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Medical image processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468678/image-guidance-doses-delivered-during-radiotherapy-quantification-management-and-reduction-report-of-the-aapm-therapy-physics-committee-task-group-180
#1
George X Ding, Parham Alaei, Bruce Curran, Ryan Flynn, Michael Gossman, T Rock Mackie, Moyed Miften, Richard Morin, X George Xu, Timothy C Zhu
With radiotherapy having entered the era of image guidance, or image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), imaging procedures are routinely performed for patient positioning and target localization. The imaging dose delivered may result in excessive dose to sensitive organs and potentially increase the chance of secondary cancers and, therefore, needs to be managed. This task group was charged with: a) providing an overview on imaging dose, including megavoltage electronic portal imaging (MV EPI), kilovoltage digital radiography (kV DR), Tomotherapy MV-CT, megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV-CBCT) and kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT), and b) providing general guidelines for commissioning dose calculation methods and managing imaging dose to patients...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460167/alzheimer-disease-detection-from-structural-mr-images-using-fcm-based-weighted-probabilistic-neural-network
#2
Baskar Duraisamy, Jayanthi Venkatraman Shanmugam, Jayanthi Annamalai
An early intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is highly essential due to the fact that this neuro degenerative disease generates major life-threatening issues, especially memory loss among patients in society. Moreover, categorizing NC (Normal Control), MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment) and AD early in course allows the patients to experience benefits from new treatments. Therefore, it is important to construct a reliable classification technique to discriminate the patients with or without AD from the bio medical imaging modality...
February 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456443/the-screening-process-of-a-patient-with-low-back-pain-and-suspected-thoracic-myelopathy-a-case-report
#3
Guillaume Christe, Toby Hall
Background: Thoracic disc herniations are rare and difficult to diagnose. Myelopathy is a potential consequence that can lead to irreversible neurological impairment if not treated appropriately. It is incumbent on all clinicians who see patients with low back pain (LBP) to be aware of such pathologies. This case describes a screening process in the detection of a rare serious spinal pathology and discusses the use of red flags and central nervous system signs and symptoms in the decision leading to immediate referral...
February 2018: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455440/computer-aided-solution-for-automatic-segmenting-and-measurements-of-blood-leucocytes-using-static-microscope-images
#4
Enas Abdulhay, Mazin Abed Mohammed, Dheyaa Ahmed Ibrahim, N Arunkumar, V Venkatraman
Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451994/stroop-task-related-brain-activity-in-patients-with-insomnia-changes-after-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia
#5
Jeong Yeon Hwang, Nambeom Kim, Soohyun Kim, Juhyun Park, Jae-Won Choi, Seog Ju Kim, Chang-Ki Kang, Yu Jin Lee
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: In the present study, we compared differences in brain activity during the Stroop task between patients with chronic insomnia disorder (CID) and good sleepers (GS). Furthermore, we evaluated changes in Stroop task-related brain activity after cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The final analysis included 21 patients with CID and 25 GS. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the color-word Stroop task...
February 16, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449297/delivering-safe-and-effective-test-result-communication-management-and-follow-up-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol
#6
Maria R Dahm, Andrew Georgiou, Johanna I Westbrook, David Greenfield, Andrea R Horvath, Denis Wakefield, Ling Li, Ken Hillman, Patrick Bolton, Anthony Brown, Graham Jones, Robert Herkes, Robert Lindeman, Michael Legg, Meredith Makeham, Daniel Moses, Dauda Badmus, Craig Campbell, Rae-Anne Hardie, Julie Li, Euan McCaughey, Gorkem Sezgin, Judith Thomas, Nasir Wabe
INTRODUCTION: The failure to follow-up pathology and medical imaging test results poses patient-safety risks which threaten the effectiveness, quality and safety of patient care. The objective of this project is to: (1) improve the effectiveness and safety of test-result management through the establishment of clear governance processes of communication, responsibility and accountability; (2) harness health information technology (IT) to inform and monitor test-result management; (3) enhance the contribution of consumers to the establishment of safe and effective test-result management systems...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443502/direct-classification-of-gc-%C3%A3-gc-analyzed-complex-mixtures-using-non-negative-matrix-factorization-based-feature-extraction
#7
Yasuyuki Zushi, Shunji Hashimoto
Complex chemical mixtures need to be evaluated to, for example, aid in medical diagnoses, assess product quality, and assess environmental conditions. Two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), which is a comprehensive analytical technique, combined with data classification techniques has attracted great interest for assessing mixtures. In this study, a nontarget cross-sample analysis-based unsupervised direct classification method using non-negative matrix factorization was developed for assessing mixtures analyzed by GC × GC...
