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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684932/-antibiotic-use-and-reduction-in-veterinary-medicine
#1
Thomas Blaha
After a short history of the development of antimicrobial substances and the initially underestimated resistance problem, the paper describes the method of monitoring the use of antibiotics in food animals at farm level. The resulting benchmarking led to a remarkable reduction of the amount of antibiotics used in animals. However, it is also explained that, apart from reducing the use of antibiotics, the rules for "prudent use" of antibiotics have to be complied with. Concluding, a critical analysis of the effectiveness of the current interpretation of the "critically important antimicrobials for human medicine is discussed...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684931/-multiresistant-bacteria-antibiotic-prescription-and-antibiotics-of-last-resort
#2
Winfried V Kern
Ascertaining critical indications for antibiotics and rational prescribing can delay and minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance. Room for improvement lies in particular in a stricter indication, in shortening antibiotic treatment and in initiating more targeted therapies with narrow-spectrum drugs. Not all infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms require treatment with reserve drugs. Detailed susceptibility testing together with enhanced knowledge of pharmacokinetics and -dynamics are needed for adequate treatment decisions...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684469/imaging-techniques-to-study-drug-transporter-function-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Nicolas Tournier, Bruno Stieger, Oliver Langer
Transporter systems involved in the permeation of drugs and solutes across biological membranes are recognized as key determinants of pharmacokinetics. Typically, the action of membrane transporters on drug exposure to tissues in living organisms is inferred from invasive procedures, which cannot be applied in humans. In recent years, imaging methods have greatly progressed in terms of instruments, synthesis of novel imaging probes as well as tools for data analysis. Imaging allows pharmacokinetic parameters in different tissues and organs to be obtained in a non-invasive or minimally invasive way...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683471/comprehensive-high-resolution-genomic-profiling-and-cytogenetics-of-human-chondrocyte-cultures-by-gtg-banding-locus-specific-fish-sky-and-snp-array
#4
M Wallenborn, O Petters, D Rudolf, H Hantmann, M Richter, P Ahnert, L Rohani, J J Smink, G C Bulwin, W Krupp, R M Schulz, H Holland
In the development of cell-based medicinal products, it is crucial to guarantee that the application of such an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) is safe for the patients. The consensus of the European regulatory authorities is: "In conclusion, on the basis of the state of art, conventional karyotyping can be considered a valuable and useful technique to analyse chromosomal stability during preclinical studies". 408 chondrocyte samples (84 monolayers and 324 spheroids) from six patients were analysed using trypsin-Giemsa staining, spectral karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, to evaluate the genetic stability of an ATMP named Spherox®...
April 23, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683455/three-dimensional-inflammatory-human-tissue-equivalents-of-gingiva
#5
Li Xiao, Hisashi Okamura, Yasuo Kumazawa
Periodontal diseases (such as gingivitis and periodontitis) are the leading causes of tooth loss in adults. Inflammation in gingiva is the fundamental physiopathology of periodontal diseases. Current experimental models of periodontal diseases have been established in various types of animals. However, the physiopathology of animal models is different from that of humans, making it difficult to analyze cellular and molecular mechanisms and evaluate new medicines for periodontal diseases. Here, we present a detailed protocol for reconstructing human inflammatory tissue equivalents of gingiva (iGTE) in vitro...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682573/antibody-mediated-osseous-regeneration-for-bone-tissue-engineering-in-canine-segmental-defects
#6
A Khojasteh, S Hosseinpour, M M Dehghan, F Mashhadiabbas, M Rezai Rad, S Ansari, S Farzad Mohajeri, H H Zadeh
Among many applications of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a unique approach for regenerative medicine has entailed antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). In an effort to identify a clinically relevant model of craniofacial defect, the present study investigated the efficacy of mAb specific for bone morphogenetic protein- (BMP-) 2 to repair canine segmental mandibular continuity defect model. Accordingly, a 15 mm unilateral segmental defect was created in mandible and fixated with a titanium plate...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682565/molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-rabbit-farms-in-tai-an-china
#7
Xiaonan Zhao, Jie Yang, Zijing Ju, Weishan Chang, Shuhong Sun
To investigate the prevalence and resistance against antimicrobials of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in Tai'an, March 2016, a total of 55 E. coli strains were isolated from 60 faecal samples of diarrheic rabbits collected from three rabbit farms in Tai'an. The E. coli isolates were assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of resistance genes and Class I integrons and genotyped using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). All the E. coli isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and amikacin, while 78...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682561/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-geniposide-on-osteoarthritis-by-suppressing-the-activation-of-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#8
Yuan Chen, Kangquan Shou, Chunlong Gong, Huarui Yang, Yi Yang, Tongzhu Bao
It has been suggested that the activation of the p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway plays a significant role in the progression of OA by leading to the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and signaling enzymes in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. However, most p38 MAPK inhibitors applied for OA have been thought to be limited due to their potential long-term toxicities. Geniposide (GE), an iridoid glycoside purified from the fruit of the herb, has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682325/antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-potential-synthetic-treatments
#9
REVIEW
Junaid Ali, Qasim A Rafiq, Elizabeth Ratcliffe
Since the discovery of antibiotics by Sir Alexander Fleming they have been used throughout medicine and play a vital role in combating microorganisms. However, with their vast use, development of resistance has become more prevalent and their use is currently under threat. Antibiotic resistance poses a global threat to human and animal health, with many bacterial species having developed some form of resistance and in some cases within a year of first exposure to antimicrobial agents. This review aims to examine some of the mechanisms behind resistance...
