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watershed management

Jade M S Delevaux, Robert Whittier, Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Leah L Bremer, Stacy Jupiter, Alan M Friedlander, Matthew Poti, Greg Guannel, Natalie Kurashima, Kawika B Winter, Robert Toonen, Eric Conklin, Chad Wiggins, Anders Knudby, Whitney Goodell, Kimberly Burnett, Susan Yee, Hla Htun, Kirsten L L Oleson, Tracy Wiegner, Tamara Ticktin
Declining natural resources have led to a cultural renaissance across the Pacific that seeks to revive customary ridge-to-reef management approaches to protect freshwater and restore abundant coral reef fisheries. Effective ridge-to-reef management requires improved understanding of land-sea linkages and decision-support tools to simultaneously evaluate the effects of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reefs, mediated by anthropogenic activities. Although a few applications have linked the effects of land cover to coral reefs, these are too coarse in resolution to inform watershed-scale management for Pacific Islands...
2018: PloS One
Abderrezak Kamel Toubal, Mohammed Achite, Sylvain Ouillon, Abdelatif Dehni
Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Liyin Qu, Hong Huang, Fang Xia, Yuanyuan Liu, Randy A Dahlgren, Minghua Zhang, Kun Mei
Heavy metal pollution is a major concern in China because of its serious effects on human health. To assess potential human health and ecological risks of heavy metal pollution, concentration data for seven heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Cu, Zn) from 14 sites spanning the rural-urban interface of the Wen-Rui Tang River watershed in southeast China were collected from 2000 to 2010. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI), hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR) metrics were used to assess potential heavy metal risks...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Chongwei Li, Yajuan Zhang, Gehendra Kharel, Chris B Zou
Nutrient discharge into peri-urban streams and reservoirs constitutes a significant pressure on environmental management, but quantitative assessment of non-point source pollution under climate variability in fast changing peri-urban watersheds is challenging. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water budget and nutrient loads for landscape patterns representing a 30-year progression of urbanization in a peri-urban watershed near Tianjin metropolis, China. A suite of landscape pattern indices was related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads under dry and wet climate using CANOCO redundancy analysis...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Management
Jonathan S Lefcheck, Robert J Orth, William C Dennison, David J Wilcox, Rebecca R Murphy, Jennifer Keisman, Cassie Gurbisz, Michael Hannam, J Brooke Landry, Kenneth A Moore, Christopher J Patrick, Jeremy Testa, Donald E Weller, Richard A Batiuk
Humans strongly impact the dynamics of coastal systems, yet surprisingly few studies mechanistically link management of anthropogenic stressors and successful restoration of nearshore habitats over large spatial and temporal scales. Such examples are sorely needed to ensure the success of ecosystem restoration efforts worldwide. Here, we unite 30 consecutive years of watershed modeling, biogeochemical data, and comprehensive aerial surveys of Chesapeake Bay, United States to quantify the cascading effects of anthropogenic impacts on submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), an ecologically and economically valuable habitat...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Feijian Mao, Luhua You, Martin Reinhard, YiLiang He, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
The study investigated the occurrence and fate of seven benzophenone-type UV filters (i.e., 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (2,4OH-BP), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (2,2',4,4'OH-BP), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (2OH-4MeO-BP), 2,2'-Dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone (2,2'OH-4,4'MeO-BP), 2,2'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (2,2'OH-4MeO-BP), 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4OH-BP) and 4,4'-dihyroxybenzophenone (4DHB)) in a tropical urban watershed consisting of five major tributaries that discharge into a well-managed basin...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Subhasis Giri, Zeyuan Qiu, Zhen Zhang
Understanding the relationship between land use and water quality is essential to improve water quality through carefully managing landscape change. This study applies a linear mixed model at both watershed and hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) scales to assess such a relationship in 28 northcentral New Jersey watersheds located in a rapidly urbanizing region in the United States. Two models differ in terms of the geographic scope used to derive land use matrices that quantify land use conditions. The land use matrices at the watershed and HSAs scales represent the land use conditions in these watersheds and their HSAs, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Joshua A Steele, A Denene Blackwood, John F Griffith, Rachel T Noble, Kenneth C Schiff
Along southern California beaches, the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used to quantify the potential presence of fecal contamination in coastal recreational waters have been previously documented to be higher during wet weather conditions (typically winter or spring) than those observed during summer dry weather conditions. FIB are used for management of recreational waters because measurement of the bacterial and viral pathogens that are the potential causes of illness in beachgoers exposed to stormwater can be expensive, time-consuming, and technically difficult...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
Ilkwon Kim, Sebastian Arnhold
In mountainous watersheds, agricultural land use cause changes in ecosystem services, with trade-offs between crop production and erosion regulation. Management of these watersheds can generate environmental land use conflicts among regional stakeholders with different interests. Although several researches have made a start in mapping land use conflicts between human activities and conservation, spatial assessment of land use conflicts on environmental issues and ecosystem service trade-offs within agricultural areas has not been fully considered...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alain Isabwe, Jun R Yang, Yongming Wang, Lemian Liu, Huihuang Chen, Jun Yang
Although the influence of microbial community assembly processes on aquatic ecosystem function and biodiversity is well known, the processes that govern planktonic communities in human-impacted rivers remain largely unstudied. Here, we used multivariate statistics and a null model approach to test the hypothesis that environmental conditions and obstructed dispersal opportunities, dictate a deterministic community assembly for phytoplankton and bacterioplankton across contrasting hydrographic conditions in a subtropical mid-sized river (Jiulong River, southeast China)...
