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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767993/multi-metallic-microparticles-increase-the-potency-of-rifampicin-against-intracellular-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Timothy Ellis, Michele Chiappi, Andres Garcia-Trenco, Maryam Al-Ejji, Srijata Sarkar, Theoni K Georgiou, Milo Sebastian Peter Shaffer, Teresa D Tetley, Stephan Schwander, Mary P Ryan, Alexandra E Porter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) has the extraordinary ability to adapt to the administration of antibiotics through the development of resistance mechanisms. By rapidly exporting drugs from within the cytosol, these pathogenic bacteria diminish antibiotic potency and drive the presentation of drug tolerant tuberculosis (TB). The membrane integrity of M.tb is pivotal in retaining these drug-resistant traits. Silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are established antimicrobial agents that effectively compromise membrane stability, giving rise to increased bacterial permeability to antibiotics...
May 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751348/measuring-topographies-from-conventional-sem-acquisitions
#2
Qiwei Shi, Stéphane Roux, Félix Latourte, François Hild, Dominique Loisnard, Nicolas Brynaert
The present study extends the stereoscopic imaging principle for estimating the surface topography to two orientations, namely, normal to the electron beam axis and inclined at 70° as suited for EBSD analyses. In spite of the large angle difference, it is shown that the topography can be accurately determined using regularized global Digital Image Correlation. The surface topography is compared to another estimate issued from a 3D FIB-SEM procedure where the sample surface is first covered by a Pt layer, and its initial topography is progressively revealed from successive FIB-milling...
April 27, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727382/evaluation-of-accuracy-of-elastography-point-quantification-versus-other-noninvasive-modalities-in-staging-of-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients
#3
Rabab Fouad, Tamer Elbaz, Shereen Abdel Alem, Aisha Elsharkawy, Mohamed Negm, Marwa Khairy, Mohamed Hassany, Ahmed Cordie, Wafaa El Akel, Gamal Esmat
BACKGROUND: Elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) is a newly noninvasive method incorporated into a conventional ultrasound system for staging of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. AIM: The aim was to evaluate ElastPQ reproducibility and its accuracy in staging of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients in comparison with transient elastography (TE) and fibrosis scores [FIB-4 and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI)] using liver biopsy as a reference standard and also to predict the sensitivity and specificity of ElastPQ as well as proposing a cut-off for advanced fibrosis...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725133/ultra-capacitive-carbon-neural-probe-allows-simultaneous-long-term-electrical-stimulations-and-high-resolution-neurotransmitter-detection
#4
Surabhi Nimbalkar, Elisa Castagnola, Arvind Balasubramani, Alice Scarpellini, Soshi Samejima, Abed Khorasani, Adrien Boissenin, Sanitta Thongpang, Chet Moritz, Sam Kassegne
We present a new class of carbon-based neural probes that consist of homogeneous glassy carbon (GC) microelectrodes, interconnects and bump pads. These electrodes have purely capacitive behavior with exceptionally high charge storage capacity (CSC) and are capable of sustaining more than 3.5 billion cycles of bi-phasic pulses at charge density of 0.25 mC/cm2 . These probes enable both high SNR (>16) electrical signal recording and remarkably high-resolution real-time neurotransmitter detection, on the same platform...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722528/new-insights-into-laser-ablation-processes-of-heterogeneous-samples-towards-analysis-of-through-silicon-vias
#5
Pavel Moreno-García, Valentine Grimaudo, Andreas Riedo, Alena Cedeño López, Reto Wiesendanger, Marek Tulej, Cynthia Gruber, Emanuel Lörtscher, Peter Wurz, Peter Broekmann
State-of-the-art three-dimensional very large-scale integration (3D-VLSI) relies, among other factors, on the purity of high-aspect-ratio Cu interconnects such as through-silicon-vias (TSVs). Accurate spatial chemical analysis of electroplated TSV structures has been proven to be challenging due to their large aspect ratios and their multi-material composition (Cu and Si) with distinct physical properties. Here, we demonstrate that these structures can be accurately analyzed by femto-second (fs) laser beam ablation techniques in combination with ionization mass spectrometry (LIMS)...
