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Medical image processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688066/high-field-structural-mri-in-the-management-of-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy
#1
Dan Wright, Sean Martin, Erlick Ac Pereira, Yazhuo Kong, Irene Tracey, Thomas Cadoux-Hudson
INTRODUCTION: This is a narrative overview of the pathophysiology, investigation and management of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM). This review article also takes a look ahead to the impact high resolution MRI may have on treatment. BACKGROUND: DCM is the most common cause of spinal dysfunction and yet it remains poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly common in our ageing population. Disc and facet joint abnormalities, osteophytes, spondylothisthesis and ligamentous hypertrophy all act together to produce spinal canal and neuronal foramina stenosis which in turn causes neural compromise...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687922/analysis-of-carbohydrates-and-glycoconjugates-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-an-update-for-2013-2014
#2
REVIEW
David J Harvey
This review is the eighth update of the original article published in 1999 on the application of Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) mass spectrometry to the analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates and brings coverage of the literature to the end of 2014. Topics covered in the first part of the review include general aspects such as theory of the MALDI process, matrices, derivatization, MALDI imaging, fragmentation, and arrays. The second part of the review is devoted to applications to various structural types such as oligo- and poly- saccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosides, and biopharmaceuticals...
April 17, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684645/challenges-in-pediatric-neuroimaging
#3
REVIEW
Matthew J Barkovich, Yi Li, Rahul S Desikan, A James Barkovich, Duan Xu
Pediatric neuroimaging is challenging due the rapid structural, metabolic, and functional changes that occur in the developing brain. A specially trained team is needed to produce high quality diagnostic images in children, due to their small physical size and immaturity. Patient motion, cooperation and medical condition dictate the methods and equipment used. A customized approach tailored to each child's age and functional status with the appropriate combination of dedicated staff, imaging hardware, and software is key; these range from low-tech techniques, such as feed and swaddle, to specialized small bore MRI scanners, MRI compatible incubators and neonatal head coils...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682610/the-empirical-effect-of-gaussian-noise-in-undersampled-mri-reconstruction
#4
Patrick Virtue, Michael Lustig
In Fourier-based medical imaging, sampling below the Nyquist rate results in an underdetermined system, in which a linear reconstruction will exhibit artifacts. Another consequence is lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) because of fewer acquired measurements. Even if one could obtain information to perfectly disambiguate the underdetermined system, the reconstructed image could still have lower image quality than a corresponding fully sampled acquisition because of reduced measurement time. The coupled effects of low SNR and underdetermined system during reconstruction makes it difficult to isolate the impact of low SNR on image quality...
December 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680194/the-challenge-of-evaluating-adnexal-masses-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Tomás Reinert, Angélica Nogueira-Rodrigues, Fabiola Procacci Kestelman, Patricia Ashton-Prolla, Márcia Silveira Graudenz, José Bines
This narrative literature review addresses the problem of an adnexal mass discovered during the course of breast cancer (BC) care, which may represent a benign condition, a metastatic process, or a primary ovarian cancer (OC), clinical scenarios associated with distinct physiopathology and prognosis. Furthermore, the coexistence of BC and OC in the same patient may be owing to a hereditary disorder, deserving specific management strategies and counseling. The initial detection and evaluation of an adnexal mass in a patient with BC requires a high index of suspicion, and the initial workup should include a thorough medical history and physical examination, measurement of tumor markers, complete blood count, and imaging tests...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678484/chronic-respiratory-rhinitis
#6
R Jankowski, P Gallet, D T Nguyen, C Rumeau
The clinical distinction of chronic respiratory rhinitis appears to confirm the evo-devo theory of the three noses. The authors report two cases of advanced allergic rhinitis, in which chronic inflammation had induced a violaceous colour of the mucosa of the respiratory nose and a whitish polypoid appearance of the free edge of the middle turbinate. Nose and paranasal sinus CT scan revealed, beyond the virtual nasal cavities observed on nasal endoscopy and CT imaging, normal radiolucency or only minor opacities of the ethmoid (i...
