is advertised by clinics in South Africa and internationally online, yet to date no published review on the subject exists. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE search (to 30 September 2015) of GSH use for skin lightening and of all indications in medicine, to evaluate its safety. Results. Two controlled clinical trials (GSH capsules: 60 patients; 2% glutathione disulphide lotion: 30 patients) and a case series (GSH lozenges: 30 patients) reported a significantly decreased melanin index...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ji Hyun Park, Myung Joo Kang, Jin-Hee Ahn, Jeong Eun Kim, Kyung Hae Jung, Gyungyub Gong, Hee Jin Lee, Byung-Ho Son, Sei-Hyun Ahn, Hak-Hee Kim, Hee Jung Shin, Dae-Hyuk Moon, Sung-Bae Kim
PURPOSE: Neo-ALL-IN (NCT 01275859) is a single-center, phase II study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of neoadjuvant letrozole plus lapatinib, as well as potential biomarkers, in postmenopausal women with ER- and HER2-positive (ER+HER2+) breast cancer. METHODS: Postmenopausal ER+HER2+ breast cancer of stages II-III was eligible. Daily 2.5 mg letrozole plus 1500 mg lapatinib were administered for 18-21 weeks before surgery. Clinical responses were assessed by palpation with caliper, breast ultrasonography, mammogram, and/or MRI...
October 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Jianqiu Wu, Yongping Song, Liping Su, Li Xu, Tingchao Chen, Zhiyun Zhao, Mingzhi Zhang, Wei Li, Yu Hu, Xiaohong Zhang, Yuhuan Gao, Zuoxing Niu, Ru Feng, Wei Wang, Jiewen Peng, Xiaolin Li, Xuenong Ouyang, Changping Wu, Weijing Zhang, Yun Zeng, Zhen Xiao, Yingmin Liang, Yongzhi Zhuang, Jishi Wang, Zimin Sun, Hai Bai, Tongjian Cui, Jifeng Feng
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of rituximab-based chemotherapy (R-chemo), the standard regimen for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which is more common in Asia than in Western countries, are well confirmed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the safety and effectiveness of R-chemo in patients who are largely excluded from RCTs have not been well characterized. This real-world study investigated the safety and effectiveness of R-chemo as first-line treatment in Chinese patients with DLBCL...
2016: BMC Cancer
Yangkun Luo, Mei Feng, Zixuan Fan, Xiaodong Zhu, Feng Jin, Rongqing Li, Jingbo Wu, Xia Yang, Qinghua Jiang, Hongfang Bai, Yecai Huang, Jinyi Lang
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Kangfuxin Solution, a pure Chinese herbal medicine, on mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Methods. A randomized, parallel-group, multicenter clinical study was performed. A total of 240 patients were randomized to receive either Kangfuxin Solution (test group) or compound borax gargle (control group) during chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis, upper gastrointestinal mucositis, and oral pain were evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v3...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Binod Dhakal, Lauren Westfall Veltri, Timothy S Fenske, Daniel Eastwood, Michael D Craig, Aaron Cumpston, Alexandra Shillingburg, Jean Esselman, Kathy Watkins, Marcelo C Pasquini, Anita D'Souza, Parameswaran Hari, Abraham Sebastian Kanate, Mehdi Hamadani
Studies comparing the efficacy and safety of chemo-mobilization with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) ± rituximab with plerixafor-based approaches in lymphoma patients have not been performed. We analyzed hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization outcomes in lymphoma patients undergoing chemo-mobilization with ICE (n = 35) compared with either routine plerixafor (n = 30) or "just in time" (JIT) plerixafor-based mobilization (n = 33). Chemo-mobilization provided a significantly higher total CD34(+) cell yield (median collection, 5...
