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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238587/bacterial-infections-in-acute-variceal-hemorrhage-despite-antibiotics-a-multicenter-study-of-predictors-and-clinical-impact
#1
Stephen Lee, Lynora Saxinger, Mang Ma, Verónica Prado, Joaquin Fernández, Deepali Kumar, Juan Gonzalez-Abraldes, Adam Keough, Ravin Bastiampillai, Michelle Carbonneau, Javier Fernandez, Puneeta Tandon
Background and aims: Current guidelines recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in all patients presenting with cirrhosis and acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We aimed to evaluate the characteristics and clinical impact of "early" infections (developing within 14 days) of AVH in a real-world setting. Methods: We analyzed retrospective data from a cohort of 371 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH all of whom had received antibiotic prophylaxis (74% men; mean age 56 years), admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and Barcelona, Spain...
December 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233459/invasive-meningococcal-disease-due-to-ciprofloxacin-resistant-neisseria-meningitidis-sequence-type-4821-the-first-case-in-japan
#2
Yu Kawasaki, Kousaku Matsubara, Hideyuki Takahashi, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Masayuki Hori, Kenichi Isome, Aya Iwata, Hiroyuki Nigami, Mami Ikemachi, Go Yamamoto, Kiyofumi Ohkusu
We present a 4-year-old girl who developed invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C sequence type (ST)-4821. She was hospitalized due to fever, vomiting, rash and altered consciousness. Serogroup C N. meningitidis was isolated from blood culture taken on admission and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a biochemical test, and molecular microbiological analysis. The patient was successfully treated with 50 mg/kg ceftriaxone every 12 hours for 7 days without any complications...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230891/linking-individual-level-data-on-diagnoses-and-dispensing-for-research-on-antibiotic-use-evaluation-of-a-novel-data-source-from-english-secondary-care
#3
Patrick Rockenschaub, David Ansell, Laura Shallcross
PURPOSE: There has been a focus on stewardship programmes to curb inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and reduce antimicrobial resistance. In-hospital, patient-level prescribing linked to indication is needed to support surveillance, evaluation of stewardship initiatives, as well as other antibiotic research. We evaluated whether a novel dataset linking hospital pharmacy records to Hospital Episode Statistics data can be used for antibiotic research. METHODS: Using the Hospital Treatment Insights (HTI) database, which links Hospital Episode Statistics to pharmacy records from 43 out of 153 hospital trusts in England, we estimated the proportion of missed linkage and identified characteristics associated with missing data...
December 12, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230492/uplc-ms-ms-analysis-of-antibiotics-in-pharmaceutical-effluent-in-tunisia-ecotoxicological-impact-and-multi-resistant-bacteria-dissemination
#4
Leyla Tahrani, Ines Mehri, Tim Reyns, Roel Anthonissen, Luc Verschaeve, Anis Bel Haj Khalifa, Joris Van Loco, Hassen Abdenaceur, Hedi Ben Mansour
The UPLC MS/MS analysis showed the presence of the two antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry discharges during 3 months; norfloxacin and spiramycin which were quantified with the mean concentrations of 226.7 and 84.2 ng mL-1, respectively. Sixteen resistant isolates were obtained from the pharmaceutical effluent and identified by sequencing. These isolates belong to different genera, namely Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Delftia, Shewanella, and Rheinheimera. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes of these isolates were determined (27 tested antibiotics-discs)...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229642/suppression-of-reactive-oxygen-species-accumulation-accounts-for-paradoxical-bacterial-survival-at-high-quinolone-concentration
#5
Gan Luan, Yuzhi Hong, Karl Drlica, Xilin Zhao
When bacterial cells are exposed to increasing concentrations of quinolone-class antibacterials, survival drops, reaches a minimum, and then recovers, sometimes to 100%. Despite decades of study, events underlying the paradoxical, high-concentration survival remain obscure. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in antimicrobial lethality, conditions generating paradoxical survival were examined for diminished ROS accumulation. Escherichia coli cultures were treated with various concentrations of nalidixic acid, followed by measurement of survival, rate of protein synthesis, and ROS accumulation...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227188/clinical-strains-of-chryseobacterium-and-elizabethkingia-spp-isolated-from-pediatric-patients-in-a-university-hospital-performance-of-maldi-tof-ms-based-identification-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-baseline-patient-characteristics
#6
Hasan Cenk Mirza, Özlem Tuncer, Serpil Ölmez, Burçin Şener, Gökçen Dilşa Tuğcu, Uğur Özçelik, Nafia Canan Gürsoy, Barış Otlu, Ayşe Büyükçam, Ateş Kara, Banu Sancak
Our objective was to evaluate the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of the Chryseobacterium and Elizabethkingia spp. isolated from pediatric patients at Hacettepe University Hospital using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as the gold standard and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates and baseline characteristics of patients. All stored Chryseobacterium and Elizabethkingia spp. isolated from various clinical specimens (sputum, blood, and urine) of pediatric patients at Hacettepe University Hospital between 2012 and 2016 were included in this study...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225037/understanding-and-sensitizing-density-dependent-persistence-to-quinolone-antibiotics
#7
Arnaud Gutierrez, Saloni Jain, Prerna Bhargava, Meagan Hamblin, Michael A Lobritz, James J Collins
