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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674971/a-numerical-study-of-scalable-cardiac-electro-mechanical-solvers-on-hpc-architectures
#1
Piero Colli Franzone, Luca F Pavarino, Simone Scacchi
We introduce and study some scalable domain decomposition preconditioners for cardiac electro-mechanical 3D simulations on parallel HPC (High Performance Computing) architectures. The electro-mechanical model of the cardiac tissue is composed of four coupled sub-models: (1) the static finite elasticity equations for the transversely isotropic deformation of the cardiac tissue; (2) the active tension model describing the dynamics of the intracellular calcium, cross-bridge binding and myofilament tension; (3) the anisotropic Bidomain model describing the evolution of the intra- and extra-cellular potentials in the deforming cardiac tissue; and (4) the ionic membrane model describing the dynamics of ionic currents, gating variables, ionic concentrations and stretch-activated channels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614402/fish-can-smell-trace-metals-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-in-freshwater
#2
Ebrahim Lari, Sarah J Bogart, Greg G Pyle
The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of the olfactory system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to detect three trace metals, cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni), using electro-olfactography (EOG). The olfactory response to all three metals was measured at either 10-6  M or at a concentration established by Alberta Environment and Parks (AEP) as the criterion for the protection of aquatic life. Results of the present study demonstrated that the olfactory system of rainbow trout can detect all three metals (i...
March 27, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608936/entrainment-to-the-ciecam02-and-cielab-colour-appearance-models-in-the-human-cortex
#3
Andrew Thwaites, Cai Wingfield, Eric Wieser, Andrew Soltan, William D Marslen-Wilson, Ian Nimmo-Smith
In human visual processing, information from the visual field passes through numerous transformations before perceptual attributes such as colour are derived. The sequence of transforms involved in constructing perceptions of colour can be approximated by colour appearance models such as the CIE (2002) Colour Appearance Model, abbreviated as CIECAM02. In this study, we test the plausibility of CIECAM02 as a model of colour processing by looking for evidence of its cortical entrainment. The CIECAM02 model predicts that colour is split into two opposing chromatic components, red-green and cyan-yellow (termed CIECAM02-a and CIECAM02-b respectively), and an achromatic component (termed CIECAM02-A)...
March 30, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584406/plug-and-play-multicellular-circuits-with-time-dependent-dynamic-responses
#4
Arturo Urrios, Eva Gonzalez-Flo, David Canadell, Eulalia de Nadal, Javier Macia, Francesc Posas
Synthetic Biology studies aim to develop cellular devices for biomedical applications. These devices, based on living instead of electronic or electro-mechanic technology, might provide alternative treatments for a wide range of diseases. However, the feasibility of these devices depends, in many cases, on complex genetic circuits that must fulfill physiological requirements. In this work, we explored the potential of multicellular architectures to act as an alternative to complex circuits for implementation of new devices...
March 27, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577292/consequences-of-electroshock-induced-narcosis-in-fish-muscle-from-mitochondria-to-swim-performance
#5
L Teulier, L Guillard, C Leon, C Romestaing, Y Voituron
Adult zebrafish Danio rerio were exposed to an electric shock of 3V and 1A for 5 s delivered by field backpack electrofishing gear, to induce a taxis followed by a narcosis. The effect of such electric shock was investigated on both the individual performances (swimming capacities and costs of transport) and at cellular and mitochondrial levels (oxygen consumption and oxidative balance). The observed survival rate was very high (96.8%) independent of swimming speed (up to 10 body length s-1 ). The results showed no effect of the treatment on the metabolism and cost of transport of the fish...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563864/pathophysiological-consequences-of-neuronal-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpression-impacts-on-ion-homeostasis-stress-signaling-mitochondrial-integrity-and-electrical-activity
#6
Johan Tolö, Grit Taschenberger, Kristian Leite, Markus A Stahlberg, Gesche Spehlbrink, Janina Kues, Francesca Munari, Stefano Capaldi, Stefan Becker, Markus Zweckstetter, Camin Dean, Mathias Bähr, Sebastian Kügler
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is intimately linked to the etiology of Parkinson's Disease, as mutations and even subtle increases in gene dosage result in early onset of the disease. However, how this protein causes neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration is incompletely understood. We thus examined a comprehensive range of physiological parameters in cultured rat primary neurons overexpressing α-Syn at levels causing a slowly progressive neurodegeneration. In contradiction to earlier reports from non-neuronal assay systems we demonstrate that α-Syn does not interfere with essential ion handling capacities, mitochondrial capability of ATP production or basic electro-physiological properties like resting membrane potential or the general ability to generate action potentials...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549751/attention-avoidance-of-the-threat-conditioned-stimulus-during-extinction-increases-physiological-arousal-generalisation-and-retention
#7
Karina R O'Malley, Allison M Waters
Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Extinction paradigms are the experimental analogue of exposure therapy. Therefore, manipulating attention towards versus away from threat during extinction trials may shed light on the role of attention during exposure therapy...
