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watershed management

Samuel Beskow, Gabriela S Nunes, Carlos R DE Mello, Tamara L Caldeira, Lloyd D Norton, Alice A Steinmetz, Marcelle M Vargas, Léo F Ávila
Heavy rainfall in conjunction with an increase in population and intensification of agricultural activities have resulted in countless problems related to flooding in watersheds. Among the techniques available for direct surface runoff (DSR) modeling and flood risk management are the Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH). This study focuses on the evaluation of predictive capability of two conceptual IUH models (Nash and Clark), considering their original (NIUH and CIUH) and geomorphological approaches (NIUHGEO and CIUHGEO), and their advantages over two traditional synthetics UH models - Triangular (TUH) and Dimensionless (DUH), to estimate DSR hydrographs taking as reference two Brazilian watersheds with contrasting geomorphological and climatic characteristics...
May 21, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Ying Ouyang, Johnny M Grace, Wayne C Zipperer, Jeff Hatten, Janet Dewey
Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nobuo Ishiyama, Masahiro Ryo, Taiga Kataoka, Shigeya Nagayama, Masanao Sueyoshi, Akira Terui, Terutaka Mori, Takumi Akasaka, Futoshi Nakamura
Large dams have provided vital protection and services to human life and the economy. However, an increasing number of large dams worldwide have aged considerably and have thus become hazardous due to impaired functions. The removal of large dams has excellent potential to restore habitat connectivity and flow regimes; therefore, projecting the related ecological consequences is a key emerging need for water resource and ecosystem management. However, no modeling methods are currently available for such projections at the basin scale...
May 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Michael G Sunde, Hong S He, Jason A Hubbart, Michael A Urban
Future urban development and climatic changes are likely to affect hydrologic regimes in many watersheds. Quantifying potential water regime changes caused by these stressors is therefore crucial for enabling decision makers to develop viable environmental management strategies. This study presents an approach that integrates mid-21st century impervious surface growth estimates derived from the Imperviousness Change Analysis Tool with downscaled climate model projections and a hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tool to characterize potential water regime changes in a mixed-use watershed in central Missouri, USA...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jingjun Su, Xinzhong Du, Xuyong Li
Uncertainty analysis is an important prerequisite for model application. However, the existing phosphorus (P) loss indexes or indicators were rarely evaluated. This study applied generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method to assess the uncertainty of parameters and modeling outputs of a non-point source (NPS) P indicator constructed in R language. And the influences of subjective choices of likelihood formulation and acceptability threshold of GLUE on model outputs were also detected. The results indicated the following...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elliott Kellner, Jason A Hubbart
Given existing knowledge gaps, there is a need for research that quantitatively characterizes spatiotemporal variation of suspended sediment particle size distribution (PSD) in contemporary watersheds. A five-year study was conducted in a representative watershed of the central United States utilizing a nested-scale experimental watershed study design, comprising five gauging sites partitioning the catchment into five sub-watersheds. Streamwater grab samples were collected four times per week, at each gauging site, for the duration of the study period (Oct...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Thorsten B H Reusch, Jan Dierking, Helen C Andersson, Erik Bonsdorff, Jacob Carstensen, Michele Casini, Mikolaj Czajkowski, Berit Hasler, Klaus Hinsby, Kari Hyytiäinen, Kerstin Johannesson, Seifeddine Jomaa, Veijo Jormalainen, Harri Kuosa, Sara Kurland, Linda Laikre, Brian R MacKenzie, Piotr Margonski, Frank Melzner, Daniel Oesterwind, Henn Ojaveer, Jens Christian Refsgaard, Annica Sandström, Gerald Schwarz, Karin Tonderski, Monika Winder, Marianne Zandersen
Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems...
May 2018: Science Advances
Brik R Zivkovich, David C Mays
Evaluating the impact of urban development on natural ecosystem processes has become an increasingly complex task for planners, environmental scientists, and engineers. As the built environment continues to grow, unregulated nonpoint pollutants from increased human activity and large-scale development severely stress urban streams and lakes resulting in their currently impaired or degraded state. In response, integrated water quality management programs have been adopted to address these unregulated nonpoint pollutants by utilizing best management practices (BMPs) that treat runoff as close to the source as possible...