May 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718546/improvement-of-lsm-arfi-measurements-and-non-invasive-fibrosis-markers-after-daas-for-hcv-g4-recurrence-post-living-donor-liver-transplantation-egyptian-cohort
#6
Shereen Abdel Alem, Mohamed Said, Ismail Anwar, Zeinab Abdellatif, Tamer Elbaz, Rasha Eletreby, Mahmoud AbouElKhair, Magdy El-Serafy, Sherif Mogawer, Mona El-Amir, Mostafa El-Shazly, Adel Hosny, Ayman Yosry
BACKGROUND: Progression of recurrent hepatitis C is accelerated in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Rates of sustained virological response (SVR) have drastically improved since introduction of DAAs. AIM: To elucidate the changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by Transient elastography (TE) as well as ARFI elastography and fibrosis scores after DAAs treatment in LT recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709031/gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-predict-paritaprevir-induced-hyperbilirubinemia-during-treatment-of-hepatitis-c
#7
Hironao Okubo, Hitoshi Ando, Yushi Sorin, Eisuke Nakadera, Hiroo Fukada, Junichi Morishige, Akihisa Miyazaki, Kenichi Ikejima
BACKGROUND: Paritaprevir inhibits organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 and OATP1B3, which transport bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is an adverse event reported during hepatitis C treatment. Gadoxetic acid is also transported by OATP1B1/1B3. We evaluated whether the enhancement effect in gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could predict the plasma concentration of paritaprevir and might anticipate the development of hyperbilirubinemia. METHODS: This prospective study evaluated 27 patients with hepatitis C who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging prior to treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705278/diagnostic-usefulness-of-apri-and-fib-4-for-the-prediction-of-liver-fibrosis-after-liver-transplantation-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus
#8
H Imai, H Kamei, Y Onishi, Y Ishizu, M Ishigami, H Goto, Y Ogura
BACKGROUND: Aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) are well known as representative indirect serum biomarkers related to liver fibrosis. The usefulness of these markers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis after liver transplantation (LT) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and the influence of splenectomy were investigated. METHODS: From June 2003 to May 2014, 31 HCV-infected patients who underwent LT and postoperative follow-up liver biopsies were included in this study...
April 25, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702111/new-advances-in-scanning-microscopy-and-its-application-to-study-parasitic-protozoa
#9
REVIEW
Wanderley de Souza, Marcia Attias
Scanning electron microscopy has been used to observe and study parasitic protozoa for at least 40 years. However, field emission electron sources, as well as improvements in lenses and detectors, brought the resolution power of scanning electron microscopes (SEM) to a new level. Parallel to the refinement of instruments, protocols for preservation of the ultrastructure, immunolabeling, exposure of cytoskeleton and inner structures of parasites and host cells were developed. This review is focused on protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary relevance, e...
April 24, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676892/multiple-pathways-to-bacterial-load-reduction-by-stormwater-best-management-practices-tradeoffs-in-performance-volume-and-treated-area
#10
Jordyn Wolfand, Colin D Bell, Alexandria B Boehm, Terri Hogue, Richard G Luthy
Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are implemented to reduce microbial pollution in runoff, but their removal efficiencies differ. Enhanced BMPs, such as those with media amendments, can increase removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in runoff from 0.25-log10 to above 3-log10 ; however, their implications for watershed-scale management are poorly understood. In this work, a computational model was developed to simulate watershed-scale bacteria loading and BMP performance, using the Ballona Creek Watershed (Los Angeles County, CA) as a case study...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670279/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-biomarkers-of-f-652-a-recombinant-human-interleukin-22-dimer-in-healthy-subjects
#11
Kai-Yang Tang, Jason Lickliter, Zhi-Hua Huang, Zong-Shu Xian, Han-Yang Chen, Cheng Huang, Chong Xiao, Yu-Peng Wang, Ying Tan, Lin-Feng Xu, Yu-Liang Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yan
F-652 is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of two human interleukin-22 (IL-22) molecules linked to an immunoglobulin constant region (IgG2 -Fc). IL-22 plays critical roles in promoting tissue repair and suppressing bacterial infection. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), tolerability, and biomarkers of F-652 were evaluated following a single dose in healthy male volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Following single-dose subcutaneous (SC) injection of F-652 at 2.0 µg/kg into healthy subjects, six out of six subjects experienced delayed injection site reactions, which presented as erythematous and/or discoid eczematous lesions 10 to 17 days post-dosing...
April 18, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670162/micro-deformation-evolutions-of-the-constituent-phases-in-duplex-stainless-steel-during-cyclic-nanoindentation
#12
Yuan-Yuan Cui, Yun-Fei Jia, Fu-Zhen Xuan
Cyclic elastoplastic deformation behaviors of austenite phase and ferrite phase in a duplex stainless steel were investigate by load-controlled cyclic nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter. During the tests, the maximum penetration depth per cycle increased rapidly with cycle number at transient state, and reached stable at quasi-steady state. Plastic dissipated energy was quantitatively proved to be the driving force for the propagation of deformation zones during cyclic nanoindentation tests. Transmission electron microscopy combined with FIB was used to reveal the deformation mechanisms of both phases underneath indents with cycles...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630046/multimodal-hierarchical-imaging-of-serial-sections-for-finding-specific-cellular-targets-within-large-volumes
#13
Irene U Wacker, Lisa Veith, Waldemar Spomer, Andreas Hofmann, Marlene Thaler, Stefan Hillmer, Ulrich Gengenbach, Rasmus R Schröder
Targeting specific cells at ultrastructural resolution within a mixed cell population or a tissue can be achieved by hierarchical imaging using a combination of light and electron microscopy. Samples embedded in resin are sectioned into arrays consisting of ribbons of hundreds of ultrathin sections and deposited on pieces of silicon wafer or conductively coated coverslips. Arrays are imaged at low resolution using a digital consumer like smartphone camera or light microscope (LM) for a rapid large area overview, or a wide field fluorescence microscope (fluorescence light microscopy (FLM)) after labeling with fluorophores...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626437/dynamic-reference-intervals-for-coagulation-parameters-from-infancy-to-adolescence
#14
Christina Weidhofer, Meyer Elias, Ristl Robin, Helmut Wiedemann, Janne Cadamuro, Kipman Ulrike, Jakob Zierk, Christoph Male, Peter Quehenberger, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Elisa Einwallner
INTRODUCTION: Practical and ethical challenges as well as time and costs have restricted the generation of pediatric reference intervals. Therefore, pediatric reference intervals on coagulation parameters based on solid evidence are still scarce. Furthermore, reference intervals by age-group cannot reflect the dynamics of age and sex specific coagulation values during childhood. This study is the first to close this gap and provide continuous age and sex dependent reference intervals during childhood in hemostasis...
