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thyrotropin receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772544/antigen-specific-therapy-of-graves%C3%A2-disease-and-orbitopathy-by-induction-of-tolerance
#1
Martin Ungerer, Julia Fabbender, Hans-Peter Holthoff
Graves´ disease is an autoimmune disorder, which is characterized by stimulatory antibodies targeting the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), resulting in hyperthyroidism and multiple organ damage. The disease can be modelled in mice using adenoviral immunizations with the extracellular A subunit of the TSHR, which induces a long-term stable disease state. TSHR binding cAMP-stimulatory antibodies, thyroid enlargement, elevated serum thyroxin levels, tachycardia, cardiac hypertrophy and orbitopathy are observed in these Ad-TSHR-immunized mice...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772543/functional-diagnostics-for-thyrotropin-hormone-receptor-autoantibodies-bioassays-prevail-over-binding-assays
#2
Simon David Lytton, Anke Schluter, Paul J Banga
Autoantibodies to the thyrotropin hormone receptor (TSH-R) are directly responsible for the hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease and mediate orbital manifestations in Graves' orbitopathy (otherwise known as thyroid eye disease). These autoantibodies are heterogeneous in their function and collectively referred to as TRAbs. Measurement of TRAbs is clinically important for diagnosis of a variety of conditions and different commercial assays with high sensitivity and specificity are available for diagnostic purposes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771756/thyrotropin-receptor-antibodies-an-overview
#3
Anupam Kotwal, Marius Stan
PURPOSE: Thyroid autoimmunity affects approximately 5% of the population, and its investigation relies heavily on the use of autoantibodies. Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAb) play a central role in the evaluation of Graves disease (GD), Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) and pretibial myxedema (PTM). However, there is still controversy regarding overall TRAb assay diagnostic accuracy and their prognostic utility. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed the literature reporting TRAb assays and their clinical utility...
May 2, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752312/slit2-modulates-the-inflammatory-phenotype-of-orbit-infiltrating-fibrocytes-in-graves-disease
#4
Roshini Fernando, Ana Beatriz Diniz Grisolia, Yan Lu, Stephen Atkins, Terry J Smith
Human CD34+ fibrocytes, circulating monocyte lineage progenitor cells, have recently been implicated in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), the ocular manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). Fibrocytes express constitutive MHC class II (MHC-2) and, surprisingly, thyroglobulin (Tg) and functional thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR). Underlying expression of these thyroid proteins is the autoimmune regulator protein (AIRE). Fibrocytes respond robustly to TSH and thyroid-stimulating Igs by generating extremely high levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751401/exposure-to-pfdoa-causes-disruption-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#5
Shengnan Zhang, Xiaochun Guo, Shaoyong Lu, Nan Sang, Guangyu Li, Ping Xie, Chunsheng Liu, Liguo Zhang, Yi Xing
Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a kind of perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) with 12 carbon atoms, has an extensive industrial utilization and is widespread in both wildlife and the water environment, and was reported to have the potential to cause a disruption in the thyroid hormone system homeostasis. In this study, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to different concentrations of PFDoA (0, 0.24, 1.2, 6 mg/L) for 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). PFDoA exposure caused obvious growth restriction connected with the reduced thyroid hormones (THs) contents in zebrafish larvae, strengthening the interference effect on the growth of fish larvae...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744034/new-advances-in-understanding-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy-and-the-potential-role-for-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-receptor
#6
REVIEW
Terry J Smith
Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), a localized periocular manifestation of the autoimmune syndrome known as Graves' disease, remains incompletely understood. Discussions of its pathogenesis are generally focused on the thyrotropin receptor, the proposed role for which is supported by substantial evidence. Considerations of any involvement of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) in the disease are frequently contentious. In this brief, topically focused review, I have attempted to provide a balanced perspective based entirely on experimental results that either favor or refute involvement of IGF-IR in TAO...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742907/new-interfaces-of-thyroid-hormone-actions-with-blood-coagulation-and-thrombosis
#7
Paul J Davis, Shaker A Mousa, Geraldine P Schechter
Substantial clinical evidence indicates hyperthyroidism enhances coagulation and increases the risk of thrombosis. In vitro and clinical evidence implicate multiple mechanisms for this risk. Genomic actions of thyroid hormone as 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 ) via a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor have been implicated, but recent evidence shows that nongenomic mechanisms initiated at the receptor for L-thyroxine (T4 ) on platelet integrin αvβ3 are prothrombotic. The T4 -initiated mechanisms involve platelet activation and, in addition, cellular production of cytokines and chemokines such as CX3CL1 with procoagulatory activities...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733815/gene-transcription-ontogeny-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-development-in-early-life-stage-fathead-minnow-and-zebrafish
#8
Lucia Vergauwen, Jenna E Cavallin, Gerald T Ankley, Chloé Bars, Isabelle J Gabriëls, Ellen D G Michiels, Krysta R Fitzpatrick, Jelena Periz-Stanacev, Eric C Randolph, Serina L Robinson, Travis W Saari, Anthony L Schroeder, Evelyn Stinckens, Joe Swintek, Steven J Van Cruchten, Evy Verbueken, Daniel L Villeneuve, Dries Knapen
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is known to play a crucial role in the development of teleost fish. However, knowledge of endogenous transcription profiles of thyroid-related genes in developing teleosts remains fragmented. We selected two model teleost species, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio), to compare the gene transcription ontogeny of the HPT axis. Control organisms were sampled at several time points during embryonic and larval development until 33 days post-fertilization...
