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Isolation due to illness

N C Knox, K A Weedmark, J Conly, A W Ensminger, F S Hosein, S J Drews
An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred in an inner city district in Calgary, Canada. This outbreak spanned a 3-week period in November-December 2012, and a total of eight cases were identified. Four of these cases were critically ill requiring intensive care admission but there was no associated mortality. All cases tested positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) by urinary antigen testing. Five of the eight patients were culture positive for LP1 from respiratory specimens. These isolates were further identified as Knoxville monoclonal subtype and sequence subtype ST222...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
Champica K Bodinayake, L Gayani Tillekeratne, Ajith Nagahawatte, Vasantha Devasiri, Wasantha Kodikara Arachichi, John J Strouse, October M Sessions, Ruvini Kurukulasooriya, Anna Uehara, Shiqin Howe, Xin Mei Ong, Sharon Tan, Angelia Chow, Praveen Tummalapalli, Aruna D De Silva, Truls Østbye, Christopher W Woods, Duane J Gubler, Megan E Reller
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a frequent cause of acute febrile illness with an expanding global distribution. Since the 1960s, dengue in Sri Lanka has been documented primarily along the heavily urbanized western coast with periodic shifting of serotypes. Outbreaks from 2005-2008 were attributed to a new clade of DENV-3 and more recently to a newly introduced genotype of DENV-1. In 2007, we conducted etiologic surveillance of acute febrile illness in the Southern Province and confirmed dengue in only 6...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nurver Ulger Toprak, Gulcin Balkose, Deniz Durak, Ender Dulundu, Tolga Demirbaş, Cumhur Yegen, Guner Soyletir
Extra-intestinal infections due to Clostridium difficile have been reported rarely. Herein we report a case of pyogenic liver abscess from toxigenic C. difficile in an 80-year-old non-hospitalized woman with diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with fever and abdominal pain. There was no history of diarrhea or use of antibiotics. Laboratory parameters revealed signs of inflammation and elevated AST and ALT levels. Abdominal ultrasound and computer tomography showed multiple focal lesions in the bilateral liver lobes and hydropic gallbladder with stones...
September 28, 2016: Anaerobe
Anna Bortolan
In this study I explore from a phenomenological perspective the relationship between affectivity and narrative self-understanding in depression. Phenomenological accounts often conceive of the disorder as involving disturbances of the narrative self and suggest that these disturbances are related to the alterations of emotions and moods typical of the illness. In this paper I expand these accounts by advancing two sets of claims. In the first place, I suggest that, due to the loss of feeling characteristic of the illness, the narratives with which the patients identified prior to the onset of depression are altered in various ways, thus leading to the weakening or abandonment of the narratives themselves...
September 27, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
K Boyce, H Brar, S N Stabler
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia is a rare adverse event that remains a diagnostic challenge, especially in the critically ill population. There are only two previously reported cases of rapid and profound thrombocytopenia after administration of piperacillin/tazobactam. CASE SUMMARY: A 64-year-old man experienced several episodes of isolated thrombocytopenia after receiving piperacillin/tazobactam. Interestingly, the degree of thrombocytopenia varied with the amount of corticosteroid therapy the patient was receiving...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Devendra H Shah, Narayan C Paul, Willium C Sischo, Rocio Crespo, Jean Guard
Salmonella spp. is the most predominant bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Due to the risk of human infection associated with poultry products and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella also poses a significant challenge to commercial poultry production. During the last decade (2002 to 2012), the 12 most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) were frequently and consistently isolated from poultry products in the United States. These MPPSTs and their percent prevalence in poultry products include Kentucky (4%), Enteritidis (2%) Heidelberg (2%), Typhimurium (2%), S...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Erin Sparrow, Martin Friede, Mohamud Sheikh, Siranda Torvaldsen, Anthony T Newall
The Global Action Plan for influenza vaccines (GAP) aims to increase the production capacity of vaccines so that in the event of a pandemic there is an adequate supply to meet global needs. However, it has been estimated that even in the best case scenario there would be a considerable delay of at least five to six months for the first supplies of vaccine to become available after the isolation of the strain and availability of the candidate vaccine virus to vaccine manufacturers. By this time, the virus is likely to have already infected millions of people worldwide, causing significant mortality, morbidity and economic loss...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
Amar Dhand, Douglas A Luke, Catherine E Lang, Jin-Moo Lee
Every patient is embedded in a social network of interpersonal connections that influence health outcomes. Neurologists routinely need to engage with a patient's family and friends due to the nature of the illness and its social sequelae. Social isolation is a potent determinant of poor health and neurobiological changes, and its effects can be comparable to those of traditional risk factors. It would seem reasonable, therefore, to map and follow the personal networks of neurology patients. This approach reveals influential people, their habits, and linkage patterns that could facilitate or limit health behaviours...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Shik Luk, Wing-Kin Wong, Alex Yat-Man Ho, Kelvin Chung-Ho Yu, Wing-Kin To, Tak-Keung Ng
Knowledge of risk factors and clinical characteristics of bacteraemia caused by plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (pAmpC-Kp) is not well described. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with K. pneumoniae bacteraemia in three Hong Kong regional hospitals. Demographic and clinical data were retrieved from medical records. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed for molecular epidemiology. A total of 109 patients were included, divided into four groups: bacteraemia due to K...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
K M Feye, K L Anderson, M F Scott, D R McIntyre, S A Carlson
Salmonella carriage is an insidious problem for the poultry industry. While most Salmonella serotypes are avirulent in poultry, these bacteria can contaminate chicken meat during processing, leading to one of the most important food safety hazards. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Diamond V Original XPC(™) (XPC) included in the finisher diet fed to commercial broilers. On 3 occasions between day one (D1) and D20, broilers were experimentally infected with multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium...