February 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hong-Duck Ryu, Min-Seob Kim, Eu Gene Chung, Un-Il Baek, Sun-Jung Kim, Deok-Woo Kim, Yong Seok Kim, Jae-Kwan Lee
This study aimed to develop methods for assessing and identifying nitrogen sources in the Cheongmi River, Korea, that has intensive livestock farming areas (ILFA) in its watershed. The assessment focused on the feasibility of the simultaneous use of stable isotopic compositions of ammonium (δ15 NNH4 ) and nitrate (δ15 NNO3 ) for identifying the main nitrogen pollution sources in the Cheongmi River watershed. Our results suggested that the organic nitrogen (Org-N) to total nitrogen (T-N) ratio could be used as an indicator for assessing the effect of livestock excreta on waterways in ILFA...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rohan Benjankar, Daniele Tonina, James A McKean, Mohammad M Sohrabi, Quiwen Chen, Dmitri Vidergar
Dam operation impacts on stream hydraulics and ecological processes are well documented, but their effect depends on geographical regions and varies spatially and temporally. Many studies have quantified their effects on aquatic ecosystem based mostly on flow hydraulics overlooking stream water temperature and climatic conditions. Here, we used an integrated modeling framework, an ecohydraulics virtual watershed, that links catchment hydrology, hydraulics, stream water temperature and aquatic habitat models to test the hypothesis that reservoir management may help to mitigate some impacts caused by climate change on downstream flows and temperature...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ruoyu Wang, Latif Kalin
This study investigated potential changes in flow, total suspended solid (TSS) and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) loadings under future climate change, land use/cover (LULC) change and combined change scenarios in the Wolf Bay watershed, southern Alabama, USA. Four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under three Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES) of greenhouse gas were used to assess the future climate change (2016-2040). Three projected LULC maps (2030) were employed to reflect different extents of urbanization in future...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Luis Zambrano, Rodrigo Pacheco-Muñoz, Tania Fernández
Floods in cities are increasingly common as a consequence of multifactor watershed dynamics, including geomorphology, land-use changes and land subsidence. However, urban managers have focused on infrastructure to address floods by reducing blocked sewage infrastructure, without significant success. Using Mexico City as a case study, we generated a spatial flood risk model with geomorphology and anthropogenic variables. The results helped contrast the implications of different public policies in land use and waste disposal, and correlating them with flood hazards...
February 24, 2018: Ambio
Bizuneh Woldeab, Abebe Beyene, Argaw Ambelu, Ishi Buffam, Seid Tiku Mereta
This research investigated the spatiotemporal variation of water quality in the Gilgel Gibe reservoir, Ethiopia, using physicochemical water quality parameters. Nonparametric tests and multivariate statistical techniques were used to evaluate data sets measured during dry and rainy seasons. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3 - ), total dissolved solids (TDSs), and total suspended solids (TSSs) were all significantly different among seasons (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
C-I Moon, O Lee
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate skin condition, expensive equipment is required, continuous skin care is difficult. Therefore, we obtain the skin image using mobile camera, and propose a new algorithm that easily and simply extracts skin features. METHODS: We analyze skin features, extracting the wrinkle length, cell area, and the number of cells. To get accurate skin features, we obtain a new skin binary image, and apply Watershed segmentation to it...
February 22, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Jacquelyn C Guzy, Evan A Eskew, Brian J Halstead, Steven J Price
Almost all large rivers worldwide are fragmented by dams, and their impacts have been modeled using the serial discontinuity concept (SDC), a series of predictions regarding responses of key biotic and abiotic variables. We evaluated the effects of damming on anuran communities along a 245-km river corridor by conducting repeated, time-constrained anuran calling surveys at 42 locations along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers in South Carolina, USA. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we test the biodiversity prediction of the SDC (modified for floodplain rivers) by evaluating anuran occupancy and species diversity relative to dams and degree of urbanized land use...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Shengli Li, Weifang Yang, Lizhu Wang, Kai Chen, Sheng Xu, Beixin Wang
Key environmental factors and the mechanisms of their influence on the physicochemical habitats and macroinvertebrate communities of streams may vary among ecoregions. We studied the differences in environmental (land use and physicochemical) factors and the mechanisms of their influence on macroinvertebrate assemblages between mountain and lowland ecoregions in central China. We applied generalized linear models to identify key environmental factors that influence macroinvertebrate metrics consisting of taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, percentages of EPT and intolerant individuals, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Wanggi Jaung, Gary Q Bull, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Markum, Louis Putzel
Eco-certification is one solution to the common problem of verification of delivery of services in payment for ecosystem services (PES) schemes. Certification incurs costs, which may limit uptake, so it should be able to benefit users of certified services for it succeeds. In part to inform a project targeting expansion of the Forest Stewardship Council's forest management certification to include ecosystem services, we tested market demand for a potential certification scheme for watershed services. Using choice experiments among end-users of water subject to an existing PES scheme in Lombok, Indonesia, we assessed potential business values of certification...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Chen Lin, Ronghua Ma, Junfeng Xiong
The physicochemical properties of surface soil play a key role in the fate of watershed non-point source pollution. Special emphasis is needed to identify soil properties that are sensitive to both particulate P (PP) pollution and dissolved P (DP) pollution, which is essential for watershed environmental management. The Chaohu Lake basin, a typical eutrophic lake in China, was selected as the study site. The spatial features of the Non-point Source (NPS) PP loads and DP loads were calculated simultaneously based on the integration of sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD) and pollution loads (PLOAD) model...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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