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Electro physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623474/epithelial-fluid-transport-is-due-to-electro-osmosis-80-plus-osmosis-20
#1
Jorge Fischbarg, Julio A Hernandez, Andrey A Rubashkin, Pavel Iserovich, Veronica I Cacace, Carlos F Kusnier
Epithelial fluid transport, an important physiological process shrouded in a long-standing enigma, may finally be moving closer to a solution. We propose that, for the corneal endothelium, relative proportions for the driving forces for fluid transport are 80% of paracellular electro-osmosis, and 20% classical transcellular osmosis. These operate in a cyclical process with a period of 9.2 s, which is dictated by the decrease and exhaustion of cellular Na(+). Paracellular electro-osmosis is sketched here, and partially discussed as much as the subject still allows; transcellular osmosis is presented at length...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612045/lack-of-trpm5-expressing-microvillous-cells-in-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-leads-to-impaired-odor-evoked-responses-and-olfactory-guided-behavior-in-a-challenging-chemical-environment
#2
Kayla Lemons, Ziying Fu, Imad Aoudé, Tatsuya Ogura, Julianna Sun, Justin Chang, Kenechukwu Mbonu, Ichiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Weihong Lin
The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) modifies its activities in response to changes in the chemical environment. This process is essential for maintaining the functions of the olfactory system and the upper airway. However, mechanisms involved in this functional maintenance, especially those occurring via paracrine regulatory pathways within the multicellular MOE, are poorly understood. Previously, a population of non-neuronal, transient receptor potential M5-expressing microvillous cells (TRPM5-MCs) was identified in the MOE, and the initial characterization of these cells showed that they are cholinergic and responsive to various xenobiotics including odorants at high concentrations...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610554/slc7a11-over-expression-in-glioblastoma-is-associated-with-increased-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties
#3
Monika Dagmara Polewski, Rosyli Francis Reveron-Thornton, Gregory Allan Cherryholmes, Georgi K Marinov, Karen Saida Aboody
System xc- is a sodium independent electro-neutral transporter, composed of a catalytic subunit xCT (SLC7A11) which is involved in importing cystine. Certain cancers such as gliomas up-regulate the expression of system xc- which confers a survival advantage against the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the generation of the antioxidant glutathione. However, ROS have also been shown to function as targeted, intracellular second messengers in an array of physiological processes such as proliferation...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596215/reproductive-and-metabolic-state-differences-in-olfactory-responses-to-amino-acids-in-a-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish
#4
Alexandre A Nikonov, Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, John Caprio, Karen P Maruska
Olfaction mediates many crucial life-history behaviors such as prey detection, predator avoidance, migration, and reproduction. Olfactory function can also be modulated by an animal's internal physiological and metabolic states. While this is relatively well-studied in mammals, little is known about how internal state impacts olfaction in fishes, the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. Here we apply electro-olfactograms (EOGs) in the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to test the hypothesis that olfactory responses to food-related cues (i...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547814/electrical-stimulation-structurally-affects-the-tissues-of-the-rectum-and-anus-of-nulliparous-rats
#5
Hugo Alves de Sousa, Maria da Glória da Silva, Keyla de Paula Barbosa, Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna, Yolanda Galindo Pacheco, José Roberto Pimenta de Godoy, Selma Aparecida Souza Kuckelhaus
Considering that the muscles of the anus perform a critical role in maintaining continence, losses in their structure can negatively affect the physiological control of the intestinal contents. Anorectal electro-stimulation (ARES) has been reported to have a positive effect on the functionality of treated patients, but how ARES affects the structural tissues of the anorectal segment remains unknown. Because the study of how ARES structurally affects human tissues is not possible, this study aimed to clarify these effects in a murine model, which has a similar anorectal segment (structure and physiology) to humans...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541225/stability-of-enzymatic-biosensors-for-wearable-applications
#6
Apurva Sonawane, Pandiaraj Manickam, Shekhar Bhansali
Technological evolution in wearable sensors is accounting for major growth and transformation in multitude of industries ranging from healthcare to computing & informatics to communication and biomedical sciences. The major driver for this transformation is the new-found ability to continuously monitor and analyze the patients' physiology in patients' natural setting. Numerous wearable sensors are already on the market and are summarized. Most of the current technologies have focused on electro-physiological, electro-mechanical or acoustic measurements...
