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cycle of violence

Rebecca Littman
Heightened group identification motivates individuals to perpetrate violence, but can perpetrating violence-in and of itself-increase identification with violent groups? I test this idea using archival surveys of ex-combatants. In Liberia, where many combatants joined their violent group willingly, the data show a positive association between perpetrating violence and identification with one's violent group (Study 1). These results hold even when controlling for potentially confounding variables such as being abducted into the group versus joining willingly, length of time in the group, and personally experiencing violence...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Vikki J Bland, Ian Lambie, Charlotte Best
Child neglect, whether intentional or unintentional on the part of caregivers, has serious and far-reaching negative consequences for children. Neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment and has been associated with impaired cognitive development, changes in brain structure and nervous systems, behavioral and personality disorders and poor academic performance. However, the role of child neglect, and subtypes of neglect, in the development of adult violent behavior is not well understood. The "cycle of violence" hypothesis, which predicts that individuals exposed to child physical abuse are more likely to be physically violent in adulthood, is well supported by the literature...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Kelsey Hills-Evans, Julian Mitton, Chana A Sacks
Gun violence is a major cause of preventable injury and death in the United States, leading to more than 33,000 deaths each year. However, gun violence prevention is an understudied and underfunded area of research. We review the barriers to research in the field, including restrictions on federal funding. We then outline potential areas in which further research could inform clinical practice, public health efforts, and public policy. We also review examples of innovative collaborations among interdisciplinary teams working to develop strategies to integrate gun violence prevention into patient-doctor interactions in order to interrupt the cycle of gun violence...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Meharban Singh
Health of women has a profound effect on the health and welfare of communities, countries and the world at large. A large number of social, economic, educational, political and religious dimensions impact the lives of girls and women with repercussions on their health and status in society and welfare of their children. It is a sad reality that a large number of children, adolescents and women worldwide have limited or no access to essential health care services, nutrition and education. Gender inequity and discrimination against girls cannot be bridged unless there are equal opportunities for healthcare and education for boys and girls...
January 6, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Michelle C Ramos, Kelly F Miller, Ilana K Moss, Gayla Margolin
Electronic dating aggression among emerging adults is prevalent and has adverse consequences, yet factors that increase or decrease the risk for perpetrating electronic aggression against a romantic partner are understudied. This investigation advances the literature in two novel ways. First, based on intergenerational transmission of violence theories, we tested the link between family-of-origin aggression (FOA) history and electronic aggression toward romantic partners, using a diverse sample of emerging adults...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kim M Shearson
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive social problem requiring multiple levels of intervention across sectors. Women experiencing IPV often seek assistance from police. Such help-seeking efforts are frequently perceived as problematic by both victims and police. A deeper understanding of victims' needs than is currently evident in the literature is needed to facilitate an appropriate, victim-centered police response across a diverse range of victim presentations. Applying a symbolic interactionist and feminist perspective and guided by a constructivist grounded theory approach, this qualitative study aimed to explore the application of Landenburger's model of entrapment in and recovery from violent relationships to understand victims' help-seeking needs when accessing police services...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Saltanat Childress, Subadra Panchanadeswaran, Manisha Joshi
Despite the global nature of domestic violence against women, few studies have examined the phenomenon in Kyrgyzstan. This grounded theory study gives voice to survivors of domestic violence by examining women's experiences of various forms of violence and the complexities surrounding Kyrgyz women's decision making about leaving violent relationships. Findings revealed that survivors move through a three-stage process of leaving: (a) reaching a turning point, (b) implementing the leaving process, and (c) reclaiming self...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Boungho Choi
The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between student's aggression and teacher's use of corporal punishment. An autoregressive cross-lagged model was analyzed with the data drawn from 4,051 Korean secondary students (male = 2,084, female = 1,967), in Gyeonggi Education Panel Study for three waves (seventh-ninth grades). Results revealed that student's aggression provoke teacher's use of corporal punishment and also teacher's use of corporal punishment provokes student's aggression...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Amy Peirone, Betty Jo Barrett, Chi Ho Cheung, Nazim Habibov
Using data from the 2009 General Social Survey (GSS Cycle 23: Victimization main file), this study assessed the relationship between individual and neighborhood-level factors and police response to spousal violence in Canada. A total of 890 participants in the GSS reported experiences of spousal violence within the previous 5 years, with approximately 22% of these victims reporting direct contact with the police because of the violence. Among this subsample of victims who had police contact, we evaluated the extent to which individual-level factors (sociodemographic and violence characteristics) and neighborhood-level factors (perceptions of social disorder and the presence of police facilities in one's community) were related to distinct types of police response to reported spousal violence...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Andreas Witt, Jörg M Fegert, Klaus P Rodens, Elmar Brähler, Claudia Lührs Da Silva, Paul L Plener