October 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Huijuan Zhang, Yandan Ji, Qianqian Chen, Xing Zhu, Xiaoge Zhang, Zhiyuan Tan, Qianqian Tian, Xiangbo Yang, Zhenzhong Zhang
To achieve tumor-specific delivery of doxorubicin, TiO2@Fe3O4/PEI/delivery of doxorubicin conjugates were designed and synthesized. Fe3O4 could act as magnetically responsive carriers and enhance the visible light photodynamic activities of TiO2 Delivery of doxorubicin was conjugated via coordination bond. The drug release rate at pH 5.2 was much faster than that at pH 7.4, due to pH-sensitive coordination bond. Besides, TiO2@Fe3O4/PEI/delivery of doxorubicin showed high antitumor efficacy combining with phototherapy, good bio-safety, higher cellular uptake with an external magnetic field, and less toxicity in vitro and in vivo...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Tanya B Dorff, Susan Groshen, Agustin Garcia, Manali Shah, Denice Tsao-Wei, Huyen Pham, Chia-Wei Cheng, Sebastian Brandhorst, Pinchas Cohen, Min Wei, Valter Longo, David I Quinn
BACKGROUND: Short-term starvation prior to chemotherapy administration protects mice against toxicity. We undertook dose-escalation of fasting prior to platinum-based chemotherapy to determine safety and feasibility in cancer patients. METHODS: 3 cohorts fasted before chemotherapy for 24, 48 and 72 h (divided as 48 pre-chemo and 24 post-chemo) and recorded all calories consumed. Feasibility was defined as ≥ 3/6 subjects in each cohort consuming ≤ 200 kcal per 24 h during the fast period without excess toxicity...
2016: BMC Cancer
David M DiBardino, Anthony R Lanfranco, Andrew R Haas
Cryotherapy is an evolving therapeutic and diagnostic tool used during bronchoscopy. Through rapid freeze-thaw cycles, cryotherapy causes cell death and tissue necrosis or tissue adherence that can be used via the flexible or rigid bronchoscope. This extreme cold can be used through the working channel of the bronchoscope via a specialized cryoprobe or directly with the use of spray cryotherapy. These properties allow for multiple bronchoscopic techniques, each with its own equipment and procedural, safety, and efficacy considerations...
August 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Roy Rampling, Sharon Peoples, Paul J Mulholland, Allan James, Omar Al-Salihi, Chris J Twelves, Catherine McBain, Sarah Jefferies, Alan Jackson, Willie Stewart, Juha Lindner, Sarah Kutscher, Norbert Hilf, Lesley McGuigan, Jane Peters, Karen Hill, Oliver Schoor, Harpreet Singh-Jasuja, Sarah Halford, James Wa Ritchie
PURPOSE: To perform a two-cohort, phase 1 safety and immunogenicity study of IMA950 in addition to standard chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) and adjuvant temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). IMA950 is a novel GBM specific therapeutic vaccine containing 11 tumor-associated peptides (TUMAPs), identified on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) surface receptors in primary human GBM tissue. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients were HLA A*02 positive and had undergone tumor resection...
May 25, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Stephan Stilgenbauer, Barbara Eichhorst, Johannes Schetelig, Steven Coutre, John F Seymour, Talha Munir, Soham D Puvvada, Clemens-Martin Wendtner, Andrew W Roberts, Wojciech Jurczak, Stephen P Mulligan, Sebastian Böttcher, Mehrdad Mobasher, Ming Zhu, Monali Desai, Brenda Chyla, Maria Verdugo, Sari Heitner Enschede, Elisa Cerri, Rod Humerickhouse, Gary Gordon, Michael Hallek, William G Wierda
BACKGROUND: Deletion of chromosome 17p (del[17p]) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia confers very poor prognosis when treated with standard chemo-immunotherapy. Venetoclax is an oral small-molecule BCL2 inhibitor that induces chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell apoptosis. In a previous first-in-human study of venetoclax, 77% of patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia achieved an overall response. Here we aimed to assess the activity and safety of venetoclax monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory del(17p) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia...
June 2016: Lancet Oncology
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