May 19, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538297/effect-of-game-design-goal-type-and-player-numbers-on-the-physiological-and-physical-demands-of-hurling-specific-small-sided-games
#7
Shane Malone, Kieran D Collins
The current study examined the effect that game design modification, goal type, and player numbers on the running performance and physiological demands of small-sided hurling games (SSG). Forty-eight hurling players (age, 25.5 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 3.2 cm; body mass, 78.5 ± 4.5 kg) performed 4 types of SSG (possession [P], normal play [NP], regular goals [RG] and small goals [SG]) in 4-a-side, 5-a-side, and 6-a-side formats. Heart rate (Polar Electro Oy) and global positioning system technology (VX Sport, 4-Hz, Lower Hutt) were used to analyze the physical and physiological differences between SSG...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476169/effects-of-diacetyl-liensinine-on-electrophysiology-in-rabbit-ventricular-myocytes
#8
Feng Cao, Teng Wang, Wenmao Ding, Zhe Li, Shaobo Shi, Xiaozhan Wang
BACKGROUND: Diacetyl-liensinine is a chemosynthetic derivative of liensinine, extracted from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, in China. It has been found to have extensive anti- arrhythmic actions. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of diacetyl-liensinine on electro- physiology of myocytes. METHODS: We exposed rabbit ventricular myocytes to diacetyl-liensinine using standard whole-cell patch-clamp technique and measured the action potential, L-type calcium current (I Ca-L), delayed rectifier potassium current (I K), transient outward potassium current (I to) and inward rectifier potassium current (I K1)...
May 5, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456161/balance-of-excitation-and-inhibition-determines-1-f-power-spectrum-in-neuronal-networks
#9
F Lombardi, H J Herrmann, L de Arcangelis
The 1/f-like decay observed in the power spectrum of electro-physiological signals, along with scale-free statistics of the so-called neuronal avalanches, constitutes evidence of criticality in neuronal systems. Recent in vitro studies have shown that avalanche dynamics at criticality corresponds to some specific balance of excitation and inhibition, thus suggesting that this is a basic feature of the critical state of neuronal networks. In particular, a lack of inhibition significantly alters the temporal structure of the spontaneous avalanche activity and leads to an anomalous abundance of large avalanches...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406991/a-mathematical-model-for-active-contraction-in-healthy-and-failing-myocytes-and-left-ventricles
#10
Li Cai, Yongheng Wang, Hao Gao, Yiqiang Li, Xiaoyu Luo
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, in particular myocardial dysfunction, which may lead to heart failure eventually. Understanding the electro-mechanics of the heart will help in developing more effective clinical treatments. In this paper, we present a multi-scale electro-mechanics model of the left ventricle (LV). The Holzapfel-Ogden constitutive law was used to describe the passive myocardial response in tissue level, a modified Grandi-Pasqualini-Bers model was adopted to model calcium dynamics in individual myocytes, and the active tension was described using the Niederer-Hunter-Smith myofilament model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397061/a-neural-controller-for-online-laser-power-adjustment-during-the-heat-therapy-process-in-the-presence-of-nanoparticles
#11
S Ehsan Razavi
The present research evaluated the efficiency of a control approach to control the temperature of a breast tumor mass in the presence of nanoparticles exposed to laser radiation. However, if the radiation is carried out in open loop manner it may result in excessive temperature rise healthy cells that exist in the vicinity of tumor's cells. This may lead to the death of healthy cells. So, using closed loop control methods is necessary to guarantee the preservation of healthy cells during the period of radiation...
