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Intestinal ischemia

Yaohong Wang, Sudeep P George, Swati Roy, Eric Pham, Amin Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Seema Khurana
In the small intestine, epithelial cells are derived from stem cells in the crypts, migrate up the villus as they differentiate and are ultimately shed from the villus tips. This process of proliferation and shedding is tightly regulated to maintain the intestinal architecture and tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis regulates both the number of stem cells in the crypts as well as the sloughing of cells from the villus tips. Previously, we have shown that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-binding protein functions as an anti-apoptotic protein in the gastrointestinal epithelium...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hiroya Kano, Hiroaki Takahashi, Takeshi Inoue, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yutaka Okita
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) is increasingly employed as a highly specific marker of intestinal necrosis. However, the value of this marker associated with cardiovascular surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure serum I-FABP levels and provide the transition of I-FABP levels with hypothermic circulatory arrest to help in the management of intestinal perfusion. METHODS: From August 2011 to September 2013, 33 consecutive patients who had aortic arch surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or heart valve surgery performed were enrolled in the study...
October 19, 2016: Perfusion
Younggeon Jin, Anthony T Blikslager
Intestinal anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury induces loss of barrier function followed by epithelial repair. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to alter barrier function via regulation of interepithelial tight junctions (TJ), but has not been studied in intestinal A/R injury. We hypothesized that A/R injury would disrupt TJ barrier function via MLCK activation and MLC phosphorylation. Caco-2BBe1 monolayers were subjected to anoxia for 2 hours followed by reoxygenation in 21% O2, after which barrier function was determined by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran flux...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Esther Peters, Bülent Ergin, Asli Kandil, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Andrea van Elsas, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Peter Pickkers, Can Ince
Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n=18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated...
October 16, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Norma Alva, Ronald Alva, Teresa Carbonell
In clinical and experimental settings, a great deal of effort is being made to protect cells and tissues against harmful conditions and to facilitate metabolic recovery following these insults. Much of the recent attention has focused on the protective role of a natural form of sugar, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16bP). F16bP is a high-energy glycolytic intermediate that has been shown to exert a protective action in different cell types and tissues (including the brain, kidney, intestine, liver and heart) against various harmful conditions...
October 14, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Dominique L Doster, Amanda R Jensen, Sina Khaneki, Troy A Markel
Intestinal ischemia is a devastating intraabdominal emergency that often necessitates surgical intervention. Mortality rates can be high, and patients who survive often have significant long-term morbidity. The implementation of traditional medical therapies to prevent or treat intestinal ischemia have been sparse over the last decade, and therefore, the use of novel therapies are becoming more prevalent. Cellular therapy using mesenchymal stromal cells is one such treatment modality that is attracting noteworthy attention in the scientific community...
October 10, 2016: Cytotherapy
Cristina Cucolas, Alexandra Ioana Daneasa, Diana Olteanu, Nicoleta Decea, Remus Moldovan, Flaviu Tabaran, Gabriela Adriana Filip
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of resveratrol and curcumin in an experimental rat model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Forty-eight adult Wistar rats were used: 12 animals undergoing the sham surgery and 36 animals undergoing laparotomy, with 15 min of mesentric artery clamping. The animals from the latter group (n = 12) were pretreated, for 1 week, with vehicle (CTR), resveratrol (RES), and curcumin (CUR). After 1 h and 6 h of reperfusion, respectively, cyclooxigenase (COX)-2, mucin-1, E-cadherin, nuclear factor (NK)-κB expressions, and tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were assessed in the small intestine...
May 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
S H Lauz Medeiros, A de Oliveira Menezes, L Zogbi, E Frasson de Souza Montero
BACKGROUND: The ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon can cause the dysfunction of some transplanted organs and other distant organs. Liver surgery success, including transplantations, may depend on the adverse effects of intestinal mucosa injury arising from temporary porta triad occlusion. The study objective was to examine I/R liver effects on the small intestine in rats after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Kenichiro Sato, Ryo Itagaki, Kenshiro Arao, Kouzou Makita
A 44-year-old man was transported to our hospital with chief complaints of back pain and paralysis of the leg. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed an acute Stanford B aortic dissection (AD), which was complicated by acute arterial occlusion of the left external iliac artery. The patient was treated by femorofemoral crossover bypass. Thereafter, abdominal pain was noted, and the patient was diagnosed with intestinal ischemia due to occlusion of the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery (SMA)...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
A Tassopoulos, A Chalkias, A Papalois, N Iacovidou, T Xanthos
The intestine is highly sensitive to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Intestinal I/R may cause local tissue injury and disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier, allowing the passage of viable bacteria and endotoxins from the gastrointestinal lumen to distant organs. This phenomenon, known as bacterial translocation (BT), may lead to systemic disorders with high morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress mediators such as reactive oxygen species, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and nitric oxide are believed to contribute to the intestinal I/R injury...
October 13, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Rahman Şenocak, Mustafa Tahir Özer, Şahin Kaymak, Zafer Kılbaş, Armağan Günal, Metin Uyanık, Orhan Kozak
PURPOSE: Anastomotic leaks following intestinal operations may cause devastating effects on patients. Ischemia may also occur at the intestinal walls in the presence of strangulations. In this study, we examined the effects of human recombinant (Hr)-epidermal growth factor (EGF) given at a single intramural dose into the intestinal walls and daily intraperitoneal cavity on ischemia and the healing process of anastomosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen male New Zeland white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4 in each group)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Feng Tian, Xuejin Gao, Li Zhang, Xinying Wang, Xiao Wan, Tingting Jiang, Chao Wu, Jingcheng Bi, Qiucheng Lei
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can improve the function of the intestinal barrier after damage from ischemia-reperfusion or hemorrhagic shock resuscitation (HSR). However, the effects of n-3 PUFAs on intestinal microbiota and the innate immunity of the intestinal mucosa after HSR remain unclear. In the present study, 40 C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control, sham, HSR, HSR + n-3 PUFAs and HSR + n-6 PUFAs. Mice were sacrificed 12 h after HSR. Liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and terminal ileal tissues were collected...
