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thyrotropin receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927064/clinical-efficacy-of-yingliu-mixture-combined-with-metimazole-for-treating-diffuse-goitre-with-hyperthyroidism-and-its-impact-on-related-cytokines
#1
Hua Yang, Yilei Cong, Tengfei Wu, Hong Tang, Muhao Ma, Juanhua Zeng, Wenya Zhang, Zhen Lian, Xinyu Yang
CONTEXT: Yingliu mixture was developed in 1990s by Affiliated Longhua Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, for treating diffuse goitre with hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease, GD). Former studies have shown Yingliu mixture combined with methimazole (Y-M) can effectively improve thyroid function and decrease thyrotropin-receptor antibody level. Furthermore, we researched its impact on related cytokines to prove that Y-M improve patients' immunity status. OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of Y-M for treating GD...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913646/critical-differences-between-induced-and-spontaneous-mouse-models-of-graves-disease-with-implications-for-antigen-specific-immunotherapy-in-humans
#2
Basil Rapoport, Bianca Banuelos, Holly A Aliesky, Nicole Hartwig Trier, Sandra M McLachlan
Graves' hyperthyroidism, a common autoimmune disease caused by pathogenic autoantibodies to the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR), can be treated but not cured. This single autoantigenic target makes Graves' disease a prime candidate for Ag-specific immunotherapy. Previously, in an induced mouse model, injecting TSHR A-subunit protein attenuated hyperthyroidism by diverting pathogenic TSHR Abs to a nonfunctional variety. In this study, we explored the possibility of a similar diversion in a mouse model that spontaneously develops pathogenic TSHR autoantibodies, NOD...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906859/recent-advances-in-nuclear-medicine-in-endocrine-oncology
#3
Markus Luster, Andreas Pfestroff, Frederik A Verburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: For I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l.I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to have a high prognostic power...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864993/thyrotropin-alters-t-cell-development-in-the-thymus-in-subclinical-hypothyroidism-mouse-model
#4
Kunpeng Wu, Meng Zhao, Chunyan Ma, Haiqing Zhang, Xiaojing Liu, Lingyan Zhou, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao, Dan Wang
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is highly prevalent in the general population and is associated with potential deleterious effects. Although developing T cells express thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R), the changes of T cell development in thymus in SCH have not been fully clarified. SCH mouse model, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but similar thyroid hormone levels, were used to study the role of TSH in T cell development. Thymus weight of SCH mice increased 18% compared with controls...
November 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825413/risk-factors-of-lymphnode-metastasis-in-patients-with-thyroid-br-papillary-carcinoma-associated-with-graves-disease
#5
Yong Xie, Yue-Wu Liu, Meng-Yi Wang, Wen-Ze Wang, Hong-Feng Liu, Xiao-Yi Li, Wei-Sheng Gao
Objective To summarize the characteristics of lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma accompanied with Graves disease,and to provide evidence for clinical treatment. Methods Totally 98 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and Graves disease who had been treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2004 to December 2013 were divided into the lymph node metastasis positive group (n=34) and lymph node metastasis negative group (n=64). The general information,blood biochemical results,pathological results,and prognoses were compared between these two groups...
October 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821020/duox2-gene-mutation-manifesting-as-resistance-to-thyrotropin-phenotype
#6
Panudda Srichomkwun, Junta Takamatsu, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael J Bamshad, Jessica X Chong, Samuel Refetoff
Resistance to thyrotropin (TSH) (RTSH; defined by elevated TSH and a normal or hypoplastic thyroid gland) can be caused by mutations in genes encoding the TSH receptor and PAX8, and it has been linked to a locus on chromosome 15. In two nonconsanguineous families with nongoitrous euthyroid hyperthyrotropinemia, typical of the RTSH phenotype, exome analysis identified five rare DUOX2 gene variants (p.A649E, p.P1391A, p.R885L, p.G488R, and p.SF965-6SfsX29) found to be pathogenic. This form of nongoitrous dyshormonogenesis masquerades both clinically and biochemically as RTSH...
December 7, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810496/common-phenotype-and-different-non-hla-genes-in-graves-disease-and-alopecia-areata
#7
Yasunori Taketomo, Shinsuke Noso, Naru Babaya, Yoshihisa Hiromine, Hiroyuki Ito, Kousei Kanto, Fumimaru Niwano, Naoki Oiso, Akira Kawada, Yumiko Kawabata, Hiroshi Ikegami
Our previous observations clarified that Graves' disease (GD) is the most frequent autoimmune disease in patients with alopecia areata (AA), and 42.7% of patients with AA were positive for thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb). A class II HLA haplotype DRB1∗15:01-DQB1∗06:02 was suggested to contribute to autoimmunity against the thyroid gland in AA. To further clarify the genetic factors contributing to organ specificity in autoimmune diseases, we studied the contribution of non-HLA genes to organ specificity in GD and AA...