Physiologic and environmental factors can modulate antibiotic activity and thus pose a significant challenge to antibiotic treatment. The quinolone class of antibiotics, which targets bacterial topoisomerases, fails to kill bacteria that have grown to high density; however, the mechanistic basis for this persistence is unclear. Here, we show that exhaustion of the metabolic inputs that couple carbon catabolism to oxidative phosphorylation is a primary cause of growth phase-dependent persistence to quinolone antibiotics...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220792/4-quinolone-derivatives-and-their-activities-against-gram-positive-pathogens
#8
Gui-Fu Zhang, Shu Zhang, Baofeng Pan, Xiaofeng Liu, Lian-Shun Feng
Gram-positive bacteria are responsible for a broad range of infectious diseases, and the emergency and wide spread of drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens including MRSA and MRSE has caused great concern throughout the world. 4-Quinolones which are exemplified by fluoroquinolones are mainstays of chemotherapy against various bacterial infections including Gram-positive pathogen infections, and their value and role in the treatment of bacterial infections continues to expand. However, the resistance of Gram-positive organisms to 4-quinolones develops rapidly and spreads widely, making them more and more ineffective...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220387/psra-controls-the-synthesis-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolone-signal-via-repression-of-the-fade-homolog-pa0506
#9
Greg Wells, Samantha Palethorpe, Everett C Pesci
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in various sites within the human body. This bacterium is a major source of nosocomial infections that are often difficult to treat due to high intrinsic antibiotic resistance and coordinated virulence factor production. P. aeruginosa utilizes three cell-to-cell signaling systems to regulate numerous genes in response to cell density. One of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]) as a signal that acts as a co-inducer for the transcriptional regulator PqsR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218855/effects-of-prior-exposure-to-antibiotics-on-bacterial-adaptation-to-phages
#10
Flor I Arias-Sánchez, Richard C Allen, Alex R Hall
Understanding adaptation to complex environments requires information about how exposure to one selection pressure affects adaptation to others. For bacteria, antibiotics and viral parasites (phages) are two of the most common selection pressures and are both relevant for treatment of bacterial infections: increasing antibiotic resistance is generating significant interest in using phages in addition or as an alternative to antibiotics. However, we lack knowledge of how exposure to antibiotics affects bacterial responses to phages...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215874/influence-of-magnetite-stoichiometry-on-the-binding-of-emerging-organic-contaminants
#11
Wei Cheng, Rémi Marsac, Khalil Hanna
While the magnetite stoichiometry (i.e. Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) has been extensively studied for the reductive transformation of chlorinated or nitroaromatic compounds, no work exists examining the influence of stoichiometry of magnetite on its binding properties. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the stoichiometry strongly affects the capacity of magnetite to bind not only quinolone antibiotics such as nalidixic acid (NA) and Flumequine (FLU), but also salicylic acid (SA), natural organic matter (humic acid, HA) and dissolved silicates...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215585/xanthones-and-quinolones-derivatives-produced-by-the-deep-sea-derived-fungus-penicillium-sp-scsio-ind16f01
#12
Feng-An Liu, Xiuping Lin, Xuefeng Zhou, Minghao Chen, Xiuling Huang, Bin Yang, Huaming Tao
Chemical investigation of the fungus Penicillium sp. SCSIO Ind16F01 derived from deep-sea sediment sample afforded a new xanthone, 3,8-dihydroxy-2-methyl-9-oxoxanthene-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) and a new chromone, coniochaetone J (2), together with three known xanthones, 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), 7,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester (4), 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone (5), three known chromones, coniochaetone B (6), citrinolactones B (7), epiremisporine B (8), and four reported rare class of N-methyl quinolone lactams: quinolactacins B (9), C1 (10), and C2 (11), and quinolonimide (12)...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215361/identification-of-antibiotics-in-wastewater-current-state-of-extraction-protocol-and-future-perspectives
#13
A C Faleye, A A Adegoke, K Ramluckan, F Bux, T A Stenström
The release and occurrence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment has generated increased attention in the past few decades. The residual antibiotic in wastewater is important in the selection for antimicrobial resistance among microorganisms and the possibility of forming toxic derivatives. This review presents an assessment of the advancement in methods for extraction of antibiotics with solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction methods applied in different aquatic environmental media. These advanced methods do enhance specificity, and also exhibit high accuracy and recovery...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215279/design-and-synthesis-of-orally-bioavailable-piperazine-substituted-4-1h-quinolones-with-potent-antimalarial-activity-structure-activity-and-structure-property-relationship-studies
#14
Raghupathi Neelarapu, Jordany R Maignan, Cynthia L Lichorowic, Andrii Monastyrskyi, Tina S Mutka, Alexis N LaCrue, Lynn D Blake, Debora Casandra, Sherwin Mashkouri, Jeremy N Burrows, Paul A Willis, Dennis E Kyle, Roman Manetsch