April 17, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674070/surface-plasmon-resonance-sensing-with-adjustable-sensitivity-based-on-a-flexible-liquid-core-coupling-unit
#7
Jiying Xu, Yi Chen
The signal amplification methods of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are mainly with sample selectivity. Herein proposed is a liquid core coupling SPR sensing method with adjustable sensitivity and universal applicability. A liquid core coupling unit and based on which a wavelength interrogation SPR sensor have been designed and constructed, in which a conventional chip could be used with an ingenious design and the sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the liquid core refractive index. The experimental data revealed that the sensitivity can be enhanced for 7...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671399/automatic-infection-detection-based-on-electronic-medical-records
#8
Huaixiao Tou, Lu Yao, Zhongyu Wei, Xiahai Zhuang, Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Making accurate patient care decision, as early as possible, is a constant challenge, especially for physicians in the emergency department. The increasing volumes of electronic medical records (EMRs) open new horizons for automatic diagnosis. In this paper, we propose to use machine learning approaches for automatic infection detection based on EMRs. Five categories of information are utilized for prediction, including personal information, admission note, vital signs, diagnose test results and medical image diagnose...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669259/anatomy-learning-from-prosected-cadaveric-specimens-versus-three-dimensional-software-a-comparative-study-of-upper-limb-anatomy
#9
Vasileios Mitrousias, Sokratis E Varitimidis, Michael E Hantes, Konstantinos N Malizos, Dimitrios L Arvanitis, Aristeidis H Zibis
INTRODUCTION: modern, three-dimensional (3D) anatomy software is a promising teaching method, though few studies examine its effectiveness on upper limb and musculoskeletal anatomy learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate which method is associated with a better outcome, as assessed by students' performance on examinations, when comparing learning with prosections to the use of 3D software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: two groups of undergraduate, first-year medical students without previous knowledge of anatomy were compared...
April 15, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667468/growth-hormone-receptor-gene-is-related-to-root-length-and-tooth-length-in-human-teeth
#10
Yu Hikita, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Daisuke Tomita, Mohamed Adel, Takatoshi Nakawaki, Koshu Katayama, Koutaro Maki, Ryosuke Kimura
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between tooth length and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene variants in a healthy Japanese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects consisted of 193 Japanese adults (69 men, 124 women), aged 13 to 56 years. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped GHR rs6184 and rs6180 variants using the Taqman genotyping. Computed tomography (CT) images were acquired using a dental cone-beam CT scanner and reconstructed using open-source OsiriX medical image processing software...
April 18, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666688/synovial-haemangioma-of-the-elbow-a-rare-paediatric-case-and-imaging-dilemma
#11
Han G Hoe, Faizah M Zaki, Abdul H A Rashid
Synovial haemangiomas are rare benign vascular proliferations arising in synovium-lined surfaces. While the knee is by far the joint most commonly involved, this condition can also occur in the elbow. We report an eight-year-old boy who presented to the National University of Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2016 with a left elbow swelling of one year's duration. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lobulated intra-articular mass with intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging and low signal punctate and linear structures within the hyperintense mass on T2-weighted imaging...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664333/relationship-between-tooth-length-and-three-dimensional-mandibular-morphology
#12
Yu Hikita, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Daisuke Tomita, Mohamed Adel, Takatoshi Nakawaki, Koshu Katayama, Koutaro Maki, Ryosuke Kimura
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relationship between tooth length and three-dimensional mandibular morphology in a healthy Japanese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 181 Japanese adults: 66 men and 115 women. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were acquired with a dentofacial cone-beam x-ray CT scanner. Tooth length was measured with open-source OsiriX medical image processing software. Crown height and root length were measured in the maxillary and mandibular central incisors, lateral incisors, canines, first premolars, second premolars, first molars, and second molars...
April 17, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663425/experimental-investigation-of-linac-angles-and-floor-scatter-dose-contributions-using-cherenkov-imaging-improving-total-skin-electron-therapy-treatment-geometries
#13
Jacqueline M Andreozzi, Petr Brůža, Irwin I Tendler, Karen E Mooney, Lesley A Jarvis, Jochen Cammin, Harold Li, Brian W Pogue, David J Gladstone
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal treatment geometry for total skin electron therapy (TSET) using a new optimization metric from Cherenkov image analysis, and to investigate the sensitivity of the Cherenkov imaging method to floor scatter effects in this unique treatment setup. METHODS: Cherenkov imaging using an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) was employed to measure the relative surface dose distribution as a 2D image in the total skin electron treatment plane...
