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Ruifeng Li, Yifang Liu, Tingting Li, Cheng Li
Chromosomal rearrangement (CR) events have been implicated in many tumor and non-tumor human diseases. CR events lead to their associated diseases by disrupting gene and protein structures. Also, they can lead to diseases through changes in chromosomal 3D structure and gene expression. In this study, we search for CR-associated diseases potentially caused by chromosomal 3D structure alteration by integrating Hi-C and ChIP-seq data. Our algorithm rediscovers experimentally verified disease-associated CRs (polydactyly diseases) that alter gene expression by disrupting chromosome 3D structure...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
František Liška, Renata Peterková, Miroslav Peterka, Vladimír Landa, Václav Zídek, Petr Mlejnek, Jan Šilhavý, Miroslava Šimáková, Vladimír Křen, Colby G Starker, Daniel F Voytas, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Michal Pravenec
Recently, it has been found that spontaneous mutation Lx (polydactyly-luxate syndrome) in the rat is determined by deletion of a conserved intronic sequence of the Plzf (Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein) gene. In addition, Plzf is a prominent candidate gene for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the current study, we tested the effects of Plzf gene targeting in the SHR using TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)...
2016: PloS One
Yacine Kherdjemil, Robert L Lalonde, Rushikesh Sheth, Annie Dumouchel, Gemma de Martino, Kyriel M Pineault, Deneen M Wellik, H Scott Stadler, Marie-Andrée Akimenko, Marie Kmita
The fin-to-limb transition represents one of the major vertebrate morphological innovations associated with the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life and is an attractive model for gaining insights into the mechanisms of morphological diversity between species. One of the characteristic features of limbs is the presence of digits at their extremities. Although most tetrapods have limbs with five digits (pentadactyl limbs), palaeontological data indicate that digits emerged in lobed fins of early tetrapods, which were polydactylous...
October 5, 2016: Nature
Ivan Duran, S Paige Taylor, Wenjuan Zhang, Jorge Martin, Kimberly N Forlenza, Rhonda P Spiro, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael Bamshad, Daniel H Cohn, Deborah Krakow
Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS) and Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD) or Jeune Syndrome are recessively inherited skeletal ciliopathies characterized by profound skeletal abnormalities and are frequently associated with polydactyly and multiorgan system involvement. SRPS are produced by mutations in genes that participate in the formation and function of primary cilia and usually result from disruption of retrograde intraflagellar (IFT) transport of the cilium. Herein we describe a new spectrum of SRPS caused by mutations in the gene IFT81, a key component of the IFT-B complex essential for anterograde transport...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth Forsythe, Kathryn Sparks, Sunayna Best, Sarah Borrows, Bethan Hoskins, Ataf Sabir, Timothy Barrett, Denise Williams, Shehla Mohammed, David Goldsmith, David V Milford, Detlef Bockenhauer, Lukas Foggensteiner, Philip L Beales
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive, multisystem disease characterized by retinal dystrophy, renal malformation, obesity, intellectual disability, polydactyly, and hypogonadism. Nineteen disease-causing genes (BBS1-19) have been identified, of which mutations in BBS1 are most common in North America and Europe. A hallmark of the disease, renal malformation is heterogeneous and is a cause of morbidity and mortality through the development of CKD. We studied the prevalence and severity of CKD in 350 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome-related renal disease attending the United Kingdom national Bardet-Biedl syndrome clinics to further elucidate the phenotype and identify risk indicators of CKD...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Christopher L Carpenter, Trajan A Cuellar, Michael T Friel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Christopher R Macdonald, Sarbjit Kaur, Andrea Jester, Kerstin Oestreich, Ruth Lester, Sami A Al-Ani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
B Salazard, C Philandrianos, A Gaudeuille
Malformations and deformations of the forefoot are a frequent reason for consultation. The most frequent malformations viewed at birth are syndactylies (second web space), clinodactylies (quintus varus, halllux), polydactylies (hallux, fifth toe). The macrodactylies, hypoplasia, amniotic bands are rare. The management of these defects requires knowledge of surgery adult foot, plastic surgery and especially collaboration with physiotherapists, podiatrists and orthotists. The fast growth of the foot the first year and the development of walking at one year require to start early the treatment of deformations and to anticipate the evolution of malformations...
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Mary Claire Manske, Colin D Kennedy, Jerry I Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Salem Samra, Debra Bourne, Joel Beckett, Michael Matthew, J Grant Thomson
BACKGROUND: Polydactyly is the most common congenital hand deformity. There is currently no consensus among pediatricians or hand surgeons regarding optimal management of ulnar (post-axial) type B polydactyly leading to uncertainty in initial treatment decisions for infants with this type of deformity. METHODS: Parents of newborns with type B ulnar polydactyly were enrolled in a prospective, nonrandomized trial from 2010 to 2012. At enrollment they were offered: 1) no treatment, 2) suture ligature, 3) immediate excision under local anesthesia, and 4) delayed excision at four months of age under general anesthesia...
October 2016: J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol
Pan-Feng Wu, Shuai Guo, Xue-Feng Fan, Liang-Liang Fan, Jie-Yuan Jin, Ju-Yu Tang, Rong Xiang
Preaxial polydactyly (PPD; OMIM 603596), which is characterized as having supernumerary fingers, is an unusual congenital hand abnormality. Triphalangeal thumb (TPT; OMIM 190600) is identified by an extra phalangeal bone and is often found in association with PPD. When in combination, the disease is referred to as PPD type II (PPD II; OMIM 174500). Previous studies have demonstrated that variations in the zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS; chr7:156,583,796-156,584,569; hg19) region are associated with PPD II...
