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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806705/multiparametric-monitoring-of-microbial-faecal-pollution-reveals-the-dominance-of-human-contamination-along-the-whole-danube-river
#1
A K T Kirschner, G H Reischer, S Jakwerth, D Savio, S Ixenmaier, E Toth, R Sommer, R L Mach, R Linke, A Eiler, S Kolarevic, A H Farnleitner
The microbial faecal pollution of rivers has wide-ranging impacts on a variety of human activities that rely on appropriate river water quality. Thus, detailed knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution is crucial for watershed management activities to maintain safe water use. In this study, the microbial faecal pollution levels were monitored by standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) along a 2580 km stretch of the Danube, the world's most international river, as well as the Danube's most important tributaries...
July 22, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803153/comparison-of-sediment-and-nutrient-export-and-runoff-characteristics-from-watersheds-with-centralized-versus-distributed-stormwater-management
#2
Kristina G Hopkins, J V Loperfido, Laura S Craig, Gregory B Noe, Dianna M Hogan
Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are used to retain stormwater and pollutants. SCMs have traditionally been installed in a centralized manner using detention to mitigate peak flows. Recently, distributed SCM networks that treat runoff near the source have been increasingly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences among watersheds that vary in SCM arrangement by assessing differences in baseflow nutrient (NOx-N and PO4(-)) concentrations and fluxes, stormflow export of suspended sediments and particulate phosphorus (PP), and runoff characteristics...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800692/does-the-developmental-stage-and-composition-of-riparian-forest-stand-affect-ecosystem-functioning-in-streams
#3
Sahadevan Seena, Francisco Carvalho, Fernanda Cássio, Cláudia Pascoal
A common watershed restoration practice to improve water quality and stream ecosystem functions and services is replanting riparian corridors with plant species that may differ from those of natural communities. This restoration practice may have consequences on the aquatic ecosystem processes because organisms obtain energy from leaf litter inputs of the riparian zones. Leaf litter decomposition in streams is a vital ecosystem-level process, which depends on the activity of microorganisms and invertebrates...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799926/daily-runoff-prediction-using-the-linear-and-non-linear-models
#4
Alireza Sharifi, Yagob Dinpashoh, Rasoul Mirabbasi
Runoff prediction, as a nonlinear and complex process, is essential for designing canals, water management and planning, flood control and predicting soil erosion. There are a number of techniques for runoff prediction based on the hydro-meteorological and geomorphological variables. In recent years, several soft computing techniques have been developed to predict runoff. There are some challenging issues in runoff modeling including the selection of appropriate inputs and determination of the optimum length of training and testing data sets...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763654/evaluating-the-risk-of-phosphorus-loss-with-a-distributed-watershed-model-featuring-zero-order-mobilization-and-first-order-delivery
#5
Sisi Li, Liang Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Hugo A Loáiciga, Limei Zhai, Yanhua Zhuang, Qiuliang Lei, Wanli Hu, Wenchao Li, Qi Feng, Yun Du
Many semi-distributed models that simulate pollutants' losses from watersheds do not handle well detailed spatially distributed and temporal data with which to identify accurate and cost-effective strategies for controlling pollutants issuing from non-point sources. Such models commonly overlook the flow pathways of pollutants across the landscape. This work aims at closing such knowledge gap by developing a Spatially and Temporally Distributed Empirical model for Phosphorus Management (STEM-P) that simulates the daily phosphorus loss from source areas to receiving waters on a spatially-distributed grid-cell basis...
July 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756675/trees-and-streets-as-drivers-of-urban-stormwater-nutrient-pollution
#6
Benjamin D Janke, Jacques C Finlay, Sarah E Hobbie
Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756220/linking-terrestrial-phosphorus-inputs-to-riverine-export-across-the-united-states
#7
Genevieve S Metson, Jiajia Lin, John A Harrison, Jana E Compton
Humans have greatly accelerated phosphorus (P) flows from land to aquatic ecosystems, causing eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia. A variety of statistical and mechanistic models have been used to explore the relationship between P management on land and P losses to waterways, but our ability to predict P losses from watersheds often relies on small scale catchment studies, where detailed measurements can be made, or global scale models that that are often too coarse-scaled to be used directly in the management decision-making process...
