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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087360/the-synthetic-peptide-pnpp-19-induces-peripheral-antinociception-via-activation-of-no-cgmp-katp-pathway-role-of-enos-and-nnos
#1
A C N Freitas, G Silva, D F Pacheco, V Lemos, I D G Duarte, M E de Lima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The peptide PnPP-19, derived from the spider toxin PnTx2-6, potentiates erectile function by activating the nitrergic system. Since NO has been studied as an antinociceptive molecule and PnPP-19 is known to induce peripheral antinociception, we intended to evaluate whether PnPP-19 could induce peripheral antinociception through activation of this pathway. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Nociceptive thresholds were measured by paw pressure test. PGE2 (2 μg/paw) was administered intraplantarly together with PnPP-19 and inhibitors/blockers of NOS, guanylyl cyclase and KATP channels...
January 10, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081233/differences-in-inflammatory-response-induced-by-two-representatives-of-clades-of-the-pandemic-st258-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clonal-lineage-producing-kpc-type-carbapenemases
#2
Giuseppe Castronovo, Ann Maria Clemente, Alberto Antonelli, Marco Maria D'Andrea, Michele Tanturli, Eloisa Perissi, Sara Paccosi, Astrid Parenti, Federico Cozzolino, Gian Maria Rossolini, Maria Gabriella Torcia
ST258-K. pneumoniae (ST258-KP) strains, the most widespread multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired pathogens, belong to at least two clades differing in a 215 Kb genomic region that includes the cluster of capsule genes. To investigate the effects of the different capsular phenotype on host-pathogen interactions, we studied representatives of ST258-KP clades, KKBO-1 and KK207-1, for their ability to activate monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells from human immune competent hosts. The two ST258-KP strains strongly induced the production of inflammatory cytokines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076313/ethnopharmacological-investigation-of-the-aerial-part-of-phragmites-karka-poaceae
#3
Ramiz Ahmed Sultan, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Mohi Uddin, Zobaer Al Mahmud, Sheikh Zahir Raihan, Nazmul Qais
BACKGROUND: In this ethnopharmacological study, methanolic extract of the aerial plant parts of Phragmites karka (Family: Poaceae) and its petroleum ether and carbon tetrachloride fractions were investigated for bioactivities in Swiss-albino mice, namely, analgesic, central nervous system (CNS) depressant, hypoglycemic, and antidiarrheal activity. METHODS: The cold methanolic extract of the aerial plant parts of Phragmites karka (MEPK) was first prepared, and it was then further fractionated as petroleum ether (PEFMEPK) and carbon tetrachloride (CTFMEPK) fractions...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064474/the-effect-of-alcohol-administration-on-the-corpus-cavernosum
#4
See Min Choi, Deok Ha Seo, Sin Woo Lee, Chunwoo Lee, Seong Uk Jeh, Sung Chul Kam, Jeong Seok Hwa, Ky Hyun Chung, Jae Seog Hyun
PURPOSE: We studied the effects of alcohol administration on the corpus cavernosum (CC) using an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC sections and the aortic ring of rabbits were used in an organ bath study. After acute alcohol administration, changes in blood alcohol concentration and electrical stimulation induced intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) percentage were compared in rats. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the CC were measured using immunoassays...
December 22, 2016: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046909/th-ef-207a-02-imaging-pancreatic-%C3%A3-2-cell-function-with-51-52mn-pet
#5
S Graves, R Hernandez, C England, H Valdovinos, J Jeffery, T Barnhart, W Cai, R Nickles
PURPOSE: To image β-cells noninvasively using radio-manganese PET and to develop efficient small cyclotron production of (51) Mn (t1/2=46m, β(+) =97%) and (52) Mn (t1/2=5.6d, β(+) =29%). METHODS: (51) Mn and (52) Mn were produced by 16 MeV proton irradiation (GE PETtrace) of electrodeposited (54) Fe on silver and Cr metal pressed into a silver disc, respectively. (51) Mn was radiochemically isolated from target material by anion exchange chromatography and (52) Mn was isolated by ethanolic anion exchange trap-and-release...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031778/evaluation-of-extraction-protocols-for-anti-diabetic-phytochemical-substances-from-medicinal-plants
#6
Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa, Ismaila A Umar, Dorcas B James, Hajara M Inuwa, James D Habila
AIM: To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. METHODS: The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus (n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b...
December 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030991/galangin-a-dietary-flavonoid-improves-antioxidant-status-and-reduces-hyperglycemia-mediated-oxidative-stress-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#7
Amal A Aloud, Chinnadurai Veeramani, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Mohammed A Alsaif, Ahmed S El Newehy, Khalid S Al-Numair
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of galangin on hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of low-dose STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)) into male albino Wistar rats. Galangin (8 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was given orally, once daily for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased levels of plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes...