October 31, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768856/elevated-serum-tetrac-in-graves-disease-potential-pathogenic-role-in-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy
#8
Roshini Fernando, Ekaterina Placzek, Edmund A Reese, Andrew T Placzek, Samantha Schwartz, Aaron Trierweiler, Leslie M Niziol, Stephen Atkins, Thomas S Scanlan, Terry J Smith
CONTEXT: The sources and biological impact of 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroacetic acid (TA4) are uncertain. CD34(+) fibrocytes express several proteins involved in the production of thyroid hormones. They infiltrate the orbit in Graves' disease (GD), an autoimmune process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. It appears that the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TAO. OBJECTIVE: To quantify levels of TA4 in healthy subjects and those with Graves' disease...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737479/thyroid-peroxidase-antibodies-in-non-autoimmune-hyperthyroidism-treated-with-radioactive-iodine
#9
M H Listewnik, M J Listewnik, T Miazgowski, K Jaskólska, K Jasiakiewicz, B Birkenfeld
Introduction: Earlier studies suggest increased serum levels of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in some cases with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of hypothyroidism in patients with nodular toxic goitre and toxic adenoma at 12 months after radioactive iodine therapy in the relation to TPOAb levels. Patients & Measurements: The study comprised 100 patients (83 females; 17 males) treated with radioactive iodine therapy. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free thyroxin, TPOAb, and anti-TSH receptor antibodies were assessed at baseline and 12 months after radioactive iodine therapy...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737329/coexistence-of-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-and-ectopic-thyroid-ten-year-follow-up
#10
Man-Li Guo, Xiao Zheng, Liu-Xue Yang, Ya-Li Qiu, Liang Cheng, Shao-Gang Ma
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) coexisting with ectopic thyroid is rare. Here we report a case of RTH with ectopic thyroid. A ten-year-old girl had been misdiagnosed as congenital hypothyroidism and treated with levothyroxine since she was born. Ten-year follow-up showed that the elevated thyrotropin was never suppressed by levothyroxine and no signs indicating hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism despite elevated FT3 and FT4 levels. Therefore the girl developed no defects in physical and cognitive development...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688483/a-long-lived-mouse-lacking-both-growth-hormone-and-growth-hormone-receptor-a-new-animal-model-for-aging-studies
#11
Adam Gesing, Denise Wiesenborn, Andrew Do, Vinal Menon, Augusto Schneider, Berta Victoria, Michael B Stout, John J Kopchick, Andrzej Bartke, Michal M Masternak
Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) signaling pathway promotes insulin sensitivity and is associated with both delayed aging and extended longevity. Two kinds of long-lived mice-Ames dwarfs (df/df) and GH receptor gene-disrupted knockouts (GHRKO) are characterized by a suppressed GH axis with a significant reduction of body size and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin levels. Ames dwarf mice are deficient in GH, prolactin, and thyrotropin, whereas GHRKOs are GH resistant and are dwarf with decreased circulating IGF-1 and increased GH...
September 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681724/interactions-between-two-different-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-reproductive-hormone-producing-cells-the-role-of-pacap-and-its-receptor-pac1r
#12
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tomomi Hara, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-both gonadotropins-from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638195/thyrotropin-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-crosstalk-upregulates-sodium-iodide-symporter-expression-in-primary-cultures-of-human-thyrocytes
#13
Sarah J Morgan, Susanne Neumann, Bernice Marcus-Samuels, Marvin C Gershengorn
BACKGROUND: Major regulation of thyroid gland function is mediated by thyrotropin (TSH) activating the TSH receptor (TSHR) and inducing upregulation of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) may play a role in regulating TSHR functional effects. This study examined the potential role of TSHR/IGF-1R crosstalk in primary cultures of human thyrocytes. RESULTS: TSH/IGF-1 co-treatment elicited additive effects on thyroglobulin (TG), thyroperoxidase (TPO), and deiodinase type 2 (DIO2) mRNA levels but synergistic effects on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA...