September 3, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Somchit Jaruratanasirikul, Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich, Pornruedee Rachatawiriyakul, Hutcha Sriplung, Wannee Limpitikul, Pathikan Dissaneevate, Nattasit Khunnarakpong, Pongsak Tantichantakarun
This is the first population-based study in Thailand on the prevalence of congenital limb defects (CLD). Data were obtained from recently established birth defects registries in three southern Thailand provinces during 2009-2013. Entries in the birth defects registries included live births, stillbirths after 24 weeks gestational age, and terminations of pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly. The total of 186 393 births recorded included 424 CLD cases, giving an average prevalence of 2...
September 2016: Congenital Anomalies
Saadullah Khan, Imran Ullah, Abdul Nasir, C Arnoud Meijer, Marlies Laurense-Bik, Johan T den Dunnen, Claudia A L Ruivenkamp, Mariëtte J V Hoffer, Gijs W E Santen, Wasim Ahmad
Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is one of the most common congenital malformations observed in the general population. However, it can also occur as part of a syndrome. Unbiased genetic screening techniques such as exome sequencing are highly appropriate methods to provide a molecular diagnosis in patients with polydactyly due to the large number of mutated genes associated with it. The present study describes a consanguineous family of Pakistani origin with PAP, speech impairment, hearing impairment of variable degree, and proportionate short stature with no prominent intellectual disability or ophthalmological abnormalities...
August 29, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Roelof-Jan Oostra, Lucas Boer, Alie E van der Merwe
Most congenital conditions have low prevalence, but collectively they occur in a few percent of all live births. Congenital conditions are rarely encountered in anthropological studies, not least because many of them have no obvious effect on the skeleton. Here, we discuss two groups of congenital conditions that specifically affect the skeleton, either qualitatively or quantitatively. Skeletal dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) interfere with the histological formation, growth and maturation of skeletal tissues leading to diminished postural length, but the building plan of the body is unaffected...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Krupa Shah, Hitesh Shah
Tibial hemimelia is a rare congenital limb deficiency which is characterised by a hypoplastic/aplastic tibia. It actually represents a spectrum of anomalies, ranging from mild hypoplasia of the tibia to total absence of the tibia. Several classifications based on radiological description exist in the literature. The tibial hemimelia is usually described with preaxial mirror polydactyly, split hand/foot syndrome-ectrodactyly, polydactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (Werner syndrome) and micromelia-trigonal brachycephaly syndrome...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Elise B Burger, Steven E R Hovius, Bart J Burger, Christianne A van Nieuwenhoven
BACKGROUND: Polydactyly at the medial side of the foot ("medial polydactyly" of the foot) is a rare and diverse congenital anomaly. In order to plan and evaluate surgical treatment, the classification of medial polydactyly is useful. The aim of our study was to develop a reliable and valid classification system for medial polydactyly of the foot that is more useful than previous systems for preoperative evaluation and surgical planning. METHODS: A review of the literature and the clinical experience of a single experienced surgeon were used to determine classification categories...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Julia Metzger, Sophia Pfahler, Ottmar Distl
BACKGROUND: The Lundehund is a highly specialized breed characterized by a unique flexibility of the joints and polydactyly in all four limbs. The extremely small population size and high inbreeding has promoted a high frequency of diseased dogs affected by the Lundehund syndrome (LS), a severe gastro-enteropathic disease. RESULTS: Comprehensive analysis of bead chip and whole-genome sequencing data for LS in the Lundehund resulted in a genome-wide association signal on CFA 34 and LS-specific runs of homozygosity (ROH) in this region...
2016: BMC Genomics
Long Wang, Xianyao Tao, Weiyang Gao, Jian Ding, Zongwei Zhou, Xiaoliang Feng
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate thumb growth after surgical management of a duplicate thumb and investigate its developmental pattern. METHODS: We compared the thumbs and index fingers of 486 normal children (aged 1-18 y) (group A) with 15 children showing radial polydactyly (group B). All duplicate thumbs were treated with excision of the radial thumb and reconstruction of the ulnar thumb. Radiographs of groups A and B were used to compute the thumb-to-index finger length ratio and width ratio, and the thumb-to-index finger phalanx length ratio and phalanx width ratio...
September 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Wenjuan Zhang, S Paige Taylor, Lisette Nevarez, Ralph S Lachman, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael Bamshad, Deborah Krakow, Daniel H Cohn
The short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS) encompass a radiographically and genetically heterogeneous group of skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a long narrow chest, short extremities, and variable occurrence of polydactyly. Radiographic abnormalities include undermineralization of the calvarium, shortened and bowed appendicular bones, trident shaped acetabula and polydactyly. In a case of SRPS we identified compound heterozygosity for mutations in IFT52, which encodes a component of the anterograde intraflagellar transport complex...
July 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
S Paige Taylor, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Miroslav Varecha, Lukas Balek, Tomas Barta, Lukas Trantirek, Iva Jelinkova, Ivan Duran, Iva Vesela, Kimberly N Forlenza, Jorge H Martin, Ales Hampl, Michael Bamshad, Deborah Nickerson, Margie L Jaworski, Jieun Song, Hyuk Wan Ko, Daniel H Cohn, Deborah Krakow, Pavel Krejci
The short rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS) are a group of recessively inherited, perinatal-lethal skeletal disorders primarily characterized by short ribs, shortened long bones, varying types of polydactyly and concomitant visceral abnormalities. Mutations in several genes affecting cilia function cause SRPS, revealing a role for cilia function in skeletal development. To identify additional SRPS genes and discover novel ciliary molecules required for normal skeletogenesis, we performed exome sequencing in a cohort of patients and identified homozygosity for a missense mutation, p...
July 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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