December 28, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024293/modulation-of-the-lipid-profile-and-insulin-levels-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-by-ethanol-extract-of-cnidoscolus-aconitifolius-leaves-and-some-fractions-effect-on-the-oral-glucose-tolerance-of-normoglycemic-rats
#8
N K Achi, O C Ohaeri, I I Ijeh, C Eleazu
BACKGROUND: No study to date has investigated the effect of different polar solvent extracts from Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on glycemic control as used in folk medicine. Hence this study which investigated the effect of ethanol extract and fractions of C. aconitifolius leaves on body weights, relative organ weights, serum levels of glucose, lipid profiles and insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and on oral glucose tolerance of normoglycemic rats. METHODS: The ethanol extract was partitioned using methanol, hexane and chloroform to obtain different fractions...
December 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006000/glibenclamide-prevents-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#9
Smaragda Lamprianou, Conny Gysemans, Joanna Bou Saab, Helena Pontes, Chantal Mathieu, Paolo Meda
Previous work has revealed that Cx36, the sole connexin expressed in the insulin-producing beta cells, enhances the secretion of insulin, and promotes the resistance of beta cells against pro-inflammatory cytokines. In parallel, the anti-diabetic sulphonylurea glibenclamide was shown to promote the assembly and function of Cx36 channels. Here, we assessed whether glibenclamide could protect the insulin-producing cells against conditions mimicking those expected at the onset of type 1 diabetes. We found that the drug 1) protected in vitro the mouse MIN6 cells from the apoptosis and loss of Cx36, which are induced by Th1 cytokines; 2) prevented the development of hyperglycemia as well as the loss of beta cells and Cx36, which rapidly develop with aging in untreated NOD mice; 3) modified the proportion of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in pancreatic draining lymph nodes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000721/overexcited-maxik-and-katp-channels-underlie-obstructive-jaundice-induced-vasoconstrictor-hyporeactivity-of-arterial-smooth-muscle
#10
Ya-Wei Yuan, Long Wang, Zhan-Ying Lu, Yue Long, Ying-Fu Jiao, Qiang Xia, Da-Xiang Wen, Wei-Feng Yu
Substantial evidence has shown that obstructive jaundice can induce vascular hyporesponsiveness. The present study was designed to investigate mechanisms of MaxiK channel and KATP underlying cholestasis-induced vascular dysfunction. The isolated thoracic aorta was used to explore norepinephrine (NE)-induced contraction. The function of MaxiK and KATP channels were investigated using whole-cell patch clamp recording. Compared with Sham group, NE-induced vascular contraction was blunted after bile duct ligation (BDL), which could not be ameliorated significantly after endothelial denudation...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987222/the-antinociceptive-effects-of-a-tapentadol-ketorolac-combination-in-a-mouse-model-of-trigeminal-pain-is-mediated-by-opioid-receptors-and-atp-sensitive-k-channels
#11
Israel Barreras-Espinoza, José Alberto Soto-Zambrano, Nicolás Serafín-Higuera, Ramón Zapata-Morales, Ángel Alonso-Castro, Ronell Bologna-Molina, Vinicio Granados-Soto, Mario A Isiordia-Espinoza
Preclinical Research The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinoceptive interaction between the opioid analgesic, tapentadol, and the NSAID, ketorolac, in the mouse orofacial formalin test. Tapentadol or ketorolac were administered ip 15 min before orofacial formalin injection. The effect of the individual drugs was used to calculate their ED50 values and different proportions (tapentadol-ketorolac in 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3) were assayed in the orofacial test using isobolographic analysis and interaction index to evaluate the interaction between the drugs...
December 16, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984097/anti-allodynic-effect-of-mangiferin-in-neuropathic-rats-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-cyclic-gmp-atp-sensitive-k-channels-pathway-and-serotoninergic-system
#12
Antonio Espinosa de Los Monteros-Zuñiga, Teresa Izquierdo, Geovanna Nallely Quiñonez-Bastidas, Héctor Isaac Rocha-González, Beatriz Godínez-Chaparro
The neurobiology of neuropathic pain is caused by injury in the central or peripheral nervous system. Recent evidence points out that mangiferin shows anti-nociceptive effect in inflammatory pain. However, its role in inflammatory and neuropathic pain and the possible mechanisms of action are not yet established. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible anti-allodynic effect of mangiferin in rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Furthermore, we sought to investigate the possible mechanisms of action that contribute to these effects...