2018: PloS One
Gehendra Kharel, Andrei Kirilenko
Background: Water level fluctuations in endorheic lakes are highly susceptible to even slight changes in climate and land use. Devils Lake (DL) in North Dakota, USA is an endorheic system that has undergone multi-decade flooding driven by changes in regional climate. Flooding mitigation strategies have centered on the release of lake water to a nearby river system through artificial outlets, resulting in legal challenges and environmental concerns related to water quality, downstream flooding, species migration, stakeholder opposition, and transboundary water conflicts between the US and Canada...
2018: PeerJ
Temesgen Gashaw, Taffa Tulu, Mekuria Argaw, Abeyou W Worqlul
Understanding the hydrological response of a watershed to land use/land cover (LULC) changes is imperative for water resources management planning. The objective of this study was to analyze the hydrological impacts of LULC changes in the Andassa watershed for a period of 1985-2015 and to predict the LULC change impact on the hydrological status in year 2045. The hybrid land use classification technique for classifying Landsat images (1985, 2000 and 2015); Cellular-Automata Markov (CA-Markov) for prediction of the 2030 and 2045 LULC states; the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for hydrological modeling were employed in the analyses...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Demetrio Antonio Zema, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Bruno Gianmarco Carrà, Pietro Denisi, Valdemir Antonio Rodrigues, Mauricio Ranzini, Francisco Carlos Soriano Arcova, Valdir de Cicco, Santo Marcello Zimbone
Given the intrinsic hydrological cycle made of large input of water vapour and intense precipitation producing large volumes of water and sediment, modelling runoff and water losses in humid tropical watersheds is important for forest and water resources management. For instance, reliable simulations of the water cycle in such environments are a prerequisite for predictions of water quality, soil erosion and the climate change effects on water resources. The distributed parameter, physically based, continuous simulation, daily time step AnnAGNPS model, was implemented in almost completely forested (98% of its area, 0...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
X Desmit, V Thieu, G Billen, F Campuzano, V Dulière, J Garnier, L Lassaletta, A Ménesguen, R Neves, L Pinto, M Silvestre, J L Sobrinho, G Lacroix
Marine eutrophication in the North-East Atlantic (NEA) strongly relies on nutrient enrichment at the river outlets, which is linked to human activities and land use in the watersheds. The question is whether human society can reduce its nutrient emissions by changing land use without compromising food security. A new version of Riverstrahler model (pyNuts-Riverstrahler) was designed to estimate the point and diffuse nutrient emissions (N, P, Si) to the rivers depending on land use in the watersheds across a large domain (Western Europe agro-food systems, waste water treatment)...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Behmel, M Damour, R Ludwig, M J Rodriguez
Water quality monitoring programs (WQMPs) must be based on monitoring objectives originating from the real knowledge needs of all stakeholders in a watershed and users of the resource. This paper proposes a participative approach to elicit knowledge needs and preferred modes of communication from citizens and representatives of organized stakeholders (ROS) on water quality and quantity issues. The participative approach includes six steps and is adaptable and transferable to different types of watersheds. These steps are: (1) perform a stakeholder analysis; (2) conduct an adaptable survey accompanied by a user-friendly public participation geographical information system (PPGIS); (3) hold workshops to meet with ROS to inform them of the results of the survey and PPGIS; discuss attainment of past monitoring objectives; exchange views on new knowledge needs and concerns on water quality and quantity; (4) meet with citizens to obtain the same type of input (as from ROS); (5) analyze the data and information collected to identify new knowledge needs and modes of communication and (6) identify, in collaboration with the individuals in charge of the WQMPs, the short-, medium- and long-term monitoring objectives and communication strategies to be pursued...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Nabee Basatnia, Seyed Abbas Hossein, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Yones Khaledian, Eric C Brevik, Jacqueline Aitkenhead-Peterson, Usha Natesan
Coastal lagoon ecosystems are vulnerable to eutrophication, which leads to the accumulation of nutrients from the surrounding watershed over the long term. However, there is a lack of information about methods that could accurate quantify this problem in rapidly developed countries. Therefore, various statistical methods such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and ordinary least squares regression (OLS) were used in this study to estimate total organic matter content in sediments (TOM) using other parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrite (NO2 ), nitrate (NO3 ), biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate (PO4 ), total phosphorus (TP), salinity, and water depth along a 3-km transect in the Gomishan Lagoon (Iran)...
