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thyrotropin receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621684/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#1
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
June 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557707/novel-mutation-t273r-in-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-gene-provides-further-insight-into-cryptic-negative-regulation-by-thyroid-hormone
#2
F Kaššák, V Hána, V Saudek, M Kostrouchová
Production of thyroid hormone is precisely regulated in a negative feed-back mechanism that depends critically on thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ). This mechanism decreases production of thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH) in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in response to high levels of circulating thyroid hormones (TH). Despite the wealth of accumulated knowledge, it is still not clear how exactly this negative regulation is executed. The syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), in which the levels of TH are not properly sensed, represents naturally occurring situations in which molecular components of this regulation are displayed and may be uncovered...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556305/hypothalamic-dopamine-is-required-for-salsolinol-induced-prolactin-secretion-in-goats
#3
Tsutomu Hashizume, Ryunosuke Watanabe, Yuki Inaba, Ken Sawai, Ferenc Fülöp, György Miklos Nagy
The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and salsolinol (SAL) for the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in goats. SAL or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was intravenously injected into female goats treated with or without the D2 DA receptor antagonist haloperidol (Hal), which crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the PRL-releasing response to SAL was compared with that to TRH. PRL-releasing responses to SAL, Hal, and Hal plus SAL were also examined after a pretreatment to augment central DA using carbidopa (Carbi) and L-dopa...
May 29, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515030/congenital-central-hypothyroidism-caused-by-a-novel-tsh-beta-subunit-gene-mutation-c-94g-a-in-two-siblings
#4
Bayram Özhan, Özlem Boz Anlaş, Bilge Sarıtepe, Burcu Albuz, Nur Gündüz Semerci
Congenital central hypothyroidism (C-CH) is a very rare disease. Alterations in genes included in pituitary development, mutations of the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) and transducin β-like protein 1(TBL1X ) can result in C-CH with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. However, mutations of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor or TSH-beta (TSHB) gene are responsible for isolated congenital central hypothyroidism. In this paper, we present 2 patients from the same Turkish family with a novel mutation of TSHB...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484426/structural-functional-features-of-the-thyrotropin-receptor-a-class-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-at-work
#5
REVIEW
Gunnar Kleinau, Catherine L Worth, Annika Kreuchwig, Heike Biebermann, Patrick Marcinkowski, Patrick Scheerer, Gerd Krause
The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone receptors, a sub-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TSHR and its endogenous ligand thyrotropin (TSH) are of essential importance for growth and function of the thyroid gland and proper function of the TSH/TSHR system is pivotal for production and release of thyroid hormones. This receptor is also important with respect to pathophysiology, such as autoimmune (including ophthalmopathy) or non-autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions and cancer development...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474257/a-cumulative-effect-involving-malfunction-of-the-pth1r-and-atp4a-genes-explains-a-familial-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-hypothyroidism-and-arthritis
#6
Oriol Calvete, Maite Herraiz, Jose Reyes, Ana Patiño, Javier Benitez
BACKGROUND: Type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) classically arise because of hypergastrinemia and involve destruction of parietal cells, which are responsible for gastric acid secretion through the ATP4A proton pump and for intrinsic factor production. METHODS: By whole exome sequencing, we studied a family with three members with gNETs plus hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis to uncover their genetic origin. RESULTS: A heterozygous missense mutation in the ATP4A gene was identified...
