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watershed management

Wenjun Chen, Bin He, Daniel Nover, Weili Duan, Chuan Luo, Kaiyan Zhao, Wen Chen
Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shulin Deng, Tan Chen, Ni Yang, Lean Qu, Manchun Li, Dong Chen
Understanding rainfall trends as well as drought characteristics plays a key role in watershed development and management. In this study, the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall and drought based on temperature and precipitation data observed in 48 meteorological stations from 1959 to 2012 across the Pearl River Basin in China were analyzed. The possible influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and El Nino Modoki (ENSO_M) events on seasonal drought based on the Standardized Precipitation-evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were also investigated...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Venkataramana Sridhar, Mirza M Billah, John W Hildreth
Many current watershed modeling efforts now incorporate surface water and groundwater for managing water resources since the exchanges between groundwater and surface water need a special focus considering the changing climate. The influence of groundwater dynamics on water and energy balance components is investigated in the Snake River Basin (SRB) by coupling the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and MODFLOW models (VIC-MF) for the period of 1986 through 2042. A 4.4% increase in base flows and a 10.3% decrease in peak flows are estimated by VIC-MF compared to the VIC model in SRB...
November 9, 2017: Ground Water
Slim Mtibaa, Norifumi Hotta, Mitsuteru Irie
Soil erosion can be reduced through the strategic selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) in critical source areas (CSAs). In the present study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to identify CSAs and investigate the effectiveness of different BMPs in reducing sediment yield in the Joumine watershed, an agricultural river catchment located in northern Tunisia. A cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different BMP scenarios. The objective of the present study was to determine the most cost-effective management scenario for controlling sediment yield...
November 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Karen R Ryberg, Joel D Blomquist, Lori A Sprague, Andrew J Sekellick, Jennifer Keisman
Causal attribution of changes in water quality often consists of correlation, qualitative reasoning, listing references to the work of others, or speculation. To better support statements of attribution for water-quality trends, structural equation modeling was used to model the causal factors of total phosphorus loads in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. By transforming, scaling, and standardizing variables, grouping similar sites, grouping some causal factors into latent variable models, and using methods that correct for assumption violations, we developed a structural equation model to show how causal factors interact to produce total phosphorus loads...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pengcheng Xu, Dong Wang, Vijay P Singh, Yuankun Wang, Jichun Wu, Lachun Wang, Xinqing Zou, Jiufu Liu, Ying Zou, Ruimin He
Hydrological data, such as precipitation, is fundamental for planning, designing, developing, and managing water resource projects as well as for hydrologic research. An optimal raingauge network leads to more accurate estimates of mean or point precipitation at any site over the watershed. Some studies in the past have suggested increasing gauge network density for reducing the estimation error. However, more stations mean more cost of installation and monitoring. This study proposes an approach on the basis of kriging and entropy theory to determine an optimal network design in the city of Shanghai, China...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Research
André Fonseca, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
Nutrient nonpoint pollution has a significant impact on water resources worldwide. The main challenge of this work was to assess the application of best management practices in agricultural land to comply with water quality legislation for surface waters. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN was used to evaluate water quality of Ave River in Portugal. Best management practices (infiltration basin) (BMP) were applied to agricultural land (for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% area) with removal efficiencies of 50% for fecal coliforms and 30% for nitrogen, phosphorus, and biochemical oxygen demand...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Istak Ahmed, Nibedita Das Pan, Jatan Debnath, Moujuri Bhowmik
Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Andrew P Matala, Brady Allen, Shawn R Narum, Elaine Harvey
The species Oncorhynchus mykiss is characterized by a complex life history that presents a significant challenge for population monitoring and conservation management. Many factors contribute to genetic variation in O. mykiss populations, including sympatry among migratory phenotypes, habitat heterogeneity, hatchery introgression, and immigration (stray) rates. The relative influences of these and other factors are contingent on characteristics of the local environment. The Rock Creek subbasin in the middle Columbia River has no history of hatchery supplementation and no dams or artificial barriers...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
T G Gebremicael, Y A Mohamed, P van der Zaag, E Y Hagos
The spatiotemporal variability of the Land Use/Cover (LULC) is a strong influence on the land management and hydrological processes of a river basin. In particular in semi-arid regions like the Tekeze-Atbara (T-A) basin, accurate information about LULC change is a prerequisite for improved land and water management. The human-induced landscape transformations in the T-A basin, one of the main tributaries of the Nile River, were investigated for the last four decades (1972-2014). Separate LULC maps for the years 1972, 1989, 2001, and 2014 were developed based on satellite images, Geographic Information System (GIS) and ground information...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ibrahim Yurtseven, Yusuf Serengil, Ferhat Gökbulak, Kamil Şengönül, Süleyman Ozhan, Umit Kılıç, Betül Uygur, Mehmet Said Ozçelik
