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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243580/coumarins-as-promising-scaffold-for-the-treatment-of-age-related-diseases-an-overview-of-the-last-five-years
#1
Giovanna Lucia Delogu, Maria Joao Matos
Degenerative diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent with the aging of the human population. The twentieth century witnessed a significant demographic change in the industrialized world that is currently followed by a similar shift of life expectancy to upper age ranges in Asia, Africa, and Middle and South America. A rising tide of chronic age-dependent diseases will soon present serious challenges for these countries. Age-related diseases are commonly seen in older patients. More than 40% of adults 60 and older have a combination of risk factors known as metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk for developing degenerative disorders, and certain cancers...
December 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243558/ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-genome-editing-a-regulatory-scientific-framework-from-early-development-to-clinical-implementation
#2
Houria Bachtarzi
Recent advances in human genome science have paved the way to a new class of human gene therapies based on gene editing, with the potential to provide a long-lasting curative strategy for many debilitating and complex disorders, for which there is an unmet medical need. Therapeutic genome editing encompasses both ex vivo and in vivo gene correction modalities, for which similar and also application-specific considerations apply, which dictate the overall strategy to be followed from a scientific, clinical and regulatory perspective...
December 15, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243493/quorum-sensing-network-associated-gene-regulation-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#3
Goutam Banerjee, Arun Kumar Ray
Quorum sensing (QS) is the chemical communication processes between bacteria, which may be inter-genus or intra-genus. In general, several physiological functions, such as nutrient uptake, competence development, biofilm formation, sporulation, and toxin secretion, are accomplished through QS process. The QS (cell density-dependent process) circuit in Gram-positive bacteria consists mainly of two parts: an inducer molecule and a receptor protein. The binding of inducer molecule to receptor activates the target gene, which then performs the necessary function in bacteria...
December 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243108/identification-of-a-novel-high-yielding-source-of-multipotent-adult-human-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells
#4
Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Marlena Bütow, Johannes Greiner, Anna Höving, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241744/fragility-of-results-in-ophthalmology-randomized-controlled-trials-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Carl Shen, Isabel Shamsudeen, Forough Farrokhyar, Kourosh Sabri
PURPOSE: Evidence-based medicine is guided by our interpretation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that address important clinical questions. Evaluation of the robustness of statistically significant outcomes adds a crucial element to the global assessment of trial findings. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the robustness of ophthalmology RCTs through application of the Fragility Index (FI), a novel metric of the robustness of statistically significant outcomes...
December 11, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241674/ethnomedicinal-plant-diversity-in-thailand
#6
Methee Phumthum, Kamonnate Srithi, Angkhana Inta, Auemporn Junsongduang, Kornkanok Tangjitman, Wittaya Pongamornkul, Chusie Trisonthi, Henrik Balslev
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants have provided medicine to humans for thousands of years, and in most parts of the world people still use traditional plant-derived medicine. Knowledge related to traditional use provides an important alternative to unavailable or expensive western medicine in many rural communities. At the same time, ethnomedicinal discoveries are valuable for the development of modern medicine. Unfortunately, globalization and urbanization causes the disappearance of much traditional medicinal plant knowledge...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241550/structural-determination-of-the-broadly-reactive-anti-ighv1-69-anti-idiotypic-antibody-g6-and-its-idiotope
#7
Yuval Avnir, Kristina L Prachanronarong, Zhen Zhang, Shurong Hou, Eric C Peterson, Jianhua Sui, Hatem Zayed, Vinodh B Kurella, Andrew T McGuire, Leonidas Stamatatos, Brendan J Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F Kowalik, Jeffrey D Jensen, Robert W Finberg, Jennifer P Wang, Margaret Goodall, Roy Jefferis, Quan Zhu, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco
The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241286/-humor-in-medicine-the-art-of-leaping-over-the-shadows
#8
Barbara Wild
Humor and laughter are integral parts of human life and communication - and so of course they occur in medical contacts.Humor is defined as a personality based cognitive emotional style of processing situations, characterized by the ability to find positive aspects even in negative situations, and the ability to communicate this point of view to others and to cheer them up. Humor can support healing processes and coping with illness. Humor and jokes reduce anxiety and stress (for patients and doctors). Humorous people have a more realistic, flexible and less fearful behaviour...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240662/essential-oils-from-neotropical-piper-species-and-their-biological-activities
#9
REVIEW
Joyce Kelly da Silva, Rafaela da Trindade, Nayara Sabrina Alves, Pablo Luís Figueiredo, José Guilherme S Maia, William N Setzer
The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240559/fluorescence-detection-enumeration-and-characterization-of-single-circulating-cells-in-vivo-technology-applications-and-future-prospects
#10
Carolin Hartmann, Roshani Patil, Charles P Lin, Mark Niedre
There are many diseases and biological processes that involve circulating cells in the bloodstream, such as cancer metastasis, immunology, reproductive medicine, and stem cell therapies. This has driven significant interest in new technologies for the study of circulating cells in small animal research models and clinically. Most currently used methods require drawing and enriching blood samples from the body, but these suffer from a number of limitations. In contrast, 'in vivo flow cytometry' (IVFC) refers to set of technologies that allow study of cells directly in the bloodstream of the organism in vivo...