April 16, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663381/resin-embedded-anatomical-cross-sections-as-a-teaching-adjunct-for-medical-curricula-is-this-technique-an-alternative-to-potting-and-plastination
#14
Fraser Chisholm, Ourania Varsou
With an ever-expanding use of cross-sectional imaging for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, there has also been an increase in the need for exposure to such radiological and anatomical views at the undergraduate and postgraduate level to allow for early familiarisation with the relevant anatomy. Cadaveric cross-sections offer an excellent link between the two-dimensional radiological images and the three-dimensional anatomical structures. For such cross-sections to be useful and informative within educational settings, they need to be: (i) safe for students and trainees to handle and (ii) robust enough to withstand repeated handling; as well as (iii) displaying anatomy clearly and accurately...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662622/quantitative-parameters-in-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-detection-and-characterization-of-prostate-cancer
#15
Cheng Wei, Bowen Jin, Magdalena Szewczyk-Bieda, Stephen Gandy, Stephen Lang, Yilong Zhang, Zhihong Huang, Ghulam Nabi
Objectives: to assess the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative parameters of DCE-MRI in multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in comparison to the histopathology (including Gleason grade) of prostate cancer. Patients and methods: 150 men with suspected prostate cancer (abnormal digital rectum examination and or elevated prostate-specific antigen) received pre-biopsy 3T mpMRI and were recruited into peer-reviewed, protocol-based prospective study. The DCE-MRI quantitative parameters ( Ktrans (influx transfer constant) and kep (efflux rate constant)) of the cancerous and normal areas were recorded using four different kinetic models employing Olea Sphere (Olea Medical, La Ciotat, France)...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643539/-construction-of-chemical-information-database-based-on-optical-structure-recognition-technique
#16
C Y Lv, M N Li, L R Zhang, Z M Liu
OBJECTIVE: To create a protocol that could be used to construct chemical information database from scientific literature quickly and automatically. METHODS: Scientific literature, patents and technical reports from different chemical disciplines were collected and stored in PDF format as fundamental datasets. Chemical structures were transformed from published documents and images to machine-readable data by using the name conversion technology and optical structure recognition tool CLiDE...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643524/-a-customized-method-for-information-extraction-from-unstructured-text-data-in-the-electronic-medical-records
#17
X Y Bao, W J Huang, K Zhang, M Jin, Y Li, C Z Niu
OBJECTIVE: There is a huge amount of diagnostic or treatment information in electronic medical record (EMR), which is a concrete manifestation of clinicians actual diagnosis and treatment details. Plenty of episodes in EMRs, such as complaints, present illness, past history, differential diagnosis, diagnostic imaging, surgical records, reflecting details of diagnosis and treatment in clinical process, adopt Chinese description of natural language. How to extract effective information from these Chinese narrative text data, and organize it into a form of tabular for analysis of medical research, for the practical utilization of clinical data in the real world, is a difficult problem in Chinese medical data processing...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625874/peripheral-neuropathy-is-associated-with-more-frequent-falls-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Mélanie L Beaulieu, Martijn L T M Müller, Nicolaas I Bohnen
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral neuropathy is a common condition in the elderly that can affect balance and gait. Postural imbalance and gait difficulties in Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, may stem not only from the primary neurodegenerative process but also from age-related medical comorbidities. Elucidation of the effects of peripheral neuropathy on these difficulties in PD is important to provide more targeted and effective therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between lower-limb peripheral neuropathy and falls and gait performance in PD while accounting for disease-specific factors...
April 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624551/three-dimensional-modeling-for-crohn-s-fistula-in-ano-a-novel-interactive-approach
#19
David Lam, Eric Yong, Basil D'Souza, Rodney Woods
BACKGROUND: Pelvic MRI allows for clear delineation of anatomy in Crohn's fistula-in-ano, although its interpretation is often difficult for nonradiologists. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to develop a 3-dimensional model where fistula tracts and their relationship to the sphincter complex can be accurately defined, which can then be rotated in multiple axes by the surgeon. DESIGN: A 3-dimensional model was created based on MRI images. An additional 3-dimensional T2-weighted sequence was added to the existing MRI protocol to obtain high-resolution images...
May 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618454/development-of-whole-slide-imaging-on-smartphones-and-evaluation-with-thinprep-cytology-test-samples-follow-up-study
#20
Yu-Ning Huang, Xing-Chun Peng, Shuoxin Ma, Hong Yu, Yu-Biao Jin, Jun Zheng, Guo-Hui Fu
BACKGROUND: The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides. OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to delve into the quantifying issues encountered in the development of an Android version...
April 4, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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