August 26, 2016: Poultry Science
Constantinos Tsioutis, Evangelos I Kritsotakis, Spyridon A Karageorgos, Soultana Stratakou, Charalambos Psarologakis, Sofia Kokkini, Achilleas Gikas
Limited data exist regarding prognostic factors and optimal antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). This retrospective cohort study included 93 adult patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to XDR-AB in the ICU of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from October 2012 to April 2015. XDR-AB isolates were mainly susceptible to colistin (93.5%) and tigecycline (25.8%), whereas 6 (6.5%) were pandrug-resistant...
August 12, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Rob Gandy, Amelia Bell, Bob McClelland, Brenda Roe
: Aim Age UK Lancashire received Big Lottery funding to deliver an active lives programme from January 2012 to December 2014 to the population of West Lancashire aged over 50 years. The overall aims of the associated evaluation were to measure older people's experiences of participating in the programme, identify the impacts on their health and well-being and their suggestions for services development, and establish the costs and benefits of the programme. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends older people should be able to achieve physical, social and mental well-being throughout their lives, and that international, national and local policies should be developed to support older adults, promote their independence and well-being, and encourage physical exercise...
August 19, 2016: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Cihadiye Elif Öztürk, İdris Şahin, Şükrü Öksüz, Nida Kılıç, Özge Kılınçel, Leyla Aydın, Dursun Atik, Emine Afşin
Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Senthil Nathan Sambandam, Ganeshkumar Jayasree Rohinikumar, Arif Gul, Varatharaj Mounasamy
Abscess formation following intramuscular injections is rare and they are most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. In this case series we present a cohort of three patients presented to us in a critically ill condition with an abscess due to intramuscular injection. Vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus was isolated from all three patients. These patients posed a major challenge to the healthcare system and the treating physician because of the: severity of illness, virulence and resistance of the organism, rarity of the situation, immune state of the patient, and lack of supporting evidence to properly guide management in the use of health resources...
June 2016: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Anup K Ghosh, Amit Gupta, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Saikat Paul, Vinay Kumar Hallur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
To assess the prevalence of fungal keratitis, we conducted a retrospective study over 7 years (2005 through 2011) at a tertiary care center in North India. Effort has been made to analyze the disease burden, spectrum of agents and treatment history. The findings were compared with an earlier study at the same center for any change in the epidemiology of the disease. Microbiology records were screened at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, to identify fungal keratitis cases, and available clinical records of those cases were analyzed...
July 29, 2016: Mycopathologia
Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Samir K Saha, Maksuda Islam, Joyanta K Modak, Rashed Shah, Radwanur R Talukder, Shams El Arifeen, Abdullah H Baqui, Gary L Darmstadt, Luke C Mullany
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a predominant cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) globally; however, the impact of this organism on the health of newborns in South Asia is debated, due in part to a paucity of community-based assessments. We estimated the prevalence and serotypes of GBS colonization of the umbilical cord stump, and the association of colonization with mortality in a population-based cohort of newborns in rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh. METHODS: Umbilical cord swabs were collected from 646 newborns up to three times within the first week after birth (ages <24 hours, ~3 days, ~6 days) and processed to identify GBS serotypes...
July 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yukihiro Hiramatsu, Momoko Saito, Nao Otsuka, Eri Suzuki, Mineo Watanabe, Keigo Shibayama, Kazunari Kamachi
Bordetella holmesii causes both invasive and respiratory diseases in humans. Although the number of cases of pertussis-like respiratory illnesses due to B. holmesii infection has increased in the last decade worldwide, little is known about the virulence factors of the organism. Here, we analyzed a B. holmesii isolate that forms large aggregates and precipitates in suspension, and subsequently demonstrated that the autoagglutinating isolate is deficient in Bordetella intermediate protein A (BipA) and that this deletion is caused by a frame-shift mutation in the bipA gene...
2016: PloS One
Valerio Del Bono, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Anna Marchese, Andrea Parisini, Carmen Fucile, Erika Coppo, Valeria Marini, Antonio Arena, Alexandre Molin, Antonietta Martelli, Angelo Gratarola, Claudio Viscoli, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Mattioli
The objective of this study was to assess the achievement of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets of meropenem (MEM) in critically-ill patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) due to Klebsiella pneumoniae-carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) with MEM minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≥16 mg/L. Nineteen critically-ill patients with KPC-Kp BSI were given combination therapy including MEM, tigecycline, plus colistin or gentamicin (according to susceptibility testing). MEM was administered as an extended 3-hour infusion of 2 g every 8 hours, or adjusted according to renal function...
July 18, 2016: Virulence
Olga Anikeeva, Victoria Cornell, Malinda Steenkamp, Paul Arbon
Disasters occur frequently in Australia and will become more unpredictable and severe due to climate change. Some members of the Australian population, such as the elderly, the chronically ill and the socially isolated, are less likely to be prepared and more likely to be adversely affected by disasters. Although general practitioners (GPs) view the delivery of preventive health care as a priority, few preventive services focus on patients' resilience and ability to cope with unexpected stressors. This paper focuses on the individuals most vulnerable to disasters and the opportunities for GPs to facilitate the enhancement of disaster preparedness among these groups...
July 18, 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
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