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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869059/site-specific-preparation-of-intact-solid-liquid-interfaces-by-label-free-in-situ-localization-and-cryo-focused-ion-beam-lift-out
#1
Michael J Zachman, Emily Asenath-Smith, Lara A Estroff, Lena F Kourkoutis
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows atomic scale characterization of solid-solid interfaces, but has seen limited applications to solid-liquid interfaces due to the volatility of liquids in the microscope vacuum. Although cryo-electron microscopy is routinely used to characterize hydrated samples stabilized by rapid freezing, sample thinning is required to access the internal interfaces of thicker specimens. Here, we adapt cryo-focused ion beam (FIB) "lift-out," a technique recently developed for biological specimens, to prepare intact internal solid-liquid interfaces for high-resolution structural and chemical analysis by cryo-STEM...
November 21, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859587/gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase-to-platelet-ratio-is-an-independent-predictor-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-liver-cancer
#2
Yong Eun Park, Beom Kyung Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Sojung Han, Mi Young Jeon, Ja Yoon Heo, Kijun Song, Seung Up Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR) can evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis. We investigated whether GPR can predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1,109 CHB patients that were enrolled between 2006 and 2012, and all patients had available data for the assessment of GPR at enrollment. Three risk groups were defined according to tertile stratification: GPR < 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859583/external-validation-of-the-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-fibrosis-score-for-assessing-advanced-fibrosis-in-korean-patients
#3
Dae Won Jun, Sang Gyune Kim, Sang Hoon Park, So-Young Jin, Ji Sung Lee, Jin-Woo Lee, Moon Young Kim, Dae Hee Choi, Yong Kyun Cho, Jong Eun Yeon, Joo Hyun Sohn
BACKGROUND: The degree of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical predictive factor for patient prognosis. This study was intended to perform external validation of the various fibrosis prediction models for assessing advanced fibrosis in Korean NAFLD patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of 412 patients with NAFLD confirmed by liver biopsy in hospitals affiliated with the Koran NAFLD study group was conducted and the predictive ability of existing liver fibrosis prediction models including NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), BARD, and FIB-4 were compared...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855952/decay-of-sewage-sourced-microbial-source-tracking-markers-and-fecal-indicator-bacteria-in-marine-waters
#4
Mia Catharine Mattioli, Lauren M Sassoubre, Todd L Russell, Alexandria B Boehm
The decay of sewage-sourced enterococci, Escherichia coli, three human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and norovirus GII was measured in situ in coastal, marine waters. Experiments examined the effects of sunlight intensity and season on decay. Seawater was seeded with untreated sewage, placed into permeable dialysis bags, and deployed in the coastal ocean near the water surface, and at 18 cm, and 99 cm depths, to vary solar intensity, during winter and summer seasons...
October 25, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828370/annealing-effects-on-microstructure-and-laser-induced-damage-threshold-of-quasi-rugate-filters
#5
Yunti Pu, Ping Ma, Zhao Qiao, Mingxiao Zhang, Zhongwen Lu, Fuming Qiu, Liang Lv
Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> quasi-rugate filters with high damage thresholds were deposited by ion-beam sputtering and then annealed at temperature of 200-800°C. The relations between microstructure, optical properties, chemical composition, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) were studied. It was found that the transmittance spectra shifted to short wavelength as the annealing temperature increased. Three evolution courses of the films in the annealing process were analyzed by Atomic Force microscopy (AFM), Zygo interferometer measurement and Focused Ion Beam microscope (FIB)...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813162/do-directly-acting-antiviral-agents-for-hcv-increase-the-risk-of-hepatic-decompensation-and-decline-in-renal-function-results-from-erchives
#6
A A Butt, Y Ren, K Marks, O S Shaikh, K E Sherman
BACKGROUND: Directly acting antiviral agents (DAA) have been associated with hepatic decompensation, especially in patients with pre-treatment cirrhosis, but this risk is not well defined. AIM: To determine the incidence of hepatic decompensation, liver transplantation, death and worsening renal function in patients treated with a Paritaprevir/ritonavir, Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir (PrOD), sofosbuvir/simeprevir or sofosbuvir/ledipasvir regimen. METHODS: We followed ERCHIVES participants treated with the above regimens for up to 12 weeks post-treatment...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796896/the-cutaneous-telocytes
#7
Catalin G Manole, Olga Simionescu
Telocytes (TCs) are interstitial cells found in stroma of many organs, including the skin dermis. Ultrastructurally, normal skin TCs recapitulates all the previously documented features in interstitum of other organs. Their (ultra)structural hallmark is the presence of particular shaped cellular prolongations (termed telopodes), along other features as cellular organelles representation and their distribution within cell body and its prolongations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or high magnification light microscopy indicated that the particular shape of telopodes alternate characteristically thin segments (termed podomeres) and dilated segments (called podoms)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796645/spread-and-exchange-of-bla-ndm-1-in-hospitalized-neonates-role-of-mobilizable-genetic-elements
#8
S Datta, S Mitra, P Chattopadhyay, T Som, S Mukherjee, S Basu
To investigate the mobilizable elements associated with bla NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from septicaemic neonates at a NICU in India, during December, 2008-2011. An attempt was also made to understand whether there was a pattern in the temporal acquisition of bla NDM-1 within the unit. Transferability of carbapenem resistance was tested by conjugation and transformation. Plasmid types and addiction systems were analysed. The genetic background of bla NDM-1 and association with class 1 integron were evaluated by PCR mapping...