February 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442923/polycarbonate-nanofluidic-chip-fabrication-technique-by-hot-embossing-and-thermal-bonding
#8
Zhifu Yin, Helin Zou, Lei Sun
Nanofluidic devices are becoming increasingly critical for medical, chemical and biological applications. In this paper, a 2D Polycarbonate (PC) nanofluidic chip was fabricated by hot embossing and thermal bonding method. In this paper, the effect of the hot embossing parameters on the replication precision of 2D PC nanochannels was investigated by finite element method. To increase the bonding rate of the chip, the parameters of the thermal bonding process were optimized. Under the optimized parameters the 2D PC nanofluidic chip was successfully fabricated...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441227/pancreaticoportal-fistula-formation-as-a-consequence-of-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-clinical-and-imaging-considerations
#9
Mina S Makary, Edward L Gayou, Douglas Kyrouac, Zarine K Shah
A pancreatic-portal vein fistula (PPVF) is an extremely rare complication of pancreatitis. In this report, we present a patient with a PPVF in the setting of recurrent pancreatitis and portal vein thrombosis diagnosed by cross-sectional imaging and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, who responded to medical management and anticoagulation. A critical review of this disease process is explored to highlight pathology, imaging characteristics, and essential alternative diagnostic considerations. We also discuss potential complications and current treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439328/impact-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-general-anesthesia-on-brain-networks-cognitive-efficiency-and-ventricular-volume-predict-functional-connectivity-decline-in-older-adults
#10
Haiqing Huang, Jared Tanner, Hari Parvataneni, Mark Rice, Ann Horgas, Mingzhou Ding, Catherine Price
 Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), we explored: 1) pre- to post-operative changes in functional connectivity in default mode, salience, and central executive networks after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with general anesthesia, and 2) the contribution of cognitive/brain reserve metrics these resting state functional declines. Individuals age 60 and older electing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n = 48) and non-surgery peers with osteoarthritis (n = 45) completed baseline cognitive testing and baseline and post-surgery (post-baseline, 48-h post-surgery) brain MRI...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434543/altered-functional-connectivity-of-fronto-cingulo-striatal-circuits-during-error-monitoring-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#11
Heledd Hart, Lena Lim, Mitul A Mehta, Charles Curtis, Xiaohui Xu, Gerome Breen, Andrew Simmons, Kah Mirza, Katya Rubia
Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene ( 5-HTTLPR, MAOA ) interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433836/multiresolution-image-registration-for-multimodal-brain-images-and-fusion-for-better-neurosurgical-planning
#12
Siddeshappa Nandish, Gopalakrishna Prabhu, Kadavigere V Rajagopal
BACKGROUND: Imaging modalities in medicine gives complementary information. Inadequacy in clinical information made single imaging modality insufficient. There is a need for computer-based system that permits rapid acquisition of digital medical images and performs multi-modality registration, segmentation and three-dimensional planning of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. In this regard proposed article presents multimodal brain image registration and fusion for better neurosurgical planning...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429419/altered-fear-processing-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-maltreatment-an-fmri-study
#13
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428080/reliability-of-a-clinical-3d-freehand-ultrasound-technique-analyses-on-healthy-and-pathological-muscles
#14
Francesco Cenni, Simon-Henri Schless, Lynn Bar-On, Erwin Aertbeliën, Herman Bruyninckx, Britta Hanssen, Kaat Desloovere
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 3D freehand Ultrasonography is a medical imaging technique that can be used to measure muscle and tendon morphological and structural properties, including volume, lengths and echo-intensity. These properties are clinically relevant in neurological disorders such as spastic cerebral palsy to monitor disease progression and evaluate the effect of treatment. This study presents a methodology for extracting these parameters along with a clinical reliability analysis for the data acquisition and processing...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428071/detection-of-mass-regions-in-mammograms-by-bilateral-analysis-adapted-to-breast-density-using-similarity-indexes-and-convolutional-neural-networks
