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watershed management

Kinya Toride, Dylan L Cawthorne, Kei Ishida, M Levent Kavvas, Michael L Anderson
California's interconnected water system is one of the most advanced water management systems in the world, and understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric and hydrologic behavior has increasingly being seen as vital to its future well-being. Knowledge of such trends is hampered by the lack of long-period observation data and the uncertainty surrounding future projections of atmospheric models. This study examines historical precipitation trends over the Shasta Dam watershed (SDW), which lies upstream of one of the most important components of California's water system, Shasta Dam, using a dynamical downscaling methodology that can produce atmospheric data at fine time-space scales...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wen Xu, Yanpeng Cai, Qiangqiang Rong, Zhifeng Yang, Chunhui Li, Xuan Wang
The Miyun Reservoir plays a pivotal role in providing drinking water for the city of Beijing. In this research, ecological network analysis and scenario analysis were integrated to explore soil nitrogen cycling of chestnut and Chinese pine forests in the upper basin of the Miyun Reservoir, as well as to seek favorable fertilization modes to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution. Ecological network analysis results showed that (1) the turnover time was 0.04 to 0.37 year in the NH4+ compartment and were 15...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Timothy T Eaton
Urban stormwater control is an urgent concern in megacities where increased impervious surface has disrupted natural hydrology. Water managers are increasingly turning to more environmentally friendly ways of capturing stormwater, called Green Infrastructure (GI), to mitigate combined sewer overflow (CSO) that degrades local water quality. A rapid screening approach is described to evaluate how GI strategies can reduce the amount of stormwater runoff in a low-density residential watershed in New York City. Among multiple possible tools, the L-THIA LID online software package, using the SCS-CN method, was selected to estimate relative runoff reductions expected with different strategies in areas of different land uses in the watershed...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
David R L Burge, Mark B Edlund, Dagmar Frisch
Paleolimnologists have utilized lake sediment records to understand historical lake and landscape development, timing and magnitude of environmental change at lake, watershed, regional and global scales, and as historical datasets to target watershed and lake management. Resurrection ecologists have long recognized lake sediments as sources of viable propagules ("seed or egg banks") with which to explore questions of community ecology, ecological response, and evolutionary ecology. Most researchers consider Daphnia as the primary model organism in these efforts, but many other aquatic biota, from viruses to macrophytes, similarly produce viable propagules that are incorporated in the sediment record but have been underutilized in resurrection ecology...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Emi Uchida, Stephen K Swallow, Arthur Gold, James Opaluch, Achyut Kafle, Nathaniel Merrill, Clayton Michaud, Carrie Anne Gill
Innovative market mechanisms are being increasingly recognized as effective decision-making institutions to incorporate the value of ecosystem services into the economy. We present a field experiment that integrates an economic auction and a biophysical water flux model to develop a local market process consisting of both the supply and demand sides. On the supply side, we operate an auction with small-scale livestock owners who bid for contracts to implement site-specific manure management practices that reduce phosphorus loadings to a major reservoir...
April 1, 2018: Ecological Economics: the Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
Aminreza Meghdadi, Narmin Javar
Spatial and seasonal variations in nitrate contamination are a globally concern. While numerous studies have used δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 to elucidate the dominant sources of nitrate in groundwater, this approach has significant limitations due to the overlap of nitrate isotopic ranges and the occurrence of nitrate isotopic fractionation. This study quantitatively assessed the spatial and seasonal variations in the proportional contributions of nitrate sources from different land uses in the Tarom watershed in North-West Iran...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
J Jódar, E Carpintero, S Martos-Rosillo, A Ruiz-Constán, C Marín-Lechado, J A Cabrera-Arrabal, E Navarrete-Mazariegos, A González-Ramón, L J Lambán, C Herrera, M P González-Dugo
Assessing water resources in high mountain semi-arid zones is essential to be able to manage and plan the use of these resources downstream where they are used. However, it is not easy to manage an unknown resource, a situation that is common in the vast majority of high mountain hydrological basins. In the present work, the discharge flow in an ungauged basin is estimated using the hydrological parameters of an HBV (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) model calibrated in a "neighboring gauged basin"...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Brett D Hartman, David A Cleveland
Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Stefan Bieber, Shane A Snyder, Sonia Dagnino, Tanja Rauch-Williams, Jörg E Drewes
To ensure an appropriate management of potential health risks and uncertainties from the release of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) into the aqueous environment, many countries have evaluated and implemented strategies to manage TOrCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing management strategies for TOrCs in different countries to derive and compare underlying core principles and paradigms and to develop suggestions for more holistic management strategies to protect the environment and drinking water supplies from the discharge of undesired TOrCs...