October 18, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612207/exchange-factors-directly-activated-by-camp-mediate-melanocortin-4-receptor-induced-gene-expression
#14
Evi Glas, Harald Mückter, Thomas Gudermann, Andreas Breit
Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603907/mutations-in-tbl1x-are-associated-with-central-hypothyroidism
#15
Charlotte A Heinen, Monique Losekoot, Yu Sun, Peter J Watson, Louise Fairall, Sjoerd D Joustra, Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Wilma Oostdijk, Erica L T van den Akker, Mariëlle Alders, Gijs W E Santen, Rick R van Rijn, Wouter A Dreschler, Olga V Surovtseva, Nienke R Biermasz, Raoul C Hennekam, Jan M Wit, John W R Schwabe, Anita Boelen, Eric Fliers, A S Paul van Trotsenburg
CONTEXT: Isolated congenital central hypothyroidism (CeH) can result from mutations in TRHR, TSHB, and IGSF1, but its etiology often remains unexplained. We identified a missense mutation in the transducin β-like protein 1, X-linked (TBL1X) gene in three relatives diagnosed with isolated CeH. TBL1X is part of the thyroid hormone receptor-corepressor complex. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were the identification of TBL1X mutations in patients with unexplained isolated CeH, Sanger sequencing of relatives of affected individuals, and clinical and biochemical characterization; in vitro investigation of functional consequences of mutations; and mRNA expression in, and immunostaining of, human hypothalami and pituitary glands...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602020/thyrotropin-receptor-epitope-and-human-leukocyte-antigen-in-graves-disease
#16
REVIEW
Hidefumi Inaba, Leslie J De Groot, Takashi Akamizu
Graves' disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552248/pathogenic-phenotype-of-adipogenesis-and-hyaluronan-in-orbital-fibroblasts-from-female-graves-orbitopathy-mouse-model
#17
Gina-Eva Görtz, Sajad Moshkelgosha, Christoph Jesenek, Bärbel Edelmann, Mareike Horstmann, J Paul Banga, Anja Eckstein, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt
A mouse model of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) induced by genetic immunization of human TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit encoding plasmid has recently been established. The orbital pathology was characterized by adipogenesis, myopathy and fibrosis. Human orbital fibroblasts (OFs) express TSHR and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and are considered to be pathogenic in GO. We established conditions for growing ex vivo cultures of mouse OFs (mOFs) from orbital tissue of animals undergoing GO and controls. Early passage mOFs showed characteristic fibroblast morphology and expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers including a strong expression of CD90...
October 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543288/expression-and-clinical-significance-of-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-in-graves-ophthalmopathy
#18
Yi-Ming Huang, Pei-Chen Chang, Shi-Bei Wu, Hui-Chuan Kau, Chieh-Chih Tsai, Catherine Jui-Ling Liu, Yau-Huei Wei
AIMS: To examine the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in human cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and investigate whether a correlation exists between the presence of CTGF protein and clinical parameters of the disease. METHODS: The protein expression levels of CTGF were analysed by western blots in cultured orbital fibroblasts from 10 patients with GO and 7 age-matched normal controls. Associations between the protein expression of CTGF and the clinical factors of GO, including clinical demographics, thyroid function, clinical activity score (CAS) and ophthalmopathy index (OI), was evaluated...
August 19, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529807/thyrotropin-receptor-antibody-trab-igm-levels-are-markedly-higher-than-trab-igg-levels-in-graves-disease-patients-and-controls-and-trab-igm-production-is-related-to-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation
#19
Keisuke Kumata, Keiko Nagata, Michiko Matsushita, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Masako Kato, Ichiro Murakami, Shuji Fukata, Kazuhiko Hayashi
Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that mainly presents as hyperthyroidism and is caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) that stimulate thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. We previously reported that Graves' disease patients and healthy controls both had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected TRAb-positive B cells and the EBV-reactivated induction of these B cells in cultures may induce the production of TRAbs. In the present study, we quantified serum TRAb-IgG and TRAb-IgM levels in 34 Graves' disease patients and 15 controls using ELISA to elucidate the mechanisms underlying EBV-related antibody production...
August 16, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525899/cloning-characterization-expression-and-feeding-response-of-thyrotropin-receptor-in-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#20
Y L Gao, W Song, L L Jiang, M X Mao, C L Wang, C T Ge, G Y Qian
Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that regulates the synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones in the thyroid tissue. The aims of the present study were to characterize the full-length TSHR cDNA in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and to determine the TSHR gene transcription levels in different tissues. In addition, the response of TSHR transcription levels to daily feeding in thyroid tissue was investigated. The results showed that the full-length cDNA sequence was 2743 bp with an open reading frame of 2340 bp encoding a 779-amino acid peptide...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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