The use of corporal punishment (CP) is controversial despite the negative consequences of its use that have been documented. Consequences include the use of CP by those who experienced CP themselves, described in the theory of the cycle of violence. There are little data on the cycle of violence, especially on those who break it and in representative samples. This study examines the cycle of violence in a representative sample by analyzing experiences of and attitudes toward CP. Attitudes toward, and own experiences of, CP by their parents were assessed in a sample of 2,519 individuals (female 54...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Caitlin M Pinciotti, Holly K Orcutt
Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Glenn D Walters
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a child's perception of adult tolerance of violence interfaced with peer associations and violent offending. It was hypothesized that a child's perception of his or her parents' tolerance for violence would predict the peer influence effect for aggressive behavior in boys but not girls. Control variables included the parent's stated tolerance of violence, the child's personal attitude toward violence, recent parental divorce or separation, and child maltreatment within the past 12 months...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Shao-Chiu Juan, Heather M Washington, Megan C Kurlychek
The link between exposure to violence in the home and children's later exhibition of violent behaviors is well documented in the criminological literature. To date, most research on partner violence (PV) and children's welfare has focused on adolescent outcomes. As such, we know little about how PV affects the behavior of the youngest, and perhaps most vulnerable population of children who have been exposed to PV. Our understanding of the PV-child behavior association is also limited because extant research has focused less attention on identifying risk factors that explain and modify the link between exposure to PV and children's behavior...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sandy Krammer, Hedwig Eisenbarth, Carole Fallegger, Michael Liebrenz, Dorothee Klecha
The present study describes a much understudied group-namely, female prisoners under forensic-psychiatric care in the German-speaking part of Switzerland-to improve understanding of their risks and their needs. Data were derived from internal databases of a Forensic-Psychiatric Service. Data were collected in the form of their sociodemographic characteristics, prevalence of aversive and traumatic events, type of offence committed, and mental health conditions. Based on a full-sample approach, a total of 1,571 files were analysed...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Johnie J Allen, Craig A Anderson, Brad J Bushman
The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Thomas Elbert, Maggie Schauer, James K Moran
The Good: when you fight to counter threat, your aggression is a reactive defense, and often morally justifiable. The Bad: when you loot and rob, hurt and kill, to obtain social status or material goods, that is an extrinsic reward. This is instrumental aggression. And The Ugly: The intrinsic enjoyment of violence. This 'appetitive aggression' describes a lust for violence, underlying first-person shooter gamers, hunting, and extreme acts of violence, such as murder and massacres. Although violence often results from a combination of these forms of aggression, the differentiation is necessary to understand their interplay, as they drive two interconnected cycles of violence: the reactive cycle, fueled by the motivation to overcome negative feelings, and the hedonically driven appetitive cycle...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily, Emily Falk
Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed)...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Carla S Ginn, Karen M Benzies, Leslie Anne Keown, Shelley Raffin Bouchal, Wilfreda E Billlie Thurston
Early intervention programmes are designed to address complex inequities for Canadian families living with low income, affecting social relationships, well-being and mental health. However, there is limited understanding of resiliency and change in families living with low income over time. We conducted a mixed methods study with recent immigrant, other Canadian-born, and Aboriginal families living with low income, who attended a two-generation preschool programme (CUPS One World) between 2002 and 2008. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the processes of change...
December 18, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
Adriana Farré, Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Marta Torrens
Mood and substance use disorders (SUDs) are mental conditions that are highly prevalent in the general population. Cooccurrence of major depression and SUD, also known as dual depression, is very common in the field of substance addiction. Sex differences are found in both major depression and SUD. This review, after presenting the state of the art of dual depression as regards prevalence, ethiopathologic mechanisms, and clinical aspects, is focused on dual depression in women. An overview of some potential factors associated with the sex gap in dual depression such as injecting, sexual risk behavior, intimate partner violence, and the reproductive cycle is presented...
December 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
Brandon Nesbit, Marci Hertz, Sally Thigpen, Ted Castellanos, Michelle Brown, Jamila Porter, Amber Williams
CONTEXT: For most programs, whether funded through governmental agencies or nongovernmental organizations, demonstrating the impact of implemented activities is vital to ensuring continued funding and support. OBJECTIVE: Program evaluation is a critical tool that serves the dual purpose of describing impact and identifying areas for program improvement. From a funder's perspective, describing the individual and collective impact of state-based programs can be challenging due to variations in strategies being implemented and types of data being collected...
January 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
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