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Isolation due to illness

Vanesa Alende-Castro, Cristina Macía-Rodríguez, Ignacio Novo-Veleiro, Xana García-Fernández, Mercedes Treviño-Castellano, Sergio Rodríguez-Fernández, Arturo González-Quintela
BACKGROUND: Forms of presentation of Q fever vary widely across Spain, with differences between the north and south. In the absence of reported case series from Galicia (north-west Spain), this study sought to describe a Q-fever case series in this region for the first time, and conduct a systematic review to analyse all available data on the disease in Spain. METHODS: Patients with positive serum antibodies to Coxiella burnetii from a single institution over a 5-year period (January 2011-December 2015) were included...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Farzad Jalali, Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi
BACKGROUND: From one hand, depression is one of the symptoms that occur after abstinence from methamphetamine. On the other people living with HIV/AIDS are in isolation due to the nature of their illness and depression is one of the most common mental health problems they experience. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of saffron on reducing depression among recovered consumers of methamphetamine living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The design of this study was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control (placebo) groups...
March 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ann Sheridan, Donal O'Keeffe, Barbara Coughlan, Kate Frazer, Johnathan Drennan, Mary Kemple
BACKGROUND: Social opportunities can be limited in the lives of people with enduring mental illness (EMI) due to psychiatric stigma, restricted home environments and employment barriers. Supported socialisation programmes have the potential to redress the impact of social isolation. AIM: To explore the experiences of service users with EMI taking part in a supported socialisation programme, using written diary entries. METHODS: This article reports on the qualitative component of a randomised controlled trial of supported socialisation for people with EMI (published previously in this journal)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Saud Alanazi, Maryam Alnoman, Saeed Banawas, Ryoichi Saito, Mahfuzur R Sarker
C. perfringens type A is the causative agent of C. perfringens type A food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) human gastrointestinal diseases. Due to its ability to form highly heat-resistant spores, it is of great interest to develop strategies alternative to thermal processing to inactivate C. perfrinegens. Thus, in this study we evaluated the inhibitory effects of essential oil constituents (EOCs) (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and carvacrol) against germination, outgrowth and vegetative growth of spores of C...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Aline S L Santoro Soares, Miriam Zaccaro Scelza, Janaína Spoladore, Marcos Antônio Gallito, Felipe Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Martins Moraes, Gutemberg Gomes Alves
Denture adhesives (DA) improve the retention and stability of ill-fitting dentures, especially for older adults. These materials should be biocompatible, i.e., they cannot cause undesired biological responses and be non-cytotoxic to oral tissues. However, in vitro testing of DA biocompatibility employing primary cell culture may possibly be affected by other factors, such as the donor age. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cytotoxicity of three different denture adhesives when assessed in primary gingival fibroblasts from a young donor or from an older donor, as well as the release of the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and the inflammatory response marker interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Daniel C Shippy, Bradley L Bearson, Devin B Holman, Brian W Brunelle, Heather K Allen, Shawn M D Bearson
Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged as a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar to cause human foodborne illness. An interesting trait of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is that it only expresses the fliC gene for bacterial motility (i.e., monophasic), while most Salmonella strains alternately express two flagellin genes (fliC and fljB). The goal of this study was to characterize the porcine response following inoculation with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate associated with a multistate pork outbreak to determine if the increased prevalence of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine is due to enhanced pathogenicity...
February 7, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Mahesh Khatri, Levi Arthur Richardson, Tea Meulia
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) mediate their immunoregulatory and tissue repair functions by secreting paracrine factors, including extracellular vesicles (EVs). In several animal models of human diseases, MSC-EVs mimic the beneficial effects of MSCs. Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of acute respiratory illness resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. Influenza viruses constantly evolve, thus generating drug-resistant strains and rendering current vaccines less effective against the newly generated strains...
January 29, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Rikki M A Graham, Lester Hiley, Irani U Rathnayake, Amy V Jennison
Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C...
2018: PloS One
C H Freitas, J F Mendes, P V Villarreal, P R Santos, C L Gonçalves, H L Gonzales, P S Nascente
Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the udder tissue caused mainly by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics fosters conditions that favor the selection of resistant microorganisms, suppressing at the same time susceptible forms, causing a serious problem in dairy cattle. Given the importance in performing an antibiogram to select the most adequate antimicrobial therapy, the aim of this study was to identify bacteria isolated from cow's milk with mastitis, in dairy farms situated in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, and to determinate the susceptibility profile of these isolates against the antibiotics used to treat this illness...
January 8, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Yen-Te Liao, Irwin A Quintela, Kimberly Nguyen, Alexandra Salvador, Michael B Cooley, Vivian C H Wu
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) causes approximately 265,000 illnesses and 3,600 hospitalizations annually and is highly associated with animal contamination due to the natural reservoir of ruminant gastrointestinal tracts. Free STEC-specific bacteriophages against STEC strains are also commonly isolated from fecal-contaminated environment. Previous studies have evaluated the correlation between the prevalence of STEC-specific bacteriophages and STEC strains to improve animal-associated environment. However, the similar information regarding free STEC-specific bacteriophages prevalence in produce growing area is lacking...