#15
João Otávio Bandeira Diniz, Pedro Henrique Bandeira Diniz, Thales Levi Azevedo Valente, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Anselmo Cardoso de Paiva, Marcelo Gattass
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The processing of medical image is an important tool to assist in minimizing the degree of uncertainty of the specialist, while providing specialists with an additional source of detect and diagnosis information. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects the female population around the world. It is also the most deadly type of cancer among women. It is the second most common type of cancer among all others. The most common examination to diagnose breast cancer early is mammography...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426912/a-white-random-laser
#16
Shu-Wei Chang, Wei-Cheng Liao, Yu-Ming Liao, Hung-I Lin, Hsia-Yu Lin, Wei-Ju Lin, Shih-Yao Lin, Packiyaraj Perumal, Golam Haider, Chia-Tse Tai, Kun-Ching Shen, Cheng-Han Chang, Yuan-Fu Huang, Tai-Yuan Lin, Yang-Fang Chen
Random laser with intrinsically uncomplicated fabrication processes, high spectral radiance, angle-free emission, and conformal onto freeform surfaces is in principle ideal for a variety of applications, ranging from lighting to identification systems. In this work, a white random laser (White-RL) with high-purity and high-stability is designed, fabricated, and demonstrated via the cost-effective materials (e.g., organic laser dyes) and simple methods (e.g., all-solution process and self-assembled structures)...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423350/primary-psychiatric-disorder-masking-the-diagnosis-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-in-a-patient-with-altered-mental-status-a-case-report
#17
Osman Perez, Kairavee Dave, Aimee Almanzar, Tajul Prodhan, Livasky Concepion
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) has a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric features. NPSLE symptoms and the psychotic features of primary psychiatric disorders often overlap with each other. These psychotic features often mask and delay the diagnosis of NPSLE. We present the case of a 59-year-old female previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presenting with altered mental status (AMS), subsequently diagnosed with neuropsychiatric lupus. Initially, medication overdose was suspected as an empty bottle of trazodone was found beside her...
October 23, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412347/microcephaly-in-piau%C3%A3-brazil-descriptive-study-during-the-zika-virus-epidemic-2015-2016
#18
Igor Gonçalves Ribeiro, Marcia Regina de Andrade, Janaína de Moraes Silva, Zenira Martins Silva, Maria Amélia de Oliveira Costa, Marcelo Adriano da Cunha E Silva Vieira, Francisca Miriane de Araújo Batista, Herlon Guimarães, Marcelo Yoshito Wada, Eduardo Saad
OBJECTIVE: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016. METHODS: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH)...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410534/reimagining-the-diagnostic-pathway-for-gastrointestinal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Greg Rubin, Fiona Walter, Jon Emery, Niek de Wit
A crisis is looming for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers, one grounded only partly in the steady increase in their overall incidence. Public demand for diagnostic tests to be undertaken early and at lower levels of risk is reflected in early diagnosis being a widely held policy objective for reasons of both clinical outcome and patient experience. In the UK, urgent referrals for suspected lower gastrointestinal cancer have increased by 78% in the past 6 years, with parallel increases in endoscopy and imaging activity...
February 7, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406179/disambiguating-pharmacological-mechanisms-from-placebo-in-neuropathic-pain-using-functional-neuroimaging
#20
V Wanigasekera, K Wartolowska, J P Huggins, E P Duff, W Vennart, M Whitlock, N Massat, L Pauer, P Rogers, B Hoggart, I Tracey
BACKGROUND: A lack of objective outcome measures and overreliance on subjective pain reports in early proof-of-concept studies contribute to the high attrition of potentially effective new analgesics. We studied the utility of neuroimaging in providing objective evidence of neural activity related to drug modulation or a placebo effect in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover trial. METHODS: We chronically administered pregabalin or tramadol (first-line and second-line analgesics, respectively), recommended for neuropathic pain, in 16 post-traumatic neuropathic pain patients...
February 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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