October 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796315/three-dimensional-ultrastructural-analyses-of-anterior-pituitary-gland-expose-spatial-relationships-between-endocrine-cell-secretory-granule-localization-and-capillary-distribution
#9
Munetake Yoshitomi, Keisuke Ohta, Tomonoshin Kanazawa, Akinobu Togo, Shingo Hirashima, Kei-Ichiro Uemura, Satoko Okayama, Motohiro Morioka, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura
Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM)...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769624/anticoagulant-activity-of-a-sulfated-lachnum-polysaccharide-in-mice-with-a-state-of-hypercoagulability
#10
Zhanzhan Du, Fang Shi, Dong Liu, Hongling Ye, Maheen Mahwish Surhio, Jinglei Li, Ming Ye
A sulfated polysaccharide, designated as SLEP-1, was obtained after sulfation of the exopolysaccharide (LEP-1) which was isolated from Lachnum. The degree of substitution (DS) of sulfate group of SLEP-1 was 1.97. SEM images of SLEP-1 revealed laminated structure in mesh. UV, FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectra indicated that the LEP-1 was sulfated successfully. The result of the anticoagulant activity in vitro showed that both of LEP-1 and SLEP-1 could effectively prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) of the normal mice plasma, in which SLEP-1 was more effectively than those of LEP-1, and dose-effect relationships were found...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767981/physiological-role-of-erythrocyte-nitric-oxide
#11
Carlota Saldanha
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells interacts with erythrocyte through band 3 protein, being scavenged by haemoglobin. A signal transduction mechanism involving protein Gi and protein band 3 stimulates erythrocyte NO efflux when acetylcholine (ACh) binds to erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase. Binding of normal plasma fibrinogen (Fib) levels, to erythrocyte membrane CD47 decreases the NO efflux. When high Fib concentration and ACh were present the efflux of NO from erythrocytes was normalized...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760365/nanoscale-imaging-of-collagen-gels-with-focused-ion-beam-milling-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#12
Shawn P Reese, Niloofar Farhang, Randy Poulson, Gennie Parkman, Jeffrey A Weiss
In vitro polymerized type I collagen hydrogels have been used extensively as a model system for three-dimensional (3D) cell and tissue culture, studies of fibrillogenesis, and investigation of multiscale force transmission within connective tissues. The nanoscale organization of collagen fibrils plays an essential role in the mechanics of these gels and emergent cellular behavior in culture, yet quantifying 3D structure with nanoscale resolution to fully characterize fibril organization remains a significant technical challenge...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755232/fib-4-and-imaging-for-measuring-fibrosis-in-hepatitis-c-virus
#13
Barbara J Turner, Yuanyuan Liang, Amit Singal
OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive measures are widely used to assess fibrosis and may be used to prioritize hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We examined risks for likely fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection using fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) and imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A HCV screening program diagnosed chronic HCV in patients born from 1945 to 1965 admitted in a safety net hospital. Likely fibrosis was based on FIB-4 (≥1.45) alone or combined with imaging interpreted as fibrosis or cirrhosis...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755117/interferon-based-hepatitis-c-therapy-in-a-safety-net-hospital-access-efficacy-and-safety
#14
Eric M Nordstrom, Angela Keniston, Fafa Baouchi, Alvaro Martinez-Camacho
AIMS: This study assesses the efficacy, accessibility, and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in a safety net hospital population. METHODS: Patients at Denver Health receiving pegylated interferon for HCV infection between 2008 and 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Sociodemographic, biochemical, and virologic data were collected on each patient. The primary outcomes were the rate of sustained virologic response and early treatment discontinuation, with reason for discontinuation documented...