December 14, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240409/from-experiments-to-a-fast-easy-to-use-computational-methodology-to-predict-human-aldehyde-oxidase-selectivity-and-metabolic-reactions
#11
Gabriele Cruciani, Nicolò Milani, Paolo Benedetti, Susan Lepri, Lucia Cesarini, Massimo Baroni, Francesca Spyrakis, Sara Tortorella, Edoardo Mosconi, Laura Goracci
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a molibdo-flavoenzyme that raised great interest in recent years, since its contribution in xenobiotics metabolism has not always been identified before clinical trials, with consequent negative effects on the fate of new potential drugs. The fundamental role of AOX in metabolizing xenobiotics is also due to the attempt of medicinal chemists to stabilize candidates toward cytochrome P450 activity, which increases the risk for new compounds to be susceptible to AOX nucleophile attack...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240313/deconvolution-of-images-from-3d-printed-cells-in-layers-on-a-chip
#12
Sean Yu, Pranav Joshi, Yi Ju Park, Kyeong-Nam Yu, Moo-Yeal Lee
Layer-by-layer cell printing is useful in mimicking layered tissue structures inside the human body and has great potential for being a promising tool in the field of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery. However, imaging human cells cultured in multiple hydrogel layers in 3D-printed tissue constructs is challenging as the cells are not in a single focal plane. Although confocal microscopy could be a potential solution for this issue, it compromises the throughput which is a key factor in rapidly screening drug efficacy and toxicity in pharmaceutical industries...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239730/directed-differentiation-of-periocular-mesenchyme-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Matthew Lovatt, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Gary S Peh, Alan Colman, N Ray Dunn, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal tissue is the most transplanted of all body tissues. Currently, cadaveric donor tissues are used for transplantation. However, a global shortage of transplant grade material has prompted development of alternative, cell-based therapies for corneal diseases. Pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of cells for regenerative medicine, because large numbers of therapeutically useful cells can be generated. However, a detailed understanding of how to differentiate clinically relevant cell types from stem cells is fundamentally required...
November 16, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239312/endogenous-retinal-neural-stem-cell-reprogramming-for-neuronal-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Romain Madelaine, Philippe Mourrain
In humans, optic nerve injuries and associated neurodegenerative diseases are often followed by permanent vision loss. Consequently, an important challenge is to develop safe and effective methods to replace retinal neurons and thereby restore neuronal functions and vision. Identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms allowing to replace damaged neurons is a major goal for basic and translational research in regenerative medicine. Contrary to mammals, the zebrafish has the capacity to fully regenerate entire parts of the nervous system, including retina...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239281/methods-for-expansion-of-3d-cultures-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-a-thermoresponsive-polymer
#15
Xiaoli Chen, Linda Harkness, Zhongfan Jia, Andrew Prowse, Michael Monteiro, Peter P Gray
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are viewed as promising candidates for applications in regenerative medicine and therapy due to their proliferative and pluripotent properties. However, obtaining clinically significant numbers of hPSCs remains a limiting factor and impedes their use in therapeutic applications. Conventionally, hPSCs are cultured on 2-dimensional (2D) surfaces coated with a suitable substrate, such as Matrigel™. This method, however, requires a large surface area to generate sufficient cell numbers to meet clinical needs, and is therefore impractical as a manufacturing platform for cell expansion...
December 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239153/time-to-change-the-classical-vision-of-coagulation-in-liver-disease-from-the-balance-disequilibrium-to-the-systems-biology-network-modelling
#16
Annabel Blasi, Joan C Reverter
The longstanding dogma that patients with liver disease have a hemostasis related bleeding tendency is neglected from the last 10 years however, despite this tremendous change of paradigm no longer progress had been made in this field. A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. Mathematical models are able to analyze large amount of data and they can make predictions about behavior. Mathematical models are used in the social sciences, engineering as well as in medicine...
December 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238889/immunomodulatory-effects-of-rhodomyrtus-tomentosa-leaf-extract-and-its-derivative-compound-rhodomyrtone-on-head-kidney-macrophages-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#17
Pinanong Na-Phatthalung, Mariana Teles, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai, Lluís Tort, Camino Fierro-Castro
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a medicinal plant that shows biological effects including immunomodulatory activity on human and other mammals but not in fish. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of R. tomentosa leaf extract and its active compound, rhodomyrtone, on the immune responses, using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney (HK) macrophages as a model. The tested immune functions included the expression of genes involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238752/colonic-butyrate-producing-communities-in-humans-an-overview-using-omics-data
#18
Marius Vital, André Karch, Dietmar H Pieper
Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238712/cytotoxic-effect-on-human-myeloma-cells-and-leukemic-cells-by-the-agaricus-blazei-murill-based-mushroom-extract-andosan%C3%A2
#19
Jon-Magnus Tangen, Toril Holien, Mohammad Reza Mirlashari, Kristine Misund, Geir Hetland
Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which has been found to contain a number of compounds with antitumor properties, such as proteoglycans and ergosterol. In the present investigation, we show that the commercial mushroom product Andosan, which contains 82.4% Agaricus blazei Murill, together with medicinal mushrooms Hericium erinaceus (14.7%) and Grifola frondosa (2.9%), has a cytotoxic effect on primary myeloma cells, other myeloma cell lines, and leukemia cell lines in vitro...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238699/ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-of-the-caribbean-current-understanding-and-future-directions-for-more-comprehensive-surveillance
#20
REVIEW
Mathilde Gondard, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Roxanne A Charles, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Emmanuel Albina, Sara Moutailler
Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods of significant importance to human and veterinary medicine. They transmit a vast array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Most epidemiological data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in the West Indies are limited to common livestock pathogens such as Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia spp. (i.e., B. bovis and B. bigemina), and Anaplasma marginale, and less information is available on companion animal pathogens. Of note, human tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain almost completely uncharacterized in the West Indies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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