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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#1
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992838/posttraumatic-stress-and-youth-violence-perpetration-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#2
M Aebi, M Mohler-Kuo, S Barra, U Schnyder, T Maier, M A Landolt
BACKGROUND: Exposure to trauma was found to increase later violent behaviours in youth but the underlying psychopathological mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to test whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to violent behaviours and whether PTSD symptoms mediate the relationship between the number of trauma experiences and violent behaviours in adolescents. METHOD: The present study is based on a nationally representative sample of 9th grade students with 3434 boys (mean age=15...
December 16, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943284/annual-research-review-breaking-cycles-of-violence-a-systematic-review-and-common-practice-elements-analysis-of-psychosocial-interventions-for-children-and-youth-affected-by-armed-conflict
#3
REVIEW
Felicity L Brown, Anne M de Graaff, Jeannie Annan, Theresa S Betancourt
BACKGROUND: Globally, one in 10 children live in regions affected by armed conflict. Children exposed to armed conflict are vulnerable to social and emotional difficulties, along with disrupted educational and occupational opportunities. Most armed conflicts occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where mental health systems are limited and can be further weakened by the context of war. Research is needed to determine feasible and cost-effective psychosocial interventions that can be delivered safely by available mental health workforces (including nonspecialists)...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942448/brain-connectivity-aberrations-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#4
Lars T Westlye, Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Ingunn R Hullstein, Astrid Bjørnebekk
Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831734/relations-between-traumatic-stress-dimensions-of-impulsivity-and-reactive-and-appetitive-aggression-in-individuals-with-refugee-status
#5
Mareike Augsburger, Katalin Dohrmann, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert
Objective: Traumatic stressors and other forms of adversities, especially when experienced during childhood, shape aggressive behavior. Effects of differential dimensions of impulsivity on the relationship between psychological trauma, reactive aggression (defensive survival response to threat), and appetitive aggression (the pleasure of attacking and fighting) have not yet been assessed. Method: Using structural equation modeling, we sought to uncover precursors of reactive and appetitive aggression investigating a sample of 94 adult individuals with refugee status...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810585/violence-towards-women-is-a-public-health-problem
#6
REVIEW
Ramazan Tetikcok, Erdal Ozer, Lutfullah Cakir, Ozgur Enginyurt, M Dogan İscanli, Soner Cankaya, Filiz Ozer
BACKGROUND: Violence within the family is a significant health problem which threatens the health of the community. The global rates of domestic violence directed at women have been reported as 10%-69% and in Turkey as 25%-30%. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of our study were obtained from the database of the official internet website of the Turkish Statistics Institute as the data related to violence between 2007 and 2012. In the evaluation of the data, SPSS 11...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790995/moderating-attitudes-in-times-of-violence-through-paradoxical-thinking-intervention
#7
Boaz Hameiri, Roni Porat, Daniel Bar-Tal, Eran Halperin
In the current paper, we report a large-scale randomized field experiment, conducted among Jewish Israelis during widespread violence. The study examines the effectiveness of a "real world," multichanneled paradoxical thinking intervention, with messages disseminated through various means of communication (i.e., online, billboards, flyers). Over the course of 6 wk, we targeted a small city in the center of Israel whose population is largely rightwing and religious. Based on the paradoxical thinking principles, the intervention involved transmission of messages that are extreme but congruent with the shared Israeli ethos of conflict...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770031/effects-of-child-sexual-abuse-on-the-parenting-of-male-survivors
#8
Joe Wark, Jo-Ann Vis
Research shows that child sexual abuse (CSA) can have detrimental effects on adult functioning. While much research regarding the effects of CSA on parenting of mothers is available, there is a dearth of information on how CSA impacts fatherhood. This literature review finds that the parenting experiences of male survivors are characterized by self-perceptions as adequate parents, deficient parenting as measured by standardized instruments, conceptualization of parenting as an intergenerational legacy and potential healing experience, fear of becoming an abuser, and physical and emotional distance from their children...
October 21, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761015/the-anthropology-of-violence-context-consequences-conflict-resolution-healing-and-peace-building-in-central-and-southern-africa
#9
John M Janzen
This study, with a focus on Central and Southern Africa, offers an overview of best practices and theoretical debates in the anthropology of violence, including the ethnography of situations where violence is pervasive and active efforts are made to deal with it. Although the multiple sites of recent violence in this region are unique in their scale, intensity, and cause, the literature review suggests a typical course of events of patterns of violence and trauma, construction of memory, efforts at mediation and healing, or persisting conflict and confronting the aftermath of violence at home or in exile...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750282/violence-perpetration-among-patients-hospitalized-for-unintentional-and-assault-related-firearm-injury-a-case-control-study-and-a-cohort-study
#10
Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Mary D Fan, Joseph A Simonetti, Vivian H Lyons, Jin Wang, Douglas Zatzick, Frederick P Rivara
Background: Hospital-based violence intervention programs typically focus on patients whose firearm injury occurred through interpersonal violence (assault). Knowledge of violence perpetration by victims of unintentional (accidental) firearm injury is limited. Objective: To examine violence perpetration before and after a patient becomes hospitalized for firearm injury according to injury intent (intentional [assault] or unintentional [accidental]). Design: A case-control study and a retrospective cohort study...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738782/evaluation-of-the-responsible-engaged-and-loving-real-fathers-initiative-on-physical-child-punishment-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-northern-uganda
#11
Kim Ashburn, Brad Kerner, Dickens Ojamuge, Rebecka Lundgren
Violence against women and violence against children in Uganda are recognized as significant public health concerns. Exposure to violence at home as a child can increase the likelihood of perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life. These two forms of violence share similar risk factors and often, but not always, co-occur at the household level. Parenting programs have shown promise in reducing physical child punishment. Targeting men has also been proven effective in transforming attitudes related to gender roles and expectations and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women...
