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Alexander J Knowles, Tea-Sung Jun, Ayan Bhowmik, Nicholas G Jones, T Ben Britton, Finn Giuliani, Howard J Stone, David Dye
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates" (Knowles et al., 2018) [1]. This includes data from the as-cast alloy obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as SEM data in the solution heat treated condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) selected area diffraction patterns (SADPs) are included from the alloy in the solution heat treated condition, as well as the aged condition that contained < 100 nm B2 TiFe precipitates [1], the latter of which was found to exhibit double diffraction owing to the precipitate and matrix channels being of a similar width to the foil thickness (Williams and Carter, 2009) [2]...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Lianlian Pan, Yali Ye, Mingyi Wo, Danni Bao, Fengjiao Zhu, Maoliang Cheng, Xiuwen Ni, Xianming Fei
It would be important to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study was aimed at evaluating the predicting significance of hemostatic parameters for T2DM and DN. Plasma coagulation and hematologic parameters before treatment were measured in 297 T2DM patients. The risk factors and their predicting power were evaluated. T2DM patients without complications exhibited significantly different activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet (PLT), and D-dimer (D-D) levels compared with controls ( P < 0...
2018: Disease Markers
Hiroki Ikeda, Tsunamasa Watanabe, Hirohito Shimizu, Tetsuya Hiraishi, Rena Kaneko, Toshiyuki Baba, Hideaki Takahashi, Kotaro Matsunaga, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yasuda, Chiaki Okuse, Shogo Iwabuchi, Michihiro Suzuki, Fumio Itoh
AIM: The therapeutic benefit of adding ribavirin (RBV) to 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for patients who experienced failure of a previous nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor-containing regimen is unclear. METHODS: A total of 29 genotype 1b HCV patients who had failed prior daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) treatment were retreated for 12 weeks of LDV/SOF, with or without RBV. Antiviral efficacy and predictive factors associating with a sustained virological response at 24 weeks (SVR24) were evaluated retrospectively...
March 5, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Joshua A Steele, A Denene Blackwood, John F Griffith, Rachel T Noble, Kenneth C Schiff
Along southern California beaches, the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used to quantify the potential presence of fecal contamination in coastal recreational waters have been previously documented to be higher during wet weather conditions (typically winter or spring) than those observed during summer dry weather conditions. FIB are used for management of recreational waters because measurement of the bacterial and viral pathogens that are the potential causes of illness in beachgoers exposed to stormwater can be expensive, time-consuming, and technically difficult...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
Norio Akuta, Joji Toyota, Yoshiyasu Karino, Fusao Ikeda, Akio Ido, Katsuaki Tanaka, Koichi Takaguchi, Atsushi Naganuma, Eiichi Tomita, Kazuaki Chayama, Shigetoshi Fujiyama, Yukiko Inada, Hitoshi Yoshiji, Hideaki Watanabe, Hiroki Ishikawa, Fiona McPhee, Stephanie Noviello, Hiromitsu Kumada
BACKGROUND: In the UNITY-3 study, 96% sustained virologic response (SVR12) rate was observed in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-1 infection treated for 12 weeks with fixed-dose daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir (DCV-TRIO). As HCV clearance may improve liver outcomes, we assessed hepatic fibrosis and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a hepatocellular carcinoma risk marker, pre- and post-treatment in UNITY-3. METHODS: Treatment-naive or interferon-experienced UNITY-3 patients with HCV GT-1 who received twice-daily DCV-TRIO were assessed for fibrosis [FibroTest; FibroScan; fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio index] and AFP at baseline and Weeks 4 (FIB-4 only), 12 or 24 post-treatment...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
M Domínguez-Álvaro, M Montero-Crespo, L Blazquez-Llorca, R Insausti, J DeFelipe, L Alonso-Nanclares
Synaptic dysfunction or loss in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to be a major structural correlate of cognitive dysfunction. Early loss of episodic memory, which occurs at the early stage of AD, is closely associated with the progressive degeneration of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures of which the transentorhinal cortex (TEC) is the first affected area. However, no ultrastructural studies have been performed in this region in human brain samples from AD patients. In the present study, we have performed a detailed three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructural analysis using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) to investigate possible synaptic alterations in the TEC of patients with AD...