2018: PloS One
Anne-Sofie Hiswåls, Anneli Marttila, Emelie Mälstam, Gloria Macassa
Introduction: Several studies have revealed an association between unemployment and ill health, and shown that unemployment can affect people differently. This study aimed to provide an understanding of the experiences of unemployment and perceptions of wellbeing among persons who involuntary lost their work during the recent economic recession in Gävle Municipality. Methods: Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28-62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health Research
Mostafa Langarizadeh, Mohsen S Tabatabaei, Kamran Tavakol, Majid Naghipour, Alireza Rostami, Fatemeh Moghbeli
Background and Objectives: Due to the high costs of conventional mental health care, there has been a rise in the application of web-based technologies in recent years, i.e., telemental health care. We conducted this systematic review in 2017, using high quality research articles on the applications, technologies, advantages and challenges associated with telemental health care published since year 2000. Methods: We used a combination of relevant key words to search four major databases, such as "Web of Sciences, Embase, PubMed and Science Direct"...
December 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Elizabeth B Nimmich, P Brandon Bookstaver, Joseph Kohn, Julie Ann Justo, Katie L Hammer, Helmut Albrecht, Majdi N Al-Hasan
Background: Appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy is associated with improved outcomes of patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSI). Objective: Development of evidence-based institutional management guidelines for empirical antimicrobial therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Methods: Hospitalized adults with Gram-negative BSI in 2011-2012 at Palmetto Health hospitals in Columbia, SC, USA, were identified. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between site of infection acquisition and BSI due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa or chromosomally mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CAE)...
November 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
Sarah Denayer, Laurence Delbrassinne, Yacine Nia, Nadine Botteldoorn
Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Reported enterotoxin dose levels causing food-borne illness are scarce and varying. Three food poisoning outbreaks due to enterotoxin-producing S. aureus strains which occurred in 2013 in Belgium are described. The outbreaks occurred in an elderly home, at a barbecue event and in a kindergarten and involved 28, 18, and six cases, respectively...
December 20, 2017: Toxins
Sumit Ray, Dimple Anand, Sankalp Purwar, Arijit Samanta, Kaustubh V Upadhye, Prasoon Gupta, Debashis Dhar
PURPOSE: Infections due to multidrug resistant organisms have become a serious health concern worldwide. The present study was conducted to investigate the spectrum of microbial resistance pattern in the community and their effects on mortality. METHODS: A retrospective review and analysis of prospectively collected data was done of all patients admitted with diagnosis of sepsis in two tertiary care ICU's for a period of two years. Demographics, culture positivity, microbial spectrum, resistance pattern and outcome data were collected...
April 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Roseli Santos de Freitas, Camila Mika Kamikawa, Adriana Pardini Vicentini
BACKGROUND: Current methods for the production of Histoplasma capsulatum antigens are problematic in terms of standardization, specificity, stability, repeatability and reproducibility. AIMS: In this study, we sought to optimize the methodology for producing H. capsulatum antigens, and to evaluate its applicability. METHODS: Antigenic preparations obtained from 12 H. capsulatum isolates were evaluated by double immunodiffusion and immunoblotting assays against homologous and heterologous sera...
January 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Jothimani Pradeep, Selvaraj Stephen, Stanley Ambroise, Dhandapany Gunasekaran
Introduction: Query (Q) fever is an important zoonosis and a cause of concern for humans, due to the potential bioterrorism threat posed by the causative agent, Coxiella burnetii . Because of the danger of contracting the illness, isolation attempts are seldom made. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests are the main option. Aim: To study the prevalence of acute Q fever in Puducherry and surrounding districts of Tamil Nadu, India, employing a new commercial Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) kit and confirming it by the gold standard Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Claire de Curraize, Lucie Amoureux, Julien Bador, Angélique Chapuis, Eliane Siebor, Claire Clément, Juliette Sauge, Ludwig-Serge Aho-Glélé, Catherine Neuwirth
BACKGROUND: In the eighties, a multidrug resistant clone of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 emerged in UK and disseminated worldwide. This clone harbored a Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) that consists of a backbone and a multidrug resistant region encoding for penta-resistance (ampicillin, chloramphenicol/florfenicol, streptomycin/spectinomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT)). Several authors suggested that SGI1 might have a potential role in enhancement of virulence properties of Salmonella enterica...
December 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Christopher R Larson, Michelle Dennis, Rajeev V Nair, Alejandro Llanes, Andrea Peda, Shamara Welcome, Sreekumari Rajeev
Introduction. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease of global distribution affecting humans and animals. The initial phase of leptospirosis resembles many other febrile illness and due to its broad and biphasic clinical manifestations, selection and implementation of appropriate diagnostic tests can be challenging. Case presentation. This report describes a case investigation of a 14 weeks old male, orphan puppy, presented with generalised jaundice, anemia, weakness, and anorexia. Clinical abnormalities included the evidence of renal and hepatic failure...
October 2017: JMM Case Reports
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