October 13, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726051/community-schools-a-public-health-opportunity-to-reverse-urban-cycles-of-disadvantage
#12
Catherine Diamond, Nicholas Freudenberg
Community schools link students, families, and communities to educate children and strengthen neighborhoods. They have become a popular model for education in many US cities in part because they build on community assets and address multiple determinants of educational disadvantage. Since community schools seek to have an impact on populations, not just the children enrolled, they provide an opportunity to improve community health. Community schools influence the health and education of neighborhood residents though three pathways: building trust, establishing norms, and linking people to networks and services...
December 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709742/effects-of-child-abuse-adolescent-violence-peer-approval-and-pro-violence-attitudes-on-intimate-partner-violence-in-adulthood
#13
Todd I Herrenkohl, Hyunzee Jung
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to violence increases their risk for later victimisation and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the relative influence of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval of violence and pro-violence attitudes on later IPV is not well established. AIMS: Analyses focus on the prediction of adult IPV from variables measured in childhood and adolescence to establish the unique influence of earlier victimisation and perpetration of violence, as well as other variables grounded in theory and empirical findings...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699837/alexander-p-c-2015-intergenerational-cycles-of-trauma-and-violence-an-attachment-and-family-systems-perspective-new-york-ny-w-w-norton-company-370-pp-39-95
#14
REVIEW
Wayne Schlapkohl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638247/the-anthropology-of-violence-context-consequences-conflict-resolution-healing-and-peace-building-in-central-and-southern-africa
#15
John M Janzen
This study, with a focus on Central and Southern Africa, offers an overview of best practices and theoretical debates in the anthropology of violence, including the ethnography of situations where violence is pervasive and active efforts are made to deal with it. Although the multiple sites of recent violence in this region are unique in their scale, intensity, and cause, the literature review suggests a typical course of events of patterns of violence and trauma, construction of memory, efforts at mediation and healing, or persisting conflict and confronting the aftermath of violence at home or in exile...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540760/the-interplay-between-trauma-substance-abuse-and-appetitive-aggression-and-its-relation-to-criminal-activity-among-high-risk-males-in-south-africa
#16
Jessica Sommer, Martina Hinsberger, Thomas Elbert, Leon Holtzhausen, Debra Kaminer, Soraya Seedat, Solomon Madikane, Roland Weierstall
BACKGROUND: In persistently unsafe environments, the cumulative exposure to violence predicts not only the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also of increased aggression and violent outbursts. Substance use disorders interact with these developments, as drug consumption may blunt symptoms and also reduce the threshold for violent acts. Investigating the interplay between these variables and the possible cumulative effect of drug abuse on the attraction to cruelty is a crucial step in understanding the cycle of violence and developing intervention programs that address this cycle in violence-troubled communities such as low-income urban areas in South Africa...
January 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537695/human-trafficking-the-role-of-medicine-in-interrupting-the-cycle-of-abuse-and-violence
#17
Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513843/sexual-identity-sex-of-sexual-contacts-and-health-related-behaviors-among-students-in-grades-9-12-united-states-and-selected-sites-2015
#18
Laura Kann, Emily O'Malley Olsen, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Nancy Brener, Stephanie Zaza
PROBLEM: Sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts can both be used to identify sexual minority youth. Significant health disparities exist between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. However, not enough is known about health-related behaviors that contribute to negative health outcomes among sexual minority youth and how the prevalence of these health-related behaviors compare with the prevalence of health-related behaviors among nonsexual minorities. REPORTING PERIOD: September 2014-December 2015...
August 12, 2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473400/protocol-of-the-impact-of-alternative-social-assistance-disbursement-on-drug-related-harm-tasa-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-changes-to-payment-timing-and-frequency-among-people-who-use-illicit-drugs
#19
Lindsey Richardson, Allison Laing, M-J Milloy, Russ Maynard, Bohdan Nosyk, Brandon Marshall, Eric Grafstein, Patricia Daly, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Government social assistance payments seek to alleviate poverty and address survival needs, but their monthly disbursement may cue increases in illicit drug use. This cue may be magnified when assistance is disbursed simultaneously across the population. Synchronized payments have been linked to escalations in drug use and unintended but severe drug-related harms, including overdose, as well as spikes in demand for health, social, financial and police services. METHODS/DESIGN: The TASA study examines whether changing payment timing and frequency can mitigate drug-related harm associated with synchronized social assistance disbursement...
July 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446894/experiences-in-conducting-participatory-communication-research-for-hiv-prevention-globally-translating-critical-dialog-into-action-through-action-media
#20
Warren Martin Parker, Antje Becker-Benton
PROBLEM: Developing communication to support health and well-being of vulnerable communities requires a multifaceted understanding of local perspectives of contextual challenges and potentials for change. While participatory research enhances understanding, robust methodologies are necessary to translate emerging concepts into viable communication approaches. Communicators and change agents need to clarify pathways for change, barriers and enablers for change, as well as the role, orientation, and content of communication to support change...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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