May 4, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471415/impact-of-gravity-on-thyroid-cells
#7
REVIEW
Elisabetta Albi, Marcus Krüger, Ruth Hemmersbach, Andrea Lazzarini, Samuela Cataldi, Michela Codini, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Curcio
Physical and mental health requires a correct functioning of the thyroid gland, which controls cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous, and immune systems, and affects behavior and cognitive functions. Microgravity, as occurs during space missions, induces morphological and functional changes within the thyroid gland. Here, we review relevant experiments exposing cell cultures (normal and cancer thyroid cells) to simulated and real microgravity, as well as wild-type and transgenic mice to hypergravity and spaceflight conditions...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469599/the-role-of-thyrotropin-receptor-activation-in-adipogenesis-and-modulation-of-fat-phenotype
#8
Mohd Shazli Draman, Michael Stechman, David Scott-Coombes, Colin M Dayan, Dafydd Aled Rees, Marian Ludgate, Lei Zhang
Evidence from clinical and experimental data suggests that thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) signaling is involved in energy expenditure through its impact on white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). TSHR expression increases during mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into fat. We hypothesize that TSHR activation [TSHR*, elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAB), or activating mutation] influences MSC differentiation, which contributes to body composition changes seen in hypothyroidism or Graves' disease (GD)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461507/evolutionarily-conserved-trh-neuropeptide-pathway-regulates-growth-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Elien Van Sinay, Olivier Mirabeau, Geert Depuydt, Matthias Boris Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Jan Watteyne, Sven Zels, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
In vertebrates thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that exerts the hormonal control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as well as neuromodulatory functions. However, a functional equivalent in protostomian animals remains unknown, although TRH receptors are conserved in proto- and deuterostomians. Here we identify a TRH-like neuropeptide precursor in Caenorhabditis elegans that belongs to a bilaterian family of TRH precursors. Using CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi reverse genetics, we show that TRH-like neuropeptides, through the activation of their receptor TRHR-1, promote growth in Celegans TRH-like peptides from pharyngeal motor neurons are required for normal body size, and knockdown of their receptor in pharyngeal muscle cells reduces growth...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434012/clinical-importance-of-somatostatin-receptor-2-sstr2-and-somatostatin-receptor-5-sstr5-expression-in-thyrotropin-producing-pituitary-adenoma-tshoma
#10
Benxia Yu, Zhongsheng Zhang, Hao Song, Yuchun Chi, Chunling Shi, Miao Xu
BACKGROUND Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism. Somatostatin analogs have proved to be effective for inhibiting pituitary hormones secretion, working via interactions with somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Moreover, antiproliferative activity of somatostatin analog is now demonstrated in several studies. In the present study, we determined the relative predominance of SSTR2 and SSTR5 subtypes among the different types of adenomas, especially TSHoma, and investigated the relationship between efficacy of short-term octreotide (OCT) treatment and SSTR expression...
April 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#11
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397723/short-term-preoperative-octreotide-for-thyrotropin-secreting-pituitary-adenoma
#12
Hong-Juan Fang, Yu Fu, Huan-Wen Wu, Yi-Lin Sun, Yang-Fang Li, Ya-Zhuo Zhang, Li-Yong Zhong
BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism. Somatostatin (SST) analogs work by interacting with somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). This study aimed to evaluate short-term preoperative octreotide (OCT) use in TSHoma patients and to investigate SSTR2 and SSTR5 expression and observe structural changes in tumor tissue. METHODS: We reviewed records and samples from eight TSHoma patients treated between July 2012 and July 2015...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339047/hypothalamo%C3%A2-hypophysial-system-in-rats-with-autotransplantation-of-the-adrenal-cortex
#13
Nae Takizawa, Susumu Tanaka, Souichi Oe, Taro Koike, Tadashi Matsuda, Hisao Yamada
Patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma often require an adrenalectomy. Autotransplantation of the adrenal cortex is an alternative therapy that could potentially be performed instead of receiving glucocorticoid replacement following adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortex autotransplantation aims to avoid the side effects of long‑term steroid treatment and adrenal insufficiency. Although the function of the hypothalamo‑hypophysial system is critical for patients who have undergone adrenal cortex autotransplantation, the details of that system, with the exception of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the subjects with adrenal autotransplantation, have been overlooked for a long time...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333576/epstein-barr-virus-lytic-reactivation-activates-b-cells-polyclonally-and-induces-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-expression-a-mechanism-underlying-autoimmunity-and-its-contribution-to-graves-disease
#14
Keiko Nagata, Keisuke Kumata, Yuji Nakayama, Yukio Satoh, Hirotsugu Sugihara, Sayuri Hara, Michiko Matsushita, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Masako Kato, Ichiro Murakami, Kazuhiko Hayashi
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and the reactivation of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B lymphocytes induces the differentiation of host B cells into plasma cells. We previously reported that some EBV-infected B cells had thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) as surface immunoglobulins (Igs), and EBV reactivation induced these TRAb+EBV+ cells to produce TRAbs. EBV reactivation induces Ig production from host B cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine total Ig productions from B cell culture fluids and to detect activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 in culture B cells during EBV reactivation induction and then we discussed the mechanisms of EBV reactivation-induced Ig production in relation to autoimmunity...