July 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738202/predicting-carbon-benefits-from-climate-smart-agriculture-high-resolution-carbon-mapping-and-uncertainty-assessment-in-el-salvador
#8
Sean Patrick Kearney, Nicholas C Coops, Kai M A Chan, Steven J Fonte, Pablo Siles, Sean M Smukler
Agroforestry management in smallholder agriculture can provide climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits and has been promoted as 'climate-smart agriculture' (CSA), yet has generally been left out of international and voluntary carbon (C) mitigation agreements. A key reason for this omission is the cost and uncertainty of monitoring C at the farm scale in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes. A largely overlooked alternative is to monitor C at more aggregated scales and develop C contracts with groups of land owners, community organizations or C aggregators working across entire landscapes (e...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732403/ecosystem-service-trade-offs-and-their-influencing-factors-a-case-study-in-the-loess-plateau-of-china
#9
Qiang Feng, Wenwu Zhao, Bojie Fu, Jingyi Ding, Shuai Wang
Soil erosion control (SEC), carbon sequestration (CAS), and soil moisture (SMO) strongly interact in the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Since SMO has supportive effects on SEC and CAS, it can be considered as ecosystem service (ES), and there is an immediate need to coordinate the relationships among these ecosystem services (ESs) to promote the sustainability of vegetation recovery. In this study, we quantified the ESs, ES trade-offs, and the environmental factors in 151 sample plots in the Ansai watershed, and we used a redundancy analysis (RDA) to clarify the effects of environmental factors on these ESs and their trade-offs...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732398/simulation-of-targeted-pollutant-mitigation-strategies-to-reduce-nitrate-and-sediment-hotspots-in-agricultural-watershed
#10
Awoke Dagnew Teshager, Philip W Gassman, Silvia Secchi, Justin T Schoof
About 50% of U.S. water pollution problems are caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients from agricultural areas, despite the widespread implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). However, the effectiveness of implementation strategies and type of BMPs at watershed scale are still not well understood. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological model was used to assess the effectiveness of pollutant mitigation strategies in the Raccoon River watershed (RRW) in west-central Iowa, USA...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726224/spatial-scale-and-seasonal-dependence-of-land-use-impacts-on-riverine-water-quality-in-the-huai-river-basin-china
#11
Jianfeng Liu, Xiang Zhang, Bi Wu, Guoyan Pan, Jing Xu, Shaofei Wu
Land use pattern is an effective reflection of anthropic activities, which are primarily responsible for water quality deterioration. A detailed understanding of relationship between water quality and land use is critical for effective land use management to improve water quality. Linear mixed effects and multiple regression models were applied to water quality data collected from 2003 to 2010 from 36 stations in the Huai River basin together with topography and climate data, to characterize the land use impacts on water quality and their spatial scale and seasonal dependence...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724087/nitrate-leaching-from-winter-cereal-cover-crops-using-undisturbed-soil-column-lysimeters
#12
John J Meisinger, Kristin A Ricigliano
Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717387/human-mediated-evolution-in-a-threatened-species-juvenile-life-history-changes-in-snake-river-salmon
#13
Robin S Waples, Anna Elz, Billy D Arnsberg, James R Faulkner, Jeffrey J Hard, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Linda K Park
Evaluations of human impacts on Earth's ecosystems often ignore evolutionary changes in response to altered selective regimes. Freshwater habitats for Snake River fall Chinook salmon (SRFCS), a threatened species in the US, have been dramatically changed by hydropower development and other watershed modifications. Associated biological changes include a shift in juvenile life history: Historically essentially 100% of juveniles migrated to sea as subyearlings, but a substantial fraction have migrated as yearlings in recent years...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711008/sector-wise-midpoint-characterization-factors-for-impact-assessment-of-regional-consumptive-and-degradative-water-use
#14
Chia-Chun Lin, Jia-Yu Lin, Mengshan Lee, Pei-Te Chiueh
Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress...
July 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707260/historical-effects-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-export-and-land-management-decisions-on-the-watershed-scale-forest-carbon-budget-of-a-coastal-british-columbia-douglas-fir-dominated-landscape
#15
B P Smiley, J A Trofymow
BACKGROUND: To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692788/watershed-versus-within-lake-drivers-of-nitrogen-phosphorus-dynamics-in-shallow-lakes
#16
Luke J Ginger, Kyle D Zimmer, Brian R Herwig, Mark A Hanson, William O Hobbs, Gaston E Small, James B Cotner
Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid versus clear) on total N: total P (TN:TP), ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and seston stoichiometry...
July 10, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668632/urban-sewage-lipids-in-the-suspended-particulate-matter-of-a-coral-reef-under-river-influence-in-the-south-west-gulf-of-mexico
#17
Laura Carreón-Palau, Christopher C Parrish, Horacio Pérez-España
Nutritional quality of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and the degree of human fecal pollution in the largest coral reef system in the southwest Gulf of Mexico were evaluated using lipid classes, fatty acids (FA) and sterols in the dry and rainy seasons. High proportions of triacylglycerols and saturated and monounsaturated FA were detected in the SPM however it was considered poor quality because it had low proportions of highly unsaturated FA which can be used to determine production of marine biogenic material of dietary value to pelagic and benthic organisms...
June 22, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667849/contributions-of-climate-change-and-human-activities-to-runoff-change-in-seven-typical-catchments-across-china
#18
Ran Zhai, Fulu Tao
Climate change and human activities are two major factors affecting water resource change. It is important to understand the roles of the major factors in affecting runoff change in different basins for watershed management. Here, we investigated the trends in climate and runoff in seven typical catchments in seven basins across China from 1961 to 2014. Then we attributed the runoff change to climate change and human activities in each catchment and in three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000s), using the VIC model and long-term runoff observation data...
June 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667842/proactive-modeling-of-water-quality-impacts-of-extreme-precipitation-events-in-a-drinking-water-reservoir
#19
Lillian C Jeznach, Mark Hagemann, Mi-Hyun Park, John E Tobiason
Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667841/integrating-multisensor-satellite-data-merging-and-image-reconstruction-in-support-of-machine-learning-for-better-water-quality-management
#20
Ni-Bin Chang, Kaixu Bai, Chi-Farn Chen
Monitoring water quality changes in lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal waters is critical in response to the needs for sustainable development. This study develops a remote sensing-based multiscale modeling system by integrating multi-sensor satellite data merging and image reconstruction algorithms in support of feature extraction with machine learning leading to automate continuous water quality monitoring in environmentally sensitive regions. This new Earth observation platform, termed "cross-mission data merging and image reconstruction with machine learning" (CDMIM), is capable of merging multiple satellite imageries to provide daily water quality monitoring through a series of image processing, enhancement, reconstruction, and data mining/machine learning techniques...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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