Adaptation to climate change has become a more serious concern as IPCC assessment reports estimate a rise of up to 2°C in average global temperatures by the end of the century. Several recently published studies have underlined the importance of forest management in mitigating the impacts of climate change and in supporting the adaptation capacity of the ecosystem. This study focuses on the role of water-related forest services in this adaptation process. The effects of forestry practices on streamflow can best be determined by paired watershed analysis...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zahra Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Karamouz
The continued development efforts around the world, growing population, and the increased probability of occurrence of extreme hydrologic events have adversely affected natural and built environments. Flood damages and loss of lives from the devastating storms, such as Irene and Sandy on the East Coast of the USA, are examples of the vulnerability to flooding that even developed countries have to face. The odds of coastal flooding disasters have been increased due to accelerated sea level rise, climate change impacts, and communities' interest to live near the coastlines...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Romain Marti, Céline Bécouze-Lareure, Sébastien Ribun, Laurence Marjolet, Claire Bernardin Souibgui, Jean-Baptiste Aubin, Gislain Lipeme Kouyi, Laure Wiest, Didier Blaha, Benoit Cournoyer
Urban activities generate surface deposits over impervious surfaces that can represent ecological and health hazards. Bacteriome genetic structures of deposits washed off during rainfall events, over an urban industrial watershed, were inferred from 16 S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences generated by high throughput sequencing. Deposits were sampled over a 4 year-period from a detention basin (DB). Major shifts, matching key management practices, in the structure of these urban bacteriomes, were recorded. Correlation analyses of rrs similarities between samples and their respective concentrations in chemical pollutants, markers of human fecal contaminations (HF183) and antimicrobial resistances (integrons), were performed...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A L Gomez, Abraham G Cáceres, Lenin N Velez, Nancy V Villegas, Kazue Hashiguchi, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Hiroshi Uezato, Hirotomo Kato
This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo...
October 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
Niroj Aryal, Michele L Reba
Pollutant concentrations and loads in watersheds vary considerably with time and space. Accurate and timely information on the magnitude of pollutants in water resources is a prerequisite for understanding the drivers of the pollutant loads and for making informed water resource management decisions. The commonly used "grab sampling" method provides the concentrations of pollutants at the time of sampling (i.e., a snapshot concentration) and may under- or overpredict the pollutant concentrations and loads. Continuous monitoring of nutrients and sediment has recently received more attention due to advances in computing, sensing technology, and storage devices...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xiaoping Wang, Fei Zhang, Jianli Ding
The water quality index (WQI) has been used to identify threats to water quality and to support better water resource management. This study combines a machine learning algorithm, WQI, and remote sensing spectral indices (difference index, DI; ratio index, RI; and normalized difference index, NDI) through fractional derivatives methods and in turn establishes a model for estimating and assessing the WQI. The results show that the calculated WQI values range between 56.61 and 2,886.51. We also explore the relationship between reflectance data and the WQI...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kristen N Wyckoff, Si Chen, Andrew J Steinman, Qiang He
Stormwater runoff from roadways has increasingly become a regulatory concern for water pollution control. Recent work has suggested roadway stormwater runoff as a potential source of microbial pollutants. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of roadway runoff on the microbiological quality of receiving streams. Microbiological quality of roadway stormwater runoff and the receiving stream was monitored during storm events with both cultivation-dependent fecal bacteria enumeration and cultivation-independent high-throughput sequencing techniques...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Caroline E Emilson, Dean G Thompson, Lisa A Venier, Teresita M Porter, Tom Swystun, Derek Chartrand, Scott Capell, Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Cost-effective, ecologically relevant, sensitive, and standardized indicators are requisites of biomonitoring. DNA metabarcoding of macroinvertebrate communities is a potentially transformative biomonitoring technique that can reduce cost and time constraints while providing information-rich, high resolution taxonomic data for the assessment of watershed condition. Here, we assess the utility of DNA metabarcoding to provide aquatic indicator data for evaluation of forested watershed condition across Canadian eastern boreal watersheds, subject to natural variation and low-intensity harvest management...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kristen A Kellock, Adrian P Moore, Robert B Bringolf
Nitrate is a ubiquitous aquatic pollutant that is commonly associated with eutrophication and dead zones in estuaries around the world. At high concentrations nitrate is toxic to aquatic life but at environmental concentrations it has also been purported as an endocrine disruptor in fish. To investigate the potential for nitrate to cause endocrine disruption in fish, we conducted a lifecycle study with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to nitrate (0, 11.3, and 56.5 mg/L (total nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N)) from <24 h post hatch to sexual maturity (209 days)...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
A L Swirski, D L Pearl, A S Peregrine, J Thomas, K Pintar
Giardia contamination in the Grand River Watershed (south-western Ontario, Canada) was monitored from 2005 to 2013 as part of FoodNet Canada. Our study objectives were to describe the temporal pattern of Giardia occurrence and determine whether water quality parameters and bacterial indicators could act as effective markers for Giardia occurrence. Water samples were collected monthly from the Grand River near a drinking water intake point (2005-2013) and also collected intermittently from other areas in the watershed during the study period...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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