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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636631/incidence-and-mortality-due-to-snakebite-in-the-americas
#1
Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636442/the-national-ebola-training-and-education-center-preparing-the-united-states-for-ebola-and-other-special-pathogens
#2
Christopher J Kratochvil, Laura Evans, Bruce S Ribner, John J Lowe, Melissa Cole Harvey, Richard C Hunt, Abbigail J Tumpey, Ryan P Fagan, Michelle M Schwedhelm, Sonia Bell, John Maher, Colleen S Kraft, Nicholas V Cagliuso, Sharon Vanairsdale, Angela Vasa, Philip W Smith
The National Ebola Training and Education Center (NETEC) was established in 2015 in response to the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. The US Department of Health and Human Services office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to increase the competency of healthcare and public health workers, as well as the capability of healthcare facilities in the United States, to deliver safe, efficient, and effective care to patients infected with Ebola and other special pathogens nationwide...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635652/fucaceae-a-source-of-bioactive-phlorotannins
#3
REVIEW
Marcelo D Catarino, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Fucaceae is the most dominant algae family along the intertidal areas of the Northern Hemisphere shorelines, being part of human customs for centuries with applications as a food source either for humans or animals, in agriculture and as remedies in folk medicine. These macroalgae are endowed with several phytochemicals of great industrial interest from which phlorotannins, a class of marine-exclusive polyphenols, have gathered much attention during the last few years due to their numerous possible therapeutic properties...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634471/a-chitin-binding-protein-purified-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-presents-anticandidal-activity-by-increasing-cell-membrane-permeability-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#4
João X S Neto, Mirella L Pereira, Jose T A Oliveira, Lady C B Rocha-Bezerra, Tiago D P Lopes, Helen P S Costa, Daniele O B Sousa, Bruno A M Rocha, Thalles B Grangeiro, José E C Freire, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Marina D P Lobo, Raimunda S N Brilhante, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that infect immunocompromised and/or immunosuppressed patients, particularly in hospital facilities, that besides representing a significant threat to health increase the risk of mortality. Apart from echinocandins and triazoles, which are well tolerated, most of the antifungal drugs used for candidiasis treatment can cause side effects and lead to the development of resistant strains. A promising alternative to the conventional treatments is the use of plant proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634392/the-traditional-chinese-medicine-achyranthes-bidentata-and-our-de-novo-conception-of-its-metastatic-chemoprevention-from-phytochemistry-to-pharmacology
#5
Zhou Jiang, Jun Qian, Haiyan Dong, Jingyi Yang, Xiaobo Yu, Jianzhong Chen, Hongning Chen, Qing Shi, Lee Jia
Our recent biosystems analysis revealed similarities between embryonic implantation and cancer cell adhesion, which suggests that abortifacients may be good for safe and effective metastatic chemoprevention targeting circulating tumor cells (CTC). Here we test the hypothesis by using the well-known abortion herb Achyranthes bidentata Blume (A. bidentata). Five compounds were separated from the herb root. Among them, ginsenoside Ro was the most potent in inhibiting embryonic implantation within non-cytotoxic concentrations...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634336/lc-ms-ms-quantification-of-sulfotransferases-is-better-than-conventional-immunogenic-methods-in-determining-human-liver-sult-activities-implication-in-precision-medicine
#6
Cong Xie, Tong-Meng Yan, Jia-Mei Chen, Xiao-Yan Li, Juan Zou, Li-Jun Zhu, Lin-Lin Lu, Ying Wang, Fu-Yuan Zhou, Zhong-Qiu Liu, Ming Hu