April 2018: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681983/time-sex-and-dose-dependent-alterations-of-the-gut-microbiota-by-consumption-of-dietary-daikenchuto-tu-100
#10
Jun Miyoshi, Kentaro Nobutani, Mark W Musch, Daina L Ringus, Nathaniel A Hubert, Masahiro Yamamoto, Yoshio Kase, Mitsue Nishiyama, Eugene B Chang
Medications or dietary components can affect both the host and the host's gut microbiota. Changes in the microbiota may influence medication efficacy and interactions. Daikenchuto (TU-100), a herbal medication, comprised of ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, is widely used in Japanese traditional Kampo medicine for intestinal motility and postoperative paralytic ileus. We previously showed in mice that consumption of TU-100 for 4 weeks changed the gut microbiota and increased bioavailability of bacterial ginsenoside metabolites...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681982/propolin-c-inhibited-migration-and-invasion-via-suppression-of-egfr-mediated-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#11
Jih-Tung Pai, Yi-Chin Lee, Si-Ying Chen, Yann-Lii Leu, Meng-Shih Weng
Controlling lung cancer cell migration and invasion via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway has been demonstrated. Searching biological active phytochemicals to repress EGFR-regulated EMT might prevent lung cancer progression. Propolis has been used as folk medicine in many countries and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. In this study, the antimigration and anti-invasion activities of propolin C, a c-prenylflavanone from Taiwanese propolis, were investigated on EGFR-regulated EMT signaling pathway...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681854/evidence-supports-tradition-the-in-vitro-effects-of-roman-chamomile-on-smooth-muscles
#12
Zsolt Sándor, Javad Mottaghipisheh, Katalin Veres, Judit Hohmann, Tímea Bencsik, Attila Horváth, Dezső Kelemen, Róbert Papp, Loránd Barthó, Dezső Csupor
The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin), and its essential oil on smooth muscles. The phytochemical compositions of the extract and its fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD, the essential oil was characterized by GC and GC-MS...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681710/possible-link-between-stress-related-factors-and-altered-body-composition-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#13
Barnali Ray Basu, Olivia Chowdhury, Sudip Kumar Saha
Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered...