May 4, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719374/clinical-course-of-thyroid-function-and-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy-in-patients-with-euthyroid-graves-disease
#9
Nami Suzuki, Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh, Toshiaki Kameda, Ai Yoshihara, Hidemi Ohye, Miho Suzuki, Masako Matsumoto, Yo Kunii, Kenji Iwaku, Natsuko Watanabe, Koji Mukasa, Ai Kozaki, Toshu Inoue, Kiminori Sugino, Koichi Ito
Background: Euthyroid Graves' disease (EGD) is a rare condition defined as the presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) in patients with normal thyroid function. Due to the rarity of this disease, only a limited number of studies and case reports are available for further evaluation of the characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the thyroid function, thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) and eye symptoms, and then determine whether TRAb is related to TAO in EGD patients...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716526/nkx2-5-is-expressed-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas-and-regulates-differentiation-in-thyroid-cells
#10
Ricardo Cortez Cardoso Penha, Luisa Aguirre Buexm, Fabiana Resende Rodrigues, Taciana Padilha de Castro, Maria Carolina S Santos, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato, Denise P Carvalho, Luciene C Cardoso-Weide, Andrea C F Ferreira
BACKGROUND: NKX2.5 is a transcription factor transiently expressed during thyroid organogenesis. Recently, several works have pointed out the oncogenic role of NKX2.5 in a variety of tumors. We therefore hypothesized that NKX2.5 could also play a role in thyroid cancer. METHODS: The validation of NKX2.5 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis in a Brazilian case series of 10 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. Then, the long-term prognostic value of NKX2...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708883/graves-disease-following-allogenic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-severe-aplastic-anemia-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Ahu Paketçi, Korcan Demir, Özlem Tüfekçi, Sezer Acar, Ayhan Abacı, Şebnem Yılmaz, Ece Böber
BACKGROUND: Similar autoimmune processes (defective T-cell function) take place during the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia (AA) and Graves' disease (GD). Antithyroid drugs used for the management of GD may induce AA and GD may occur following treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA). CASE PRESENTATION: Clinical and laboratory investigations were performed for an 11-year-and-2-month-old girl who was referred for bilateral exophthalmus and abnormal thyroid function tests...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678283/thyrotropin-receptor-still-much-to-be-learned-from-the-patients
#12
REVIEW
Dr Claire Briet, Valentine Suteau-Courant, Mathilde Munier, Prof Patrice Rodien
In the absence of crystal available for the full-length thyrotropin receptor, knowledge of its structure and functioning has benefitted from the identification and characterization of mutations in patients with various thyroid dysfunctions. The characterization of activating mutations has contributed to the elaboration of a model involving the extracellular domain of the receptor as an inverse tethered agonist which, upon binding of the ligand, relieves the transmembrane domain from an inhibiting interaction and activates it...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664539/-atypical-subacute-thyroiditis-in-combination-with-grave-s-disease-diagnostic-difficulties-in-a-case-report
#13
Emmanouela Koutouridou, Tereza Planck, Erik Uddman, Mikael Lantz
Subacute thyroiditis is a common inflammatory disorder of the thyroid gland, possibly of viral etiology, that typically presents with neck pain, fever and tenderness on palpation of the thyroid gland. Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder caused by stimulation of the thyroid gland by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb). The development of Graves´ disease and subacute thyroiditis simultaneously is an uncommon condition and only a few cases have been reported. In this article we present a case of a 46-year old woman diagnosed with Graves´ disease who was started on thiamazole and weeks later developed high fever...