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390956/the-structure-of-the-amorphous-matrix-of-keratins
#12
Murat Kadir, Xinwei Wang, Bowen Zhu, Jing Liu, Duane Harland, Crisan Popescu
Various keratin fibers, particularly human hairs, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, TEM, solid-state (1)H NMR and Transient Electro-Thermal Technique, TET. The results converge to suggest that the matrix of keratin fiber cortex, far from being amorphous, has a well-defined nano-scale grainy structure, the size of these grains being around 2-4nm. The size of the grains appears to strongly depend on the chemical treatment of the fiber, on the temperature and on the relative humidity of the environment, as well as on the physiological factors at the level of fiber production in follicle...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372097/automated-setup-for-ex-vivo-larynx-experiments
#13
Veronika Birk, Michael Döllinger, Alexander Sutor, David A Berry, Dominik Gedeon, Maximilian Traxdorf, Olaf Wendler, Christopher Bohr, Stefan Kniesburges
Ex vivo larynx experiments are limited in time due to degeneration of the laryngeal tissues. In order to acquire a significant and comparable amount of data, automatization of current manual experimental procedures is desirable. A computer controlled, electro-mechanical setup was developed for time-dependent variation of specific physiological parameters, including adduction and elongation level of the vocal folds and glottal flow. The setup offers a standardized method to induce defined forces on the laryngeal cartilages...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342407/music-and-natural-sounds-in-an-auditory-steady-state-response-based-brain-computer-interface-to-increase-user-acceptance
#14
Jeong Heo, Hyun Jae Baek, Seunghyeok Hong, Min Hye Chang, Jeong Su Lee, Kwang Suk Park
Patients with total locked-in syndrome are conscious; however, they cannot express themselves because most of their voluntary muscles are paralyzed, and many of these patients have lost their eyesight. To improve the quality of life of these patients, there is an increasing need for communication-supporting technologies that leverage the remaining senses of the patient along with physiological signals. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is an electro-physiologic response to auditory stimulation that is amplitude-modulated by a specific frequency...
March 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277429/the-influence-of-exercise-to-rest-ratios-on-physical-and-physiological-performance-during-hurling-specific-small-sided-games
#16
Shane Malone, Brian Hughes, Kieran Collins
The current study examined the impact of different exercise to rest ratios on hurling specific small-sided games (SSG). Thirty-four (n = 34) hurling players were monitored during an in-season training period. Heart rate (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and global positioning system technology (VX Sport, 4-Hz, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) were used to analyse the physical and physiological differences between exercise to rest ratios across bouts of SSG. Total distance (m) high-speed distance (m) (≥17 km·h), very high-speed distance (≥22 km·h) (m), total accelerations (n), acceleration distance (m), peak velocity (km·h) and % maximum heart rate (%HRmax) were measured...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269050/dictionary-learning-for-sparse-representation-and-classification-of-neural-spikes
#17
Ahmed H Dallal, Yiran Chen, Douglas Weber, Zhi-Hong Mao
Spike sorting is the problem of identifying and clustering neurons spiking activity from recorded extracellular electro-physiological data. This is important for experimental neuroscience. Existing approaches to solve this problem consist of three steps: spike detection, feature extraction, and clustering. In our method, we use Fisher discriminant based dictionary learning to learn dictionary, whose sub-dictionaries are class specific, and estimate discriminative sparse coding coefficients by minimizing the within class scatter and maximizing the between class scatter...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268339/sensing-textile-seam-line-for-wearable-multimodal-physiological-monitoring
#18
M McKnight, T Agcayazi, H Kausche, T Ghosh, A Bozkurt
This paper investigates a novel multimodal sensing method by forming seam-lines of conductive textile fibers into commercially available fabrics. The proposed ultra-low cost micro-electro-mechanical sensor would provide, wearable, flexible, textile based biopotential signal recording, wetness detection and tactile sensing simultaneously. Three types of fibers are evaluated for their array-based sensing capability, including a 3D printed conductive fiber, a multiwall carbon nanotube based fiber, and a commercially available stainless steel conductive thread...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263770/human-physiological-responses-to-wooden-indoor-environment
#19
Xi Zhang, Zhiwei Lian, Yong Wu
Previous studies are mainly focused on non-wooden environments, whereas few are concerned with wooden ones. How wooden indoor environments impact the physiology of the occupants is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the distinct physiological responses to wooden and non-wooden indoor environments, assessed by physiological parameters tests including blood pressure, electrocardiogram measurements, electro-dermal activity, oxyhemoglobin saturation, skin temperature, and near distance vision...
March 2, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227266/dictionary-learning-for-sparse-representation-and-classification-of-neural-spikes
#20
Ahmed H Dallal, Yiran Chen, Douglas Weber, Zhi-Hong Mao, Ahmed H Dallal, Yiran Chen, Douglas Weber, Zhi-Hong Mao, Douglas Weber, Zhi-Hong Mao, Yiran Chen, Ahmed H Dallal
Spike sorting is the problem of identifying and clustering neurons spiking activity from recorded extracellular electro-physiological data. This is important for experimental neuroscience. Existing approaches to solve this problem consist of three steps: spike detection, feature extraction, and clustering. In our method, we use Fisher discriminant based dictionary learning to learn dictionary, whose sub-dictionaries are class specific, and estimate discriminative sparse coding coefficients by minimizing the within class scatter and maximizing the between class scatter...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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