March 2, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Jing Li, Hong Du, Xue-Fan Bai, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong Jiang, Ping-Zhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Until now, there is non-specific treatment, and exploring early and novel biomarkers to determine the disease severity and prognosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) would be of importance for clinician to take systematic and timely intervention. This study observed the expression of plasma sCD138, a soluble component shedding from the glycocalyx (GCX) to the circulating blood, and evaluated its predictive value on disease severity and prognosis of HFRS. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-six patients with HFRS who were treated at our center between January 2011 and December 2013 were randomly enrolled in this study...
March 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yuji Eso, Atsushi Takai, Kojiro Taura, Ken Takahashi, Yoshihide Ueda, Hiroyuki Marusawa, Hiroshi Seno
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) was recently identified as a serum glycobiomarker for liver fibrosis. However, the relationship between M2BPGi and malnutrition in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether M2BPGi could be a surrogate marker for malnutrition in patients with CLD. METHODS: In total, 338 outpatients with CLD were enrolled (median age: 67 years). We evaluated the associations among liver fibrosis markers (M2BPGi, FIB-4 index, and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet count ratio index), Child-Pugh stages, and nutritional status markers...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
I Barchetta, F A Cimini, R De Gioannis, G Ciccarelli, L Bertoccini, A Lenzi, M G Baroni, M G Cavallo
AIMS: Procollagen-III peptide (PIIINP) is a marker of fibrosis associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk and progression of chronic liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH); its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been elucidated yet. Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating PIIINP levels, metabolic traits and body fat distribution in subjects with T2DM with or without NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from sixty-two T2DM subjects recruited in our Diabetes outpatient clinics at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, were analysed...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Tobias Dahm, Ortwin Adams, Sindy Boettcher, Sabine Diedrich, Vasily Morozov, Grant Hansman, Petra Fallier-Becker, Sebastian Schädler, Claus J Burkhardt, Christel Weiss, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk, Tobias Tenenbaum, Henriette Rudolph
BACKGROUND: Echovirus (E) 30 (E-30) meningitis is characterized by neuroinflammation involving immune cell pleocytosis at the protective barriers of the central nervous system (CNS). In this context, infection of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which has been demonstrated to be involved in enteroviral CNS pathogenesis, may affect the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) function and morphology. METHODS: We used an in vitro human choroid plexus epithelial (HIBCPP) cell model to investigate the effect of three clinical outbreak strains (13-311, 13-759, and 14-397) isolated in Germany in 2013, and compared them to E-30 Bastianni...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Michael Elbaum
The three dimensional ultrastructure of cells and tissues comes to light with tomography. There is an inherent tension between representing molecular detail at the highest possible resolution, on one hand, and visualizing spatial relations between large organelles or even neighboring cells in large volumes, on the other. Together with its advantages for pristine sample preservation, cryo-tomography brings particular constraints. A major challenge has been the restriction to specimens thinner than the typical cell...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Miika Sorvali, Leena Vuori, Marko Pudas, Janne Haapanen, Riitta Mahlberg, Helena Ronkainen, Mari Honkanen, Mika Valden, Jyrki Mäkelä
Superomniphobic, i.e. liquid-repellent, surfaces have been an interesting area of research during the last decade due to their various potential applications. However, producing such surfaces, especially on hard and resilient substrates like stainless steel, still remains challenging. We present a stepwise fabrication process of a multilayered nanocoating on a stainless steel substrate, consisting of a nanoparticle layer, a nanofilm and a layer of silane molecules. Liquid flame spray (LFS) was used to deposit a TiO2 nanoparticle layer on the bottom for producing a suitable surface structure...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ivan Esteve-Adell, Jinbao He, Fernando Ramiro, Pedro Atienzar, Ana Primo, Hermenegildo García
A procedure for the one-step preparation of films of few-layer N-doped graphene on top of nanometric hexagonal boron nitride sheets ((N)graphene/h-BN) based on the pyrolysis at 900 °C under an inert atmosphere of a film of chitosan containing about 20 wt% of ammonium borate salt as a precursor is reported. During the pyrolysis a spontaneous segregation of (N)graphene and boron nitride layers takes place. The films were characterized by optical microscopy that shows a thin graphene overlayer covering the boron nitride layer, the latter showing characteristic cracks, and by XPS measurements at different monitoring angles from 0° to 50° where an increase in the proportion of C vs...