Malaria deaths have been decreasing over the last 10-15 years, with global mortality rates having fallen by 47% since 2000. While the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to combat malaria, the emergence of artemisinin resistant strains underscores the need to develop new antimalarial drugs. Recent in vivo efficacy improvements of the historical antimalarial ICI 56,780 have been reported, however with the poor solubility and rapid development of resistance, this compound requires further optimization...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212699/rapid-microarray-based-detection-of-rifampicin-isoniazid-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-a-single-cartridge
#15
Juliane Havlicek, Beatrice Dachsel, Peter Slickers, Sönke Andres, Patrick Beckert, Silke Feuerriegel, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, Ines Labugger
Rapid and robust identification of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains mediating multidrug and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) phenotypes is crucial to combat the MDR tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Currently available molecular TB drug susceptibility tests are either restricted to single targets/drugs (i.e. Xpert MTB/RIF) or aid the risk of cross-contaminations due to the design limitations of the open platform (i.e. line probe assays).With a good understanding of the technical and commercial boundaries we designed a test cartridge with an introduction of dried reagents, based on an oligonucleotide array, which has the ability to identify MTBC strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and the fluoroquinolones...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210687/identification-and-risk-assessment-of-human-and-veterinary-antibiotics-in-the-wastewater-treatment-plants-and-the-adjacent-sea-in-tunisia
#16
Leyla Tahrani, Joris Van Loco, Roel Anthonissen, Luc Verschaeve, Hedi Ben Mansour, Tim Reyns
In the following study, we came up with and validated a prompt, sensitive and precise method for the simultaneous determination of 56 antimicrobial drugs (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, β-lactams, macrolides and quinolones) using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This method was implemented with success to determine antibiotics in samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants and five coasts in Tunisia. Results showed the presence of high concentrations of antibiotics that ranged from 0...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209300/molecular-characteristics-of-st1193-clone-among-phylogenetic-group-b2-non-st131-fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli
#17
Jing Wu, Fangjun Lan, Yanfang Lu, Qingwen He, Bin Li
Objectives: Sequence type 1193 is emerging as a new, virulent and resistant lineage among fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli (FQrE. coli). In this study, we investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of this clone isolated from a Chinese university hospital. Methods: 73 phylogenetic group B2-FQr-non-ST131 isolates were collected from August 2014 and August 2015 at a Chinese university hospital. Isolates were screened for ST1193 by multilocus sequence typing. E. coli ST1193 then underwent lactose fermentation determination, susceptibility testing, virulence genotyping, PCR-based O typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and FQr mechanism analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208542/antibiotics-susceptibility-of-quinolones-against-salmonella-spp-strains-isolated-and-molecular-sequenced-from-pigs-target-gyra-gene-detection
#18
Guadalupe Patricia Macías Farrera, Roberto Montes de Oca Jiménez, Jorge Varela Guerrero, Esvieta Tenorio Borroto, Fabiola Rivera Ramírez, Humberto Gustavo Monroy Salazar, Gilberto Yong Angel, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
Drug-resistant Salmonella is frequently detected in most parts of the world, and its rate of resistance has increased significantly in recent years. However, this study aimed to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, determined with the Kirby-Bauer method) of quinolones in 86 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from pigs. Both the inside and outside of the QRDR region of strains were sequenced. The DNA sequence of the QRDR region of Salmonella spp. revealed the mutations S83F, D87N and S83Y. The region outside the QRDR showed a mutation in L582G...
December 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205198/exploring-quinolone-resistance-determining-region-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-across-india
#19
Seema Sood, Madhav Agarwal, Manju Bala, Neeraj Mahajan, Rajendra Singh, Arti Kapil, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, R J Ram, Hemanta Kumar Kar, Vinod Kumar Sharma
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhoea, is a subject of worldwide attention. The present study was undertaken to examine the rates of ciprofloxacin resistance, to correlate mutations in gyrA and parC genes with the level of resistance and to look for a variation in mutation pattern, if any, in isolates from across the country. METHODS: A total of 113 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae collected from sexually transmitted infection patients in six centres during November 2010 to October 2013 were investigated...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205165/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-fecal-flora-before-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-and-the-clinical-impact-of-targeted-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#20
Arikan Ozgur, Yildirim Asif, Atis Gokhan, Tanidir Berrin, Gurbuz Cenk, Erol Bulent, Danacioglu Onur, Culpan Meftun, Vahapoglu Haluk, Caskurlu Hulya, Caskurlu Turhan
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate ciprofloxacin resistance and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs) in the population of patients with indication to undergo prostate biopsy. Our additional aim was to compare the targeted antibiotic prophylaxis and sepsis rates after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in patients who received routine ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and to evaluate the predictive factors of antibiotic resistance...
December 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
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