April 4, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617443/changes-in-serum-levels-of-autotaxin-with-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#15
Tomoo Yamazaki, Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Yoko Usami, Ayumi Sugiura, Naoyuki Fujimori, Takefumi Kimura, Akihiro Matsumoto, Koji Igarashi, Masao Ota, Eiji Tanaka
Sustained virological response (SVR) rates have increased remarkably since the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C. Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme converting lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid and a newly established biomarker for liver fibrosis. Interferon-free DAA regimens for chronic hepatitis C could improve liver stiffness in SVR patients according to several non-invasive evaluation methods, but the clinical response and significance of ATX in this context have not yet been defined...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614110/the-art-and-science-of-selecting-graduate-students-in-the-biomedical-sciences-performance-in-doctoral-study-of-the-foundational-sciences
#16
Hee-Young Park, Oren Berkowitz, Karen Symes, Shoumita Dasgupta
The goal of this study was to investigate associations between admissions criteria and performance in Ph.D. programs at Boston University School of Medicine. The initial phase of this project examined student performance in the classroom component of a newly established curriculum named "Foundations in Biomedical Sciences (FiBS)". Quantitative measures including undergraduate grade point average (GPA), graduate record examination (GRE; a standardized, computer-based test) scores for the verbal (assessment of test takers' ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information and concepts provided in writing) and quantitative (assessment of test takers' problem-solving ability) components of the examination, previous research experience, and competitiveness of previous research institution were used in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611385/diagnosis-of-liver-fibrosis-with-wisteria-floribunda-agglutinin-positive-mac-2-binding-protein-wfa-m2bp-among-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#17
Dong Wook Jekarl, Hyunyu Choi, Seungok Lee, Jung Hyun Kwon, Sung Won Lee, Hein Yu, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, Pil Soo Sung, Seung Kew Yoon
BACKGROUND: Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (WFA-M2BP) is a protein with altered glycosylation that reacts with lectin, and was recently identified as a useful non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection.This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of WFA-M2BP for liver fibrosis in the context of hepatitis B virus (HBV). METHODS: We enrolled 151 patients infected with HBV...
July 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607303/diagnostic-accuracy-of-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-and-fibrosis-4-scores-in-predicting-advanced-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-and-chronic-viral-hepatitis-experience-from-pakistan
#18
Rajesh Kumar Wadhva, Muhammad Manzoorul Haque, Nasir Hassan Luck, Abbas Ali Tasneem, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammad Mubarak
Objectives: The aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of APRI and FIB-4 in assessing the stage of liver fibrosis in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to compare the two tests with standard tru-cut liver biopsy. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation Karachi (SIUT) from May 2010 to May 2014. All ESRD patients, being considered as candidates for renal transplantation and in whom liver biopsy was performed were included...
March 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588839/non-invasive-markers-of-liver-fibrosis-in-fatty-liver-disease-are-unreliable-in-people-of-south-asian-descent
#19
Sampath De Silva, Wenhao Li, Polychronis Kemos, James H Brindley, Jibran Mecci, Salma Samsuddin, Joanne Chin-Aleong, Roger M Feakins, Graham R Foster, Wing-Kin Syn, William Alazawi
Objective: Liver biopsy is the most accurate method for determining stage and grade of injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Given risks and limitations of biopsy, non-invasive tests such as NAFLD fibrosis score, aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index, Fib-4, AST/alanine transaminase ratio and BARD are used. Prevalence and severity of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome vary by ethnicity, yet tests have been developed in largely white populations. We tested our hypothesis that non-invasive tests that include metabolic parameters are less accurate in South Asian compared with white patients...
April 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580211/new-insight-into-the-mechanism-underlying-the-silk-gland-biological-process-by-knocking-out-fibroin-heavy-chain-in-the-silkworm
#20
Yong Cui, Yanan Zhu, Yongjian Lin, Lei Chen, Qili Feng, Wen Wang, Hui Xiang
BACKGROUND: Exploring whether and how mutation of silk protein contributes to subsequent re-allocation of nitrogen, and impacts on the timing of silk gland degradation, is important to understand silk gland biology. Rapid development and wide application of genome editing approach in the silkworm provide us an opportunity to address these issues. RESULTS: Using CRISPR/Cas9 system, we successfully performed genome editing of Bmfib-H. The loss-of-function mutations caused naked pupa and thin cocoon mutant phenotypes...
March 26, 2018: BMC Genomics
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