February 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Fabrice Gritti
A stochastic model of transcolumn eddy dispersion along packed beds was derived. It was based on the calculation of the mean travel time of a single analyte molecule from one radial position to another. The exchange mechanism between two radial positions was governed by the transverse dispersion of the analyte across the column. The radial velocity distribution was obtained by flow simulations in a focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) based 3D reconstruction from a 2.1 mm × 50 mm column packed with 2 μm BEH-C 18 particles...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Elizabeth A Kelly, Zhixuan Feng, Maribeth L Gidley, Christopher D Sinigalliano, Naresh Kumar, Allison G Donahue, Adrianus J H M Reniers, Helena M Solo-Gabriele
When beach water monitoring programs identify poor water quality, the causes are frequently unknown. We hypothesize that management policies play an important role in the frequency of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceedances (enterococci and fecal coliform) at recreational beaches. To test this hypothesis we implemented an innovative approach utilizing large amounts of monitoring data (n > 150,000 measurements per FIB) to determine associations between the frequency of contaminant exceedances and beach management practices...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Xuejiao Jin, Xiuling Cao, Xueting Wang, Jun Jiang, Juan Wan, Jean-François Laliberté, Yongliang Zhang
Positive-sense (+) RNA viruses represent the most abundant group of viruses and are dependent on the host cell machinery to replicate. One remarkable feature that occurs after (+) RNA virus entry into cells is the remodeling of host endomembranes, leading to the formation of viral replication factories. Recently, rapid progress in three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies, such as electron tomography (ET) and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), has enabled researchers to visualize the novel membrane structures induced by viruses at high resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laurent Castera
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and the most common liver disorder in Western countries, affecting around 25% of the general population. Fibrosis is the major long-term histological prognostic criteria of this disease. Liver biopsy cannot be realistically performed in such a huge population and, moreover, has well-known limitations (invasiveness, rare but potentially life-threatening complications and sampling variability). Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in alternative novel strategies for the non-invasive evaluation of fibrosis...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Tomoka Hasegawa, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Hiromi Hongo, Zixuan Qiu, Miki Abe, Takuma Kanesaki, Kawori Tanaka, Takashi Endo, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Norio Amizuka
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the application of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, FIB-SEM for revealing the three-dimensional features of osteocytic cytoplasmic processes in metaphyseal (immature) and diaphyseal (mature) trabeculae. Tibiae of eight-week-old male mice were fixed with aldehyde solution, and treated with block staining prior to FIB-SEM observation. While two-dimensional backscattered SEM images showed osteocytes' cytoplasmic processes in a fragmented fashion, three-dimensional reconstructions of FIB-SEM images demonstrated that osteocytes in primary metaphyseal trabeculae extended their cytoplasmic processes randomly, thus maintaining contact with neighboring osteocytes and osteoblasts...
February 9, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Pejman Azarsa, Rishi Gupta
Cementitious Repair Materials (CRMs) in the construction industry have been used for many decades now and has become a very important part of activities in cement world. The performance of some of these CRMs when applied to retrofitting concrete structural elements is also well documented. However, the characterization of some of the CRMs at the micro- and nano level is not fully documented. The first step to studying materials at the microscopic level is to be able to fabricate proper specimens for microscopy...
January 31, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Muhammad Shahreyar, Regina Fahhoum, Oluwaseun Akinseye, Sanjay Bhandari, Geetanjali Dang, Rami N Khouzam
Background: Although sepsis is a known risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias, data on incidence and outcomes of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias in severe sepsis is limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of severe sepsis with cardiac arrhythmias and their impact on outcome in this patient population. Methods: We used hospital discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) during the year 2012. All patients 18 years or older were included in the study...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
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