January 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746775/inchi2-plasmids-are-predominant-in-antibiotic-resistant-salmonella-isolates
#15
Wenyao Chen, Tingzi Fang, Xiujuan Zhou, Daofeng Zhang, Xianming Shi, Chunlei Shi
The wide usage of antibiotics contributes to the increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella. Plasmids play a critical role in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance markers in Salmonella. This study aimed to screen and characterize plasmid profiles responsible for antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and ultimately to clarify the molecular mechanism of transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. A total of 226 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility by a disk diffusion method...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725257/automatic-segmentation-of-high-pressure-frozen-and-freeze-substituted-mouse-retina-nuclei-from-fib-sem-tomograms
#16
Thai V Hoang, Caroline Kizilyaprak, Danièle Spehner, Bruno M Humbel, Patrick Schultz
Focused Ion Beam milling combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy is a powerful tool to determine the 3-D organization of whole cells and tissue at an isotropic resolution of 3-5nm. This opens the possibility to quantify several cellular parameters and to provide detailed phenotypic information in normal or disease states. Here we describe Biocomputing methods to extract in an automated way characteristic features of mouse rod photoreceptor nuclei such as the shape and the volume of the nucleus; the proportion of heterochromatin; the number, density and distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPC)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722657/probing-the-mystery-of-liesegang-band-formation-revealing-the-origin-of-self-organized-dual-frequency-micro-and-nanoparticle-arrays
#17
Rita Tóth, Roché M Walliser, István Lagzi, Florent Boudoire, Marcel Düggelin, Artur Braun, Catherine E Housecroft, Edwin C Constable
Periodic precipitation processes in gels can result in impressive micro- and nanostructured patterns known as periodic precipitation (or Liesegang bands). Under certain conditions, the silver nitrate-chromium(vi) system exhibits the coexistence of two kinds of Liesegang bands with different frequencies. We now present that the two kinds of bands form independently on different time scales and the pH-dependent chromate(vi)-dichromate(vi) equilibrium controls the formation of the precipitates. We determined the spatial distribution and constitution of the particles in the bands using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) measurements...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709074/correlation-of-delta-high-resolution-computed-tomography-hrct-score-with-delta-clinical-variables-in-early-systemic-sclerosis-ssc-patients
#18
Suparaporn Wangkaew, Juntima Euathrongchit, Pittaporn Wattanawittawas, Nuntana Kasitanon
BACKGROUND: The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014...
August 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704012/serum-fibrosis-markers-for-the-diagnosis-of-liver-disease-among-people-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-chennai-india
#19
Javier A Cepeda, Sunil S Solomon, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Paneerselvam Nandagopal, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Muniratnam S Kumar, David L Thomas, Mark S Sulkowski, Shruti H Mehta
Background.  Access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is limited in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Noninvasive biomarkers, such as fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) and aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), are low-cost alternatives to staging liver disease and identifying treatment need in people with chronic HCV infection, but their accuracy has not been evaluated in LMICs. Methods.  We tested the accuracy of FIB-4 and APRI at validated cutoffs (FIB-4 <1.45, >3.25; APRI <0.5, >1...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693309/cryo-fib-sem-serial-milling-and-block-face-imaging-large-volume-structural-analysis-of-biological-tissues-preserved-close-to-their-native-state
#20
Netta Vidavsky, Anat Akiva, Ifat Kaplan-Ashiri, Katya Rechav, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner, Andreas Schertel
Many important biological questions can be addressed by studying in 3D large volumes of intact, cryo fixed hydrated tissues (⩾10,000μm(3)) at high resolution (5-20nm). This can be achieved using serial FIB milling and block face surface imaging under cryo conditions. Here we demonstrate the unique potential of the cryo-FIB-SEM approach using two extensively studied model systems; sea urchin embryos and the tail fin of zebrafish larvae. We focus in particular on the environment of mineral deposition sites...
December 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
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