March 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547770/an-on-demand-macaque-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-seizures-induced-by-unilateral-intra-hippocampal-injection-of-penicillin
#8
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541956/towards-bridging-translational-gap-in-cardiotoxicity-prediction-an-application-of-progressive-cardiac-risk-assessment-strategy-in-tdp-risk-assessment-of-moxifloxacin
#9
Nikunjkumar Patel, Oliver Hatley, Alexander Berg, Klaus Romero, Barbara Wisniowska, Debra Hanna, David Hermann, Sebastian Polak
Drug-induced cardiac arrhythmia, especially occurrence of torsade de pointes (TdP), has been a leading cause of attrition and post-approval re-labeling and withdrawal of many drugs. TdP is a multifactorial event, reflecting more than just drug-induced cardiac ion channel inhibition and QT interval prolongation. This presents a translational gap in extrapolating pre-clinical and clinical cardiac safety assessment to estimate TdP risk reliably, especially when the drug of interest is used in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs for treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis...
March 14, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459321/bioengineering-an-electro-mechanically-functional-miniature-ventricular-heart-chamber-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Ronald A Li, Wendy Keung, Timothy J Cashman, Peter C Backeris, Bryce V Johnson, Evan S Bardot, Andy O T Wong, Patrick K W Chan, Camie W Y Chan, Kevin D Costa
Tissue engineers and stem cell biologists have made exciting progress toward creating simplified models of human heart muscles or aligned monolayers to help bridge a longstanding gap between experimental animals and clinical trials. However, no existing human in vitro systems provide the direct measures of cardiac performance as a pump. Here, we developed a next-generation in vitro biomimetic model of pumping human heart chamber, and demonstrated its capability for pharmaceutical testing. From human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes (hvCM) embedded in collagen-based extracellular matrix hydrogel, we engineered a three-dimensional (3D) electro-mechanically coupled, fluid-ejecting miniature human ventricle-like cardiac organoid chamber (hvCOC)...
May 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428834/uncensored-eeg-the-role-of-dc-potentials-in-neurobiology-of-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Stjepana Kovac, Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Ali Gorji
Brain direct current (DC) potentials denote sustained shifts and slow deflections of cerebral potentials superimposed with conventional electroencephalography (EEG) waves and reflect alterations in the excitation level of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Using galvanometers, such sustained displacement of the EEG baseline was recorded in the early days of EEG recordings. To stabilize the EEG baseline and eliminate artefacts, EEG was performed later by voltage amplifiers with high-pass filters that dismiss slow DC potentials...
February 8, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425272/endometriosis-alters-brain-electro-physiology-gene-expression-and-increased-pain-sensitization-anxiety-and-depression-in-female-mice
#12
Tian Li, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Sheng Ding, Hao Chang, Zhong-Wu Liu, Xiao-Bing Gao, Hugh S Taylor
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disorder among reproductive-aged women associated with pelvic pain, anxiety, and depression. Pain is characterized by central sensitization, however it is not clear if endometriosis leads to increased pain perception or if women with the disease are more sensitive to pain, increasing the detection of endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced in mice and changes in behavior including pain perception, brain electrophysiology, and gene expression were characterized...
February 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415410/functional-role-of-kv1-1-and-kv1-3-channels-in-the-neoplastic-progression-steps-of-three-cancer-cell-lines-elucidated-by-scorpion-peptides
#13
Dorra Aissaoui, Saoussen Mlayah-Bellalouna, Jed Jebali, Zaineb Abdelkafi-Koubaa, Soumaya Souid, Wassim Moslah, Houcemeddine Othman, José Luis, Mohamed ElAyeb, Naziha Marrakchi, Khadija Essafi-Benkhadir, Najet Srairi-Abid
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are known to play a pivotal role in the progression of various cancer types and considered as new targets for designing anti-cancer therapy. However, the fact that many Kv channels are expressed in different cell lines makes it difficult to ascribe a functional role for a given Kv channel on a specific aspect of the tumorogenesis. In this work, we showed that although both Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels are expressed in U87 (glioblastoma), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) and LS174 (colon adenocarcinoma) cells, these respond differently to KAaH1 or KAaH2, two homologous Kv1 blockers from scorpion venom...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377599/core-shell-cellulose-based-microspheres-for-oral-administration-of-ketoprofen-lysinate
#14
Vincenzo Guarino, Tania Caputo, Paola Calcagnile, Rosaria Altobelli, Christian Demitri, Luigi Ambrosio
Herein, we propose the fabrication of a new carrier with core/shell structure-inner core of cellulose acetate (CA) coated by a micrometric layer of chitosan (CS)-fabricated through an integrated process, which combines Electro Dynamic Atomization (EDA) and layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We demonstrate that CA based microspheres possess a unique capability to relevantly retain the drugs-that is, Ketoprofen Lysinate (KL)-along the gastric tract, while providing a massive release along the intestine. CS shell slightly influences the morphology and water retention under different pH conditions, improving drug encapsulation without compromising drug release kinetics...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372391/genotype-phenotype-correlation-and-frequency-of-distribution-in-a-cohort-of-chinese-charcot-marie-tooth-patients-associated-with-gdap1-mutations
#15
Pukar Singh Pakhrin, Yongzhi Xie, Zhengmao Hu, Xiaobo Li, Lei Liu, Shunxiang Huang, Binghao Wang, Zihan Yang, Jiejun Zhang, Xin Liu, Kun Xia, Beisha Tang, Ruxu Zhang
Mutations in ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated-protein 1 (GDAP1) have been associated with both subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, autosomal recessive (CMT4A and AR-CMT2K) and autosomal dominant (AD-CMT2K). Over 80 different mutations have been identified so far. With the use of Sanger sequencing and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, we screened a cohort of 306 unrelated Chinese CMT patients and identified 8 variants in the GDAP1 gene in 4 families, 5 of which were novel (R41H, N201Kfs*5, Q38X, V215I and Q38R)...