April 29, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Miae Ha, Zhonglong Zhang, May Wu
A watershed model was developed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that simulates nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loadings in the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB). The LMRB SWAT model was calibrated and validated using 21 years of observed flow, sediment, and water-quality data. The baseline model results indicate that agricultural lands within the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) are the dominant sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharging into the Gulf of Mexico. The model was further used to evaluate the impact of biomass production, in the presence of riparian buffers in the LMRB, on suspended-sediment and nutrient loading discharge from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico...
April 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jeffrey C Davids, Martine M Rutten, Ram Devi T Shah, Deep N Shah, Nischal Devkota, Petra Izeboud, Anusha Pandey, Nick van de Giesen
Land development without thoughtful water supply planning can lead to unsustainability. In practice, management of our lands and waters is often unintegrated. We present new land-use, ecological stream health, water quality, and streamflow data from nine perennial watersheds in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, in the 2016 monsoon (i.e., August and September) and 2017 pre-monsoon (i.e., April and May) periods. Our goal was to improve understanding of the longitudinal linkages between land-use and water. At a total of 38 locations, the Rapid Stream Assessment (RSA) protocol was used to characterize stream ecology, basic water quality parameters were collected with a handheld WTW multi-parameter meter, and stream flow was measured with a SonTek FlowTracker Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Rajendra P Sishodia, Sanjay Shukla, Suhas P Wani, Wendy D Graham, James W Jones
Simultaneous effects of future climate and irrigation intensification on surface and groundwater systems are not well understood. Efforts are needed to understand the future groundwater availability and associated surface flows under business-as-usual management to formulate policy changes to improve water sustainability. We combine measurements with integrated modeling (MIKE SHE/MIKE11) to evaluate the effects of future climate (2040-2069), with and without irrigation expansion, on water levels and flows in an agricultural watershed in low-storage crystalline aquifer region of south India...
April 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jordyn Wolfand, Colin D Bell, Alexandria B Boehm, Terri Hogue, Richard G Luthy
Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are implemented to reduce microbial pollution in runoff, but their removal efficiencies differ. Enhanced BMPs, such as those with media amendments, can increase removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in runoff from 0.25-log10 to above 3-log10 ; however, their implications for watershed-scale management are poorly understood. In this work, a computational model was developed to simulate watershed-scale bacteria loading and BMP performance, using the Ballona Creek Watershed (Los Angeles County, CA) as a case study...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Goran Volf, Nataša Atanasova, Mateja Škerjanec, Nevenka Ožanić
Northern Adriatic (NA) is one of the most productive parts of the Mediterranean Sea due to vast nutrient discharges from the contributing watershed. To understand better the excess of nutrients as stressors to the state of the marine ecosystem, a hybrid modeling approach following the DPSIR framework and terminology was developed, linking: 1) the AVGWLF model for modeling the pressures, i.e. nutrients originating from the watershed caused by two major drivers (urbanization and agriculture), 2) the ML tool MTSMOTI for inducing a model tree connecting the pressures with the marine ecosystem state, and 3) the water quality index, TRIX, equation to evaluate the trophic state of the marine ecosystem...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hans W Paerl, Timothy G Otten, Raphael Kudela
Anthropogenic nutrient overenrichment, coupled with rising temperatures, and an increasing frequency of extreme hydrologic events (storms and droughts) are accelerating eutrophication and promoting the expansion of harmful algal blooms (HABs) across the freshwater-to-marine continuum. All HABs-with a focus here on cyanobacterial blooms-pose serious consequences for water supplies, fisheries, recreational uses, tourism, and property values. As nutrient loads grow in watersheds, they begin to compound the effects of legacy stores...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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