October 28, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956919/cardiovascular-effects-of-the-essential-oil-of-croton-argyrophylloides-in-normotensive-rats-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#13
Thayane Rebeca Alves-Santos, Rodrigo José Bezerra de Siqueira, Gloria Pinto Duarte, Saad Lahlou
Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg. (EOCA) were investigated in normotensive rats. In saline-pretreated anesthetized or conscious rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of the EOCA induced dose-dependent hypotension. Dose-dependent tachycardia was observed only in conscious rats. In anesthetized rats, cervical bivagotomy failed to enhance EOCA-induced hypotension but unmasked significant bradycardia. In conscious rats, i.v. pretreatment with methylatropine, but not with atenolol or L-NAME, reduced both hypotensive and tachycardiac responses to EOCA...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951745/studies-on-phytochemical-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-hypoglycaemic-and-antiproliferative-activities-of-echinacea-purpurea-and-echinacea-angustifolia-extracts
#14
Rayn Clarenc Aarland, Angel Ernesto Bañuelos-Hernández, Mabel Fragoso-Serrano, Edgar Del Carmen Sierra-Palacios, Fernando Díaz de León-Sánchez, Laura Josefina Pérez-Flores, Fernando Rivera-Cabrera, José Alberto Mendoza-Espinoza
CONTEXT: Echinacea (Asteraceae) is used because of its pharmacological properties. However, there are few studies that integrate phytochemical analyses with pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the chemical profile and biological activity of hydroalcoholic Echinacea extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Density, dry matter, phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method), flavonoids (AlCl3 method), alkylamides (GC-MS analysis), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS methods), antiproliferative effect (SRB assay), anti-inflammatory effect (paw oedema assay, 11 days/Wistar rats; 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936472/relaxant-effect-of-sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulphonate-on-mouse-tracheal-smooth-muscle
#15
Yi-Lin Zhang, Jia-Wen Xu, Xiong-Hao Wu, Peng-Xiao Chen, Fang Wei, Dong-Dong Gao, Xiao-Wen Chen, Yu-Li Luo, Yun-Xin Zhu, Jiehong Huang, Ya-Xia Tan, Lei Zhao, Wen-Liang Zhou
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate, a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, has been proven to possess versatile biological properties, but its pharmacological effect on tracheal smooth muscle remains elusive. This paper presents a study on the relaxant effect and underlying mechanisms of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate on mouse tracheal smooth muscle. The relaxant effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate was evaluated in mouse tracheal rings using a mechanical recording system. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured in primary cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells using confocal imaging system...
December 9, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930700/simultaneous-quantification-of-antidiabetic-agents-in-human-plasma-by-a-uplc-qtof-ms-method
#16
Mariana Millan Fachi, Letícia Bonancio Cerqueira, Letícia Paula Leonart, Thais Martins Guimarães de Francisco, Roberto Pontarolo
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, gliclazide, glimepiride, metformin, nateglinide, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and vildagliptin in human plasma was developed and validated, using isoniazid and sulfaquinoxaline as internal standards. Following plasma protein precipitation using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid, chromatographic separation was performed on a cyano column using gradient elution with water and acetonitrile, both containing 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927103/mechanism-of-action-of-relaxant-effect-of-agastache-mexicana-ssp-mexicana-essential-oil-in-guinea-pig-trachea-smooth-muscle
#17
Andrés Navarrete, Natalia Ávila-Rosas, Mateo Majín-León, José Luis Balderas-López, Alejandro Alfaro-Romero, José Carlos Tavares-Carvalho
CONTEXT: Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Lamiaceae), popularly known as 'toronjil morado', is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases such as hypertension, anxiety and respiratory disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relaxant action mechanism of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana essential oil (AMEO) in guinea-pig isolated trachea model. MATERIALS AND METHOD: AMEO was analyzed by GC/MS...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921351/the-effect-of-combined-inositol-hexakisphosphate-and-inositol-supplement-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#18
Shadae R Foster, Felix O Omoruyi, Juan Bustamante, Ruby L A Lindo, Lowell L Dilworth
Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol both regulate insulin secretion, but their combined use in the management of diabetes deserves investigation. The combined effects of IP6 and inositol supplementation were investigated in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. The following groups of rats were studied for 8 weeks: non-diabetic control, non-diabetic high-fat diet control, diabetic untreated, diabetic rats treated with the combination of IP6 and inositol (650 mg/kg bw) and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg bw)...
October 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917777/the-identification-and-treatment-of-women-with-hyperglycaemia-in-pregnancy-an-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-systematic-reviews-meta-analyses-and-an-economic-evaluation
#19
Diane Farrar, Mark Simmonds, Susan Griffin, Ana Duarte, Debbie A Lawlor, Mark Sculpher, Lesley Fairley, Su Golder, Derek Tuffnell, Martin Bland, Fidelma Dunne, Donald Whitelaw, John Wright, Trevor A Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a higher risk of important adverse outcomes. Practice varies and the best strategy for identifying and treating GDM is unclear. AIM: To estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies for identifying and treating women with GDM. METHODS: We analysed individual participant data (IPD) from birth cohorts and conducted systematic reviews to estimate the association of maternal glucose levels with adverse perinatal outcomes; GDM prevalence; maternal characteristics/risk factors for GDM; and the effectiveness and costs of treatments...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914476/lidocaine-relaxation-in-isolated-rat-aortic-rings-is-enhanced-by-endothelial-removal-possible-role-of-kv-katp-channels-and-a2a-receptor-crosstalk
#20
Aryadi Arsyad, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is an approved local anesthetic and Class 1B antiarrhythmic with a number of ancillary properties. Our aim was to investigate lidocaine's vasoreactivity properties in intact versus denuded rat thoracic aortic rings, and the effect of inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO), prostenoids, voltage-dependent Kv and KATP channels, membrane Na(+)/K(+) pump, and A2a and A2b receptors. METHODS: Aortic rings were harvested from adult male Sprague Dawley rats and equilibrated in an organ bath containing oxygenated, modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, pH 7...
December 3, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
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