April 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263215/pituitary-adenoma-recurrence-suspected-on-central-hyperthyroidism-despite-empty-sella-and-confirmed-by-68ga-dota-toc-pet-ct
#15
Mathieu Gauthé, Julie Sarfati, Nathalie Bourcigaux, Sophie Christin-Maitre, Jean-Noël Talbot, Françoise Montravers
Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are very rare tumors, known to present overexpression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and which may consequently demonstrate abnormal uptake on Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT. A 67-year-old woman with a history of operated pituitary macroadenoma presented with symptoms of hyperthyroidism including a large goiter. Her serum thyroid hormone levels were in favor of central hyperthyroidism. Pituitary MRI depicted an empty sella but visualized an ambiguous lesion centered on the left sphenoidal sinus...
June 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262687/the-syndrome-of-central-hypothyroidism-and-macroorchidism-igsf1-controls-trhr-and-fshb-expression-by-differential-modulation-of-pituitary-tgf%C3%AE-and-activin-pathways
#16
Marta García, Raquel Barrio, Montserrat García-Lavandeira, Angela R Garcia-Rendueles, Adela Escudero, Esther Díaz-Rodríguez, Darya Gorbenko Del Blanco, Ana Fernández, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elena Vallespín, Julián Nevado, Pablo Lapunzina, Vilborg Matre, Patricia M Hinkle, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, María P de Miguel, José Manuel Cameselle-Teijeiro, Manuel Nistal, Clara V Alvarez, José C Moreno
IGSF1 (Immunoglobulin Superfamily 1) gene defects cause central hypothyroidism and macroorchidism. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease remain unclear. Based on a patient with a full deletion of IGSF1 clinically followed from neonate to adulthood, we investigated a common pituitary origin for hypothyroidism and macroorchidism, and the role of IGSF1 as regulator of pituitary hormone secretion. The patient showed congenital central hypothyroidism with reduced TSH biopotency, over-secretion of FSH at neonatal minipuberty and macroorchidism from 3 years of age...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259898/an-improved-method-for-the-establishment-of-a-model-of-graves-disease-in-balb-c-mice
#17
Wei Zheng, Renfei Wang, Jian Tan, Ning Li, Zhaowei Meng
The present study aimed to develop a stable Graves' disease (GD) model in BALB/c mice by immunization and electroporation (EP). A total of 90 mice were divided into experimental (n=50), control (n=20) and blank (n=20) groups. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/thyroid‑stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor 268 was constructed and injected into the bilateral gastrocnemius of experimental group mice at weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10. Equal volumes of saline were injected into the control and blank groups at the same time...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219987/a-unique-angiotensin-sensitive-neuronal-population-coordinates-neuroendocrine-cardiovascular-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress
#18
Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Soledad Pitra, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Yalun Tan, Dani Nguyen, Karlena M Cahill, Colin Sumners, Javier E Stern, Eric G Krause
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival. However, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments. In recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195550/novel-germline-mutation-leu512met-in-the-thyrotropin-receptor-gene-tshr-leading-to-sporadic-non-autoimmune-hyperthyroidism
#19
Stephanie A Roberts, Jennifer E Moon, Andrew Dauber, Jessica R Smith
BACKGROUND: Primary nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism is a rare cause of neonatal hyperthyroidism. This results from an activating mutation in the thyrotropin-receptor (TSHR). It can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner or occur sporadically as a de novo mutation. Affected individuals display a wide phenotype from severe neonatal to mild subclinical hyperthyroidism. We describe a 6-month-old boy with a de novo mutation in the TSHR gene who presented with accelerated growth, enlarging head circumference, tremor and thyrotoxicosis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181228/thyrotropin-receptor-gene-expression-in-the-association-between-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-and-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#20
Maria R C Silvares, Maria R P Fortes, Renata de A M L Nascimento, Carlos R Padovani, Hélio A Miot, Célia R Nogueira, Gláucia M F da S Mazeto
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) may be associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and the Autologous Serum Skin Test (ASST) is an autoreactivity marker. The thyrotropin (TSH) and TSH receptor (TSHR) could play a role in the pathogenesis of CSU. The aim of this study was to evaluate ASST positivity and TSHR gene expression in healthy skin and ASST wheals in euthyroid women with CSU, with (14 patients) and without (15 patients) Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). METHODS: ASST was performed and TSHR gene expression studied in wheals induced by ASST and in healthy skin...
May 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
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