January 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681542/dna-methylation-and-regulatory-elements-during-chicken-germline-stem-cell-differentiation
#14
Yanghua He, Qisheng Zuo, John Edwards, Keji Zhao, Jinzhi Lei, Wentao Cai, Qing Nie, Bichun Li, Jiuzhou Song
The production of germ cells in vitro would open important new avenues for stem biology and human medicine, but the mechanisms of germ cell differentiation are not well understood. The chicken, as a great model for embryology and development, was used in this study to help us explore its regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we reported a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation landscape in chicken germ cells, and transcriptomic dynamics was also presented. By uncovering DNA methylation patterns on individual genes, some genes accurately modulated by DNA methylation were found to be associated with cancers and virus infection, e...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681480/outcome-of-endodontic-surgery-a-meta-analysis-of-the-literature-part-3-comparison-of-endodontic-microsurgical-techniques-with-2-different-root-end-filling-materials
#15
REVIEW
Meetu R Kohli, Homayon Berenji, Frank C Setzer, Su-Min Lee, Bekir Karabucak
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of root-end preparation and filling material on endodontic surgery outcome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the outcome of resin-based endodontic surgery (RES, the use of high-magnification preparation of a shallow and concave root-end cavity and bonded resin-based root-end filling material) versus endodontic microsurgery (EMS, the use of high-magnification ultrasonic root-end preparation and root-end filling with SuperEBA [Keystone Industries, Gibbstown, NJ], IRM [Dentsply Sirona, York, PA], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA], or other calcium silicate cements)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681192/in-vitro-assessment-of-cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-antimalarial-drugs-artemisinin-and-artemether-in-human-lymphocytes
#16
Plínio Cerqueira Dos Santos Cardoso, Carlos Alberto Machado da Rocha, Tatiane Cristina Mota, Marcelo de Oliveira Bahia, Regianne Maciel Dos Santos Correa, Lorena Monteiro Gomes, Diego Di Felipe Avila Alcântara, Taíssa Maíra Thomaz Araújo, Leopoldo Silva de Moraes, Rommel Burbano
Artemisinin is a substance extracted from the Chinese plant Artemisia annua L. widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Artemether is a substance synthesized from artemisinin, and both drugs are commonly administered in the treatment of malaria. Although considered effective antimalarial drugs, very little is known about the genotoxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these drugs. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic, mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of artemisinin (12...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680902/contamination-of-soil-and-the-medicinal-plant-phyllanthus-niruri-linn-with-cadmium-in-ceramic-industrial-areas
#17
Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Karen Magalhães Arantes, Ester Luiza Gonçalves, Carlos Fernando Campos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Antônio Marcos Machado de Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Phyllanthus niruri is a plant that is used to prevent calcium oxalate crystallisation and to block the stone formation in urolithiasis. Contaminants in the environment can be readily taken up by medicinal plants due to their ability to absorb chemicals into their tissues. If contaminated plants are ingested, they have the potential to negatively affect human and environmental health. The aim of this study was to assess contamination in the soil and the medicinal plant P. niruri by cadmium (Cd) in ceramic industrial areas of Monte Carmelo, Brazil...
April 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680805/examining-the-use-of-natural-in-breastfeeding-promotion-ethical-and-practical-concerns
#18
Jessica Martucci, Anne Barnhill
References to the 'natural' are common in public health messaging about breastfeeding. For example, the WHO writes that 'Breast milk is the natural first food for babies' and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has a breastfeeding promotion campaign called 'It's only natural', which champions breastfeeding as the natural way to feed a baby. This paper critically examines the use of 'natural' language in breastfeeding promotion by public health and medical bodies. A pragmatic concern with selling breastfeeding as 'natural' is that this may reinforce the already widespread perspective that natural options are presumptively healthier, safer and better, a view that works at cross-purposes to public health and medicine in other contexts...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680740/moringa-concanensis-nimmo-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-upregulating-ppar-%C3%AE-c-ebp-%C3%AE-via-akt-signaling-pathway-and-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#19
Brindha Banu Balakrishnan, Kalaivani Krishnasamy, Ki Choon Choi
Moringa concanensis Nimmo is a medicinal plant for treating various human illnesses including menstrual pain, high blood pressure, jaundice, inflammation, pain, fever, sore eyes, and cholesterol in Indian folk medicine. Despite its versatility, its antihyperglycemic mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo) remains unclear. Therefore, in this study we developed the possible antihyperglycemic mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells by evaluating mRNA and protein expression, which are associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis (insulin sensitizer)...
April 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679839/xenon-detection-in-human-blood-analytical-validation-by-accuracy-profile-and-identification-of-critical-storage-parameters
#20
Cécile Frampas, Julia Ney, Mark Coburn, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Xenon is a rare, mostly inert, noble gas that has applications in a wide range of fields, including medicine. Xenon acts on the human body as a useful organ-protective and anesthetic agent and has also been previously studied for potential applications in fields such as optics, aerospace and medical imaging. Recently, it was discovered that xenon can boost erythropoietin production, and it has been used as a performance-enhancing agent in international sports competitions such as the Sochi Olympic Games. Therefore, screening methods to detect the misuse of xenon by analysis of biological samples and to monitor anesthesia kinetics and efficiency are being investigated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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