March 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319910/reversal-of-mecamylamine-induced-effects-in-healthy-subjects-by-nicotine-receptor-agonists-cognitive-and-electro-physiological-responses
#16
Ricardo Alvarez-Jimenez, Ellen P Hart, Samantha Prins, Marieke de Kam, Joop M A van Gerven, Adam F Cohen, Geert Jan Groeneveld
AIMS: Establishing a pharmacological challenge model could yield an important tool to understand the complex role of the nicotinic cholinergic system in cognition and to develop novel compounds acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study examined the effects of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine on a battery of cognitive and neurophysiological test with coadministration of a placebo, nicotine or galantamine in order to reverse the cognitive impairment caused by mecamylamine...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238243/analysis-of-time-motion-and-heart-rate-in-elite-male-and-female-beach-handball
#17
Basilio Pueo, Jose M Jimenez-Olmedo, Alfonso Penichet-Tomas, Manuel Ortega Becerra, Jose J Espina Agullo
Beach handball is a spectacular new team sport; however, scientific knowledge about the demands in beach handball is very low. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze the physical demands of elite beach handball players by means of time-motion analysis with GPS technology and physiological response with Heart Rate (HR). Both male (n = 12) and female (n = 12) players from the Spanish Beach Handball National Team were recruited for this study. The sample consisted in four matches of two 10-min periods each...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194437/an-introduction-to-the-psycho-physiological-stress-test-ppst-a-standardized-instrument-for-evaluating-stress-reactions
#18
Elisabeth Neureiter, Loreen Hajfani, Anne Ahnis, Annett Mierke, Matthias Rose, Gerhard Danzer, Burghard F Klapp
Using a standardized instrument to evaluate patients' stress reactions has become more important in daily clinical routines. Different signs or symptoms of stress are often unilaterally explored: the physiological, psychological or social aspects of stress disorders are each viewed on a single dimension. However, all dimensions afflict patients who have persistent health problems due to chronic stress. Therefore, it is important to use a multidimensional approach to acquire data. The 'Psycho-Physiological-Stress-Test' (PPST) was established to achieve a comprehensive understanding of stress and was further developed at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin in collaboration with the Psychological Department of Freie Universität Berlin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164019/quantitative-analysis-of-electro-anatomical-maps-application-to-an-experimental-model-of-left-bundle-branch-block-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#19
David Soto Iglesias, Nicolas Duchateau, Constantine Butakoff Kostantyn Butakov, David Andreu, Juan Fernandez-Armenta, Bart Bijnens, Antonio Berruezo, Marta Sitges, Oscar Camara
Electro-anatomical maps (EAMs) are commonly acquired in clinical routine for guiding ablation therapies. They provide voltage and activation time information on a 3-D anatomical mesh representation, making them useful for analyzing the electrical activation patterns in specific pathologies. However, the variability between the different acquisitions and anatomies hampers the comparison between different maps. This paper presents two contributions for the analysis of electrical patterns in EAM data from biventricular surfaces of cardiac chambers...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153889/3d-qsar-studies-on-indole-and-7-azoindole-derivatives-as-rock-2-inhibitors-an-integrative-computational-approach
#20
Santhosh Kumar Nagarajan, Sathya Babu, Honglae Sohn, Panneer Devaraju, Thirumurthy Madhavan
Rho Kinases (ROCK) has been found to regulate a wide range of fundamental cell functions such as contraction, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Recent experiments have defined new functions of ROCKs in cells, including centrosome positioning and cell-size regulation, which might contribute to various physiological and pathological states. In this study, we have performed pharmacophore modeling and 3D QSAR studies on a series of 36 indoles and 7-azoindoles derivatives as ROCK2 inhibitors to elucidate the structural variations with their inhibitory activities...
December 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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