December 16, 2017: Chemosphere
R Srinivas, Ajit Pratap Singh, Anirban Deshmukh
One of the primary objectives of river basin planning and management is to assess the behavior of the river towards man-made and natural changes. In recent times, the self-purifying capacity of the river is found to be substantially affected because of extensive use of water for agricultural and industrial purposes. Any variation in the flow regime of a river poses a severe impact on the aquatic ecosystem, which affects its self-purifying capacity. Diverting river water for industrial and agricultural uses through dams and barrages reduces the natural flow rate of the river...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Laure Nitschelm, Virginie Parnaudeau, Francoise Vertès, Hayo M G van der Werf, Michael S Corson, Valerie Viaud, Joel Aubin, Christian Walter
In life cycle assessment (LCA), simple models are currently used to estimate cropping system nitrogen (N) emissions on farms. At large spatial scales (e.g., countries), these models are valid. At a smaller spatial scale (e.g., territories), these models may be less accurate, since they completely or partially ignore local conditions such as management practices, soil or climate. The purpose of this study was to consider the variability of those factors when estimating N emissions in LCA at the watershed scale...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Sheila Cardoso-Silva, Julio Cesar López-Doval, Viviane Moschini-Carlos, Marcelo Pompêo
Reservoirs in urban areas are used for different purposes and are liable to different types of pressures that can cause the loss of chemical and biological quality, hence diminishing their ecological, economic, and cultural benefits. Here, a study of surface water heterogeneity was undertaken at the Guarapiranga urban reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) in order to improve understanding of the structure and functioning of these ecosystems. Sampling was performed during the dry and rainy seasons at 33 sites. Limnological variables and total contents of the metals cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc were analyzed...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Erin E Scott, Mansoor D K Leh, Brian E Haggard
Pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment and public health concern world-wide. In the United States, each state is tasked with developing water quality standards (WQS) to protect the designated use(s) of waterbodies. Several streams in the Illinois River Watershed in northwest Arkansas are currently listed as impaired due to elevated levels of pathogens. Our objective was to evaluate Escherichia coli (E. coli) numbers at 29 stream sites, compare these numbers to the applicable WQS, and investigate the relationship between E...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Sezar Gülbaz, Cevza Melek Kazezyılmaz-Alhan
Recent techniques should be investigated in detail to avoid present and future problems of urbanization like flood, drought and water pollution. Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) such as bioretentions, green roofs, rain barrels, vegetative swales, and permeable pavements have been implemented to diminish the adverse effects of urbanization. In this study, a hydrological model for a Rainfall-Watershed-Bioretention (RWB) system is developed by using the Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM)...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Gabriel L Brejão, David J Hoeinghaus, María Angélica Pérez-Mayorga, Silvio F B Ferraz, Lilian Casatti
Deforestation is a primary driver of biodiversity change through habitat loss and fragmentation. Stream biodiversity may not respond to deforestation in a simple linear relationship. Rather, threshold responses to extent and timing of deforestation may occur. Identification of critical deforestation thresholds is needed for effective conservation and management. We tested for threshold responses of fish species and functional groups to degree of watershed and riparian zone deforestation and time since impact in 75 streams in the western Brazilian Amazon...
December 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria, Simone Athayde, Elineide E Marques, Maria Alice Leite Lima, Jynessa Dutka-Gianelli, Mauro Luis Ruffino, David Kaplan, Carlos E C Freitas, Victoria N Isaac
We analyze the invisibility of fisheries and inadequacy of fishers' participation in the process of hydropower development in the Amazon, focusing on gaps between legally mandated and actual outcomes. Using Ostrom's institutional design principles for assessing common-pool resource management, we selected five case studies from Brazilian Amazonian watersheds to conduct an exploratory comparative case-study analysis. We identify similar problems across basins, including deficiencies in the dam licensing process; critical data gaps; inadequate stakeholder participation; violation of human rights; neglect of fishers' knowledge; lack of organization and representation by fishers' groups; and lack of governmental structure and capacity to manage dam construction activities or support fishers after dam construction...
December 5, 2017: Ambio
Jeffrey Czajkowski, Vic Engel, Chris Martinez, Ali Mirchi, David Watkins, Michael C Sukop, Joseph D Hughes
High-value urban zones in coastal South Florida are considered particularly vulnerable to salt water intrusion into the groundwater-based, public water supplies caused by sea level rise (SLR) in combination with the low topography, existing high water table, and permeable karst substrate. Managers in the region closely regulate water depths in the extensive South Florida canal network to control closely coupled groundwater levels and thereby reduce the risk of saltwater intrusion into the karst aquifer. Potential SLR adaptation strategies developed by local managers suggest canal and groundwater levels may have to be increased over time to prevent the increased salt water intrusion risk to groundwater resources...
November 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Colin Fraser, Scott Jackson
This commentary examines recent shifts in air temperature data coinciding with high-magnitude precipitation events at climate stations spanning an elevational and longitudinal gradient on British Columbia's south coast. Results presented show that high-magnitude winter precipitation events are occurring on the south coast of British Columbia under progressively warmer conditions. In the future, proportionally more winter precipitation is anticipated to report as rainfall versus snow, and over time these changes will have a marked impact on the snow-melt dominated hydrographs that characterize local watersheds...
November 29, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Xiaoyan Zhai, Yongyong Zhang
Diffuse nutrient loss is a serious threat to water security and has severely deteriorated water quality throughout the world. Xin'anjiang catchment, as a main drinking water source for Hangzhou City, has been a national concern for water environment protection with payment for watershed services construction. Detection of diffuse phosphorous (DP) pollution dynamics under climate change is significant for sustainable water quality management. In this study, the impact of projected climate change on DP load was analyzed using SWAT to simulate the future changes of diffuse components (carriers: water discharge and sediment; nutrient: DP) at both station and sub-catchment scales under three climate change scenarios (RCP2...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
C B Rohal, K M Kettenring, K Sims, E L G Hazelton, Z Ma
Managers of invasive species consider the peer-reviewed literature only moderately helpful for guiding their management programs. Though this "knowing-doing gap" has been well-described, there have been few efforts to guide scientists in how to develop useful and usable science. Here we demonstrate how a comprehensive survey of managers (representing 42 wetland management units across the Great Salt Lake watershed) can highlight management practices and challenges (here for the widespread invasive plant, Phragmites australis, a recent and aggressive invader in this region) to ultimately inform a research program...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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