This study aims to determine whether enzyme activities are correlated with protein amounts and mRNA expression levels of five major human sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes in 10 matched pericarcinomatous and hepatocellular carcinoma liver samples. The MRM UHPLC-MS/MS method, Western blot and RT-PCR were used along with SULT activity measurement using probe substrates. The LC-MS/MS method was specific for all five tested SULTs, whereas Western blot was specific for only two isoforms. The activities of SULT1A1, SULT1B1, SULT1E1 and SULT2A1 in 9 of 10 samples showed a significant decrease in tumor tissues relative to matched pericarcinomatous tissues, whereas the activities of SULT1A3 in 7 of 10 samples increased...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634089/wedelolactone-a-plant-coumarin-prevents-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-injury-induced-neointimal-hyperplasia-through-akt-and-ampk-signaling
#7
Lu Peng, Xuefeng Huang, Xin Jin, Zuo Jing, Lichao Yang, Yu Zhou, Jie Ren, Yun Zhao
Wedelolactone (WDL) is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbal medicine Eclipta prostrate L, and has been reported to exhibit various effects potentially beneficial for human health. However, the possible preventive effects of WDL toward vascular remodeling and mechanisms involved have not been investigated to date. In this study, we investigated the effects of WDL on proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and on neointimal hyperplasia resulted from balloon injury in rats...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633732/to-err-is-human-can-american-medicine-learn-from-past-mistakes
#8
Jeffrey B Ritterman
The history of medicine includes many errors. Some persisted for decades and caused great harm. Several are highlighted in this article, including the mythical thymic diseases: thymic asthma and status thymicolymphaticus. Some medical mistakes, such as the diet-heart hypothesis of Ancel Keys, continue to cause harm. To avoid future errors and their associated harm, I suggest a cultural shift encouraging professional humility and greater questioning of medical dogma. Medical education focused on teaching students this history may help with this cultural shift...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633128/involvement-of-udp-glucuronosyltransferases-in-higenamine-glucuronidation-and-the-gender-and-species-differences-in-liver
#9
Zhi Liang, Chang Xu, Lingna Dong, Yile Fu, Qiong Wu, Jie Zhao, Ling Ye, Zheng Cai, Menghua Liu, Bijun Xia, Lan Tang, Zhongqiu Liu
OBJECTIVES: Higenamine (HG), an active ingredient of Aconite root in Chinese herbal medicine, is mainly metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). However, the systematic glucuronidation of HG in humans remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the glucuronidation of HG. METHODS: 12 recombinant human UGT (rUGT) isozymes were used to characterize the HG glucuronidation. Liver microsomes from male and female mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, and humans were used to determine the species and gender differences using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632924/metabolomics-as-a-driver-in-advancing-precision-medicine-in-sepsis
#10
Michelle Eckerle, Lilliam Ambroggio, Michael Puskarich, Brent Winston, Alan E Jones, Theodore J Standiford, Kathleen A Stringer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to explain the science of metabolomics-a science of systems biology that measures and studies endogenous small molecules (metabolites) that are present in a single biological sample-and its application to the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. In addition, we discuss how discovery through metabolomics can contribute to the development of precision medicine targets for this complex disease state and the potential avenues for those new discoveries to be applied in the clinical environment...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#11
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632321/is-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-the-missing-link-between-periodontitis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
David Polak
The impact of chronic conditions on the modern population is even more evident in view of a prolonged human life span. In addition, most individuals will probably simultaneously suffer from more than one chronic condition. As such, unveiling the pathogenesis of chronic diseases, as well as the causal factors that crosstalk between different conditions, is one of the greatest challenges faced by modern medicine. Two such conditions are periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This article is protected by copyright...