April 13, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624097/positive-thyrotropin-receptor-antibodies-in-patients-with-transient-thyrotoxicosis
#14
Trevor E Angell, Olivia Van Benschoten, David A Cohen, Andrea V Haas, Erik K Alexander, Ellen Marqusee
OBJECTIVE: Thyrotropin (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) testing is considered accurate for the diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD), and had been identified rarely in thyrotoxic patients without GD. We describe four patients with transient thyrotoxicosis and positive TRAb to highlight this clinical possibility. METHODS: Patient demographics, symptoms, laboratory findings, and time to resolution of thyrotoxicosis are summarized. TRAb testing was performed by either a third-generation thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulin competitive binding assay (TBII) or a thyroid stimulating antibody bioassay (TSI) from either Mayo Clinic Laboratory or Quest Diagnostics...
April 6, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622766/olfactory-marker-protein-regulates-prolactin-secretion-and-production-by-modulating-ca-2-and-trh-signaling-in-lactotrophs
#15
Chan Woo Kang, Ye Eon Han, Mi Kyung Lee, Yoon Hee Cho, NaNa Kang, JaeHyung Koo, Cheol Ryong Ku, Eun Jig Lee
Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a marker of olfactory receptor-mediated chemoreception, even outside the olfactory system. Here, we report that OMP expression in the pituitary gland plays a role in basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced prolactin (PRL) production and secretion. We found that OMP was expressed in human and rodent pituitary glands, especially in PRL-secreting lactotrophs. OMP knockdown in GH4 rat pituitary cells increased PRL production and secretion via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605392/prediction-of-neonatal-hyperthyroidism
#16
Maïa Banigé, Michel Polak, Dominique Luton
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether it is possible to identify the neonatal predictors of neonatal hyperthyroidism at the presymptomatic stage of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective multicenter study in 10 maternity units was based on the medical records of all patients monitored for a pregnancy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2014. Among 280 000 births, 2288 medical records of women with thyroid dysfunction were selected and screened. Of these, 415 women had Graves disease and were positive for thyrotropin receptor antibody during pregnancy, and were included...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599723/brain-transcriptome-profiling-analysis-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-under-long-term-hypersaline-stress
#17
Yan Liu, Erchao Li, Chang Xu, Yujie Su, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen, Xiaodan Wang
The fish brain plays an important role in controlling growth, development, reproduction, and adaptation to environmental change. However, few studies stem from the perspective of whole transcriptome change in a fish brain and its response to long-term hypersaline stress. This study compares the differential transcriptomic responses of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) maintained for 8 weeks in brackish water (16 practical salinity units, psu) and in freshwater. Fish brains from each treatment were collected for RNA-seq analysis to identify potential genes and pathways responding to hypersaline stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594256/from-consternation-to-revelation-discovery-of-a-role-for-igsf1-in-pituitary-control-of-thyroid-function
#18
REVIEW
Daniel J Bernard, Emilie Brûlé, Courtney L Smith, Sjoerd D Joustra, Jan M Wit
Immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 (IGSF1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the mammalian pituitary gland. Shortly after its discovery in 1998, the protein was proposed to function as a coreceptor for inhibins (and was even temporarily renamed inhibin binding protein). However, subsequent investigations, both in vitro and in vivo , failed to support a role for IGSF1 in inhibin action. Research on IGSF1 nearly ground to a halt until 2011, when next-generation sequencing identified mutations in the X-linked IGSF1 gene in boys and men with congenital central hypothyroidism...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594051/vitamin-d-in-graves-disease-levels-correlation-with-laboratory-and-clinical-parameters-and-genetics
#19
Tereza Planck, Bushra Shahida, Johan Malm, Jonas Manjer
Objective: The aim was to compare the vitamin D levels in patients with Graves disease (GD) with the general population and to correlate the vitamin D levels with laboratory and clinical parameters in GD. Moreover, we examined the genetic variation in genes involved in the vitamin D metabolism and their association with GD. Methods: The levels of vitamin D were compared in 292 patients with newly diagnosed GD and 2,305 controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and 1-α-hydroxylase ( CYP27B1 ) were examined for association with GD and/or Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) in 708 patients and 1,178 controls...
January 2018: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553984/averting-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-without-affecting-analgesia
#20
Albert Dahan, Rutger van der Schrier, Terry Smith, Leon Aarts, Monique van Velzen, Marieke Niesters
The ventilatory control system is highly vulnerable to exogenous administered opioid analgesics. Particularly respiratory depression is a potentially lethal complication that may occur when opioids are overdosed or consumed in combination with other depressants such as sleep medication or alcohol. Fatalities occur in acute and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy and individuals that abuse prescription or illicit opioids for their hedonistic pleasure. One important strategy to mitigate opioid-induced respiratory depression is cotreatment with nonopioid respiratory stimulants...
May 2018: Anesthesiology
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