2016: Nutrients
Laurens J Ceulemans, Emilio Canovai, Len Verbeke, Jacques Pirenne, Ricard Farré
Knowledge about the role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the intestine is rapidly expanding. In pre-clinical animal models of inflammatory bowel disease and bile duct ligation, FXR activation has proven to directly target the three pillars of intestinal homeostasis: intestinal permeability, inflammation and bacterial translocation. The protective role of FXR-ligands on this homeostasis has implications for many intestinal pathologies like inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia reperfusion injury, the metabolic syndrome, colon cancer and even diarrhea...
August 10, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Da-Li Sun, Yun-Yun Cen, Shu-Min Li, Wei-Ming Li, Qi-Ping Lu, Peng-Yuan Xu
Numerous studies have investigated the utility of serum intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) in differentiating acute intestinal ischemia from acute abdomen. However, the results remain controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine the overall accuracy of serum I-FABP in the diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia. Publications addressing the accuracy of serum I-FABP in the diagnosis of ischemic bowel diseases were selected from databases. The values of true-positive (TP), true-negative (TN), false-positive (FP), and false-negative (FN) were extracted or calculated for each study...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stephanie Carvalho Borges, Aline Cristine da Silva de Souza, Evandro José Beraldi, Larissa Carla Lauer Schneider, Nilza Cristina Buttow
AIMS: The present study evaluated the effects of resveratrol in the myenteric plexus after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury caused by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 45min, followed by 7days of reperfusion. MAIN METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control (C group), untreated sham surgery control (SC group), sham surgery control treated with resveratrol before surgery (STA group), sham surgery control treated with resveratrol before and after surgery (STAD group), ischemic control (IRC group), ischemic treated before I/R (IRTA group), and ischemic treated before and after I/R (IRTAD group)...
September 23, 2016: Life Sciences
Zhiqiang Ma, Chao Deng, Wei Hu, Jie Zhou, Chongxi Fan, Shouyin Di, Dong Liu, Yang Yang, Dongjin Wang
Liver X receptors α (LXRα) and β (LXRβ) are essential for protection against cardiovascular diseases. LXRs are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of DNA-binding transcription factors and act as sensors of cholesterol homeostasis. In this review, we introduce LXRs and briefly describe the roles of LXRs in reverse cholesterol transport and trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux. We discuss LXR agonists and the downstream genes of LXRs that are involved in the regulation of cholesterol transport. In addition, we describe the cardioprotective effects of LXRs against atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and myocardial hypertrophy...
September 27, 2016: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Martin D Brand, Renata L S Goncalves, Adam L Orr, Leonardo Vargas, Akos A Gerencser, Martin Borch Jensen, Yves T Wang, Simon Melov, Carolina N Turk, Jason T Matzen, Victoria J Dardov, H Michael Petrassi, Shelly L Meeusen, Irina V Perevoshchikova, Heinrich Jasper, Paul S Brookes, Edward K Ainscow
Using high-throughput screening we identified small molecules that suppress superoxide and/or H2O2 production during reverse electron transport through mitochondrial respiratory complex I (site IQ) without affecting oxidative phosphorylation (suppressors of site IQ electron leak, "S1QELs"). S1QELs diminished endogenous oxidative damage in primary astrocytes cultured at ambient or low oxygen tension, showing that site IQ is a normal contributor to mitochondrial superoxide-H2O2 production in cells. They diminished stem cell hyperplasia in Drosophila intestine in vivo and caspase activation in a cardiomyocyte cell model driven by endoplasmic reticulum stress, showing that superoxide-H2O2 production by site IQ is involved in cellular stress signaling...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Wassim Mansour, Laura Capoccia, Pasqualino Sirignano, Nunzio Montelione, Chiara Pranteda, Martina Formiconi, Enrico Sbarigia, Francesco Speziale
PURPOSE: Hypogastric artery (HA) revascularization during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is still open to debate. Moreover, exclusion-related complication rates reported in literature are not negligible. The aim of this study is to present and analyze the outcomes in patients undergoing EVAR with exclusion of 1 or both HAs at our academic center. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our results in patients submitted to EVAR and needing HA exclusion, in terms of perioperative (30-day) and follow-up rates of intestinal and spinal cord ischemia, buttock claudication, buttock skin necrosis, and sexual dysfunction...
October 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
I Sukhotnik, N Nissimov, Y Ben Shahar, D Moati, N Bitterman, Y Pollak, D Berkowitz, A G Coran, A Bitterman
PURPOSE: Fenofibrate (FEN) is known as a nuclear receptor activator which regulates many pathophysiological processes, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and leukocyte endothelium interactions. Recent studies have demonstrated an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ischemic role of FEN in the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the kidney, liver, brain, and heart. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of FEN on intestinal recovery and enterocyte turnover after intestinal IR injury in rats...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Thomas S Maldonado, Sheila N Blumberg, Sharvil U Sheth, Gabriel Perreault, Mikel Sadek, Todd Berland, Mark A Adelman, Caron B Rockman
BACKGROUND: Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a relatively uncommon but potentially lethal condition associated with bowel ischemia and infarction. The natural history and long-term outcomes are poorly understood and under-reported. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review of noncirrhotic patients diagnosed with MVT from 1999 to 2015 was performed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and radiology codes. Patients were excluded if no radiographic imaging was available for review...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
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