June 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631911/-the-study-of-mineral-composition-and-structure-of-uroliths-in-the-residents-of-tomsk-district-tomsk
#13
O A Sevostyanova, V S Boshchenko, V K Osadchii, V P Parnachev, A K Polienko
AIM: To successfully treat and prevent urolithiasis, the composition and structure of uroliths should be examined using modern analytical techniques. For a long time, studies of the biomineral formation in the human body have been conducted exclusively in the field of medicine. The main attention has been paid to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases leading to the occurrence of pathogenic formations. At the same time, it is quite obvious that it is important to have a clear idea about the causes of pathogenic formations, the mechanisms for their further formation, composition and structure...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630556/how-drug-control-policy-and-practice-undermine-access-to-controlled-medicines
#14
Naomi Burke-Shyne, Joanne Csete, Duncan Wilson, Edward Fox, Daniel Wolfe, Jennifer J K Rasanathan
Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630160/listeriolysin-o-from-bazooka-to-swiss-army-knife
#15
REVIEW
Suzanne E Osborne, John H Brumell
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen. Infections in humans can lead to listeriosis, a systemic disease with a high mortality rate. One important mechanism of Lm dissemination involves cell-to-cell spread after bacteria have entered the cytosol of host cells. Listeriolysin O (LLO; encoded by the hly gene) is a virulence factor present in Lm that plays a central role in the cell-to-cell spread process. LLO is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of toxins that were initially thought to promote disease largely by inducing cell death and tissue destruction-essentially acting like a 'bazooka'...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630076/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-is-affinity-maturation-a-self-defeating-process-for-eliciting-broad-protection
#16
Christopher T Stamper, Patrick C Wilson
Vaccinations are one of the greatest success stories of modern medicine, saving millions of lives since their widespread adoption. However, several diseases continue to elude highly effective vaccination strategies. Chief among these are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza (flu), both of which will require vaccines that can guide the creation of highly mutated, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). The generation of bnAbs is hindered by our inability to effectively drive the high levels of affinity maturation required to achieve them in a large number of cells...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629533/design-of-new-traditional-chinese-medicine-herbal-formulae-for-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-based-on-network-pharmacology
#17
Rui-Feng Hu, Xiao-Bo Sun
In the present study, 28 Chinese medicinal herbs belonging to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes were selected to explore the application of network pharmacology in developing new Chinese herbal medicine formulae for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These herbs have the highest appearance rate in the literature, and their compounds are listed. The human protein-protein interaction network and the T2DM disease protein interaction network were constructed...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628752/high-prevalence-of-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-tetracycline-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-poultry-in-poland
#18
Anna Woźniak-Biel, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska, Alicja Kielsznia, Kamila Korzekwa, Anna Tobiasz, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of foodborne diseases in humans, particularly when transmitted by the handling or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., fluoroquinolones and macrolides) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. The indiscriminate use of these drugs, both in clinical medicine and animal production, has a major impact on public health. The aim of the present study was to identify Campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey and broilers, using both PCR and the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methods to reveal the accuracy of identification, as well to evaluate the antimicrobial and genetic resistance of the investigated strains...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628273/exposure-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-vascular-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-cells-in-coculture-to-hemodynamics-induces-primary-vascular-cell-like-phenotypes
#19
Maria S Collado, Banumathi K Cole, Robert A Figler, Mark Lawson, David Manka, Michael B Simmers, Steve Hoang, Felipe Serrano, Brett R Blackman, Sanjay Sinha, Brian R Wamhoff
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into vascular endothelial (iEC) and smooth muscle (iSMC) cells. However, because iECs and iSMCs are not derived from an intact blood vessel, they represent an immature phenotype. Hemodynamics and heterotypic cell:cell communication play important roles in vascular cell phenotypic modulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that hemodynamic exposure of iECs in coculture with iSMCs induces an in vivo-like phenotype. iECs and iSMCs were cocultured under vascular region-specific blood flow hemodynamics, and compared to hemodynamic cocultures of blood vessel-derived endothelial (pEC) and smooth muscle (pSMC) cells...
June 19, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627813/effect-of-the-oxidant-antioxidant-system-in-seminal-plasma-on-varicocele-and-idiopathic-infertility-in-male-humans
#20
Hayrullah Yazar, Fikret Halis, Yasemin Nasir, Derya Guzel, Mehmet Akdogan, Ahmet Gokce
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate seminal oxidant-antioxidant activity in idiopathic and varicocele infertility in men. METHODS: Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase (PON1), aryl esterase (ARE), and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in seminal plasma with an autoanalyzer. The TOS/TAC ratio was determined as the oxidative stress index (OSI). A histopathological evaluation of the sperm was performed in the andrology laboratory of the hospital...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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