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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163161/inhibition-of-mir-128-3p-by-tongxinluo-protects-human-cardiomyocytes-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-upregulation-of-p70s6k1-p-p70s6k1
#1
Gui-Hao Chen, Chuan-Sheng Xu, Jie Zhang, Qing Li, He-He Cui, Xiang-Dong Li, Li-Ping Chang, Rui-Jie Tang, Jun-Yan Xu, Xia-Qiu Tian, Pei-Sen Huang, Jun Xu, Chen Jin, Yue-Jin Yang
Background and Aims: Tongxinluo (TXL) is a multifunctional traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, no studies have explored whether TXL can protect human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) pathway activation was previously demonstrated to protect the hearts against I/R injury and it is generally activated via Akt or (and) Erk 1/2, and their common downstream protein, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158254/weight-history-and-subclinical-myocardial-damage
#2
Chiadi E Ndumele, Laura Cobb, Mariana Lazo, Natalie A Bello, Amil Shah, Vijay Nambi, Roger S Blumenthal, Gary Gerstenblith, Scott D Solomon, Christie M Ballantyne, Elizabeth Selvin, Josef Coresh
BACKGROUND: Excess weight is associated with subclinical myocardial damage, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations, which portends high heart failure risk. However, the association between weight history and myocardial damage is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated 9062 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) visit 4 (1996-1999) participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and no previous cardiovascular disease. We cross-tabulated visit 4 ("current") BMI categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese with those at visit 1 (1987-1989) and with BMI categories calculated from self-reported weight at age 25 years...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157021/gastroparesis-pharmacotherapy-and-cardiac-risk
#3
Per M Hellström, Ahmad Al-Saffar
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is characterized by abnormal gastric motility and delayed emptying with symptoms of early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Pharmacological discovery has been lagging because potential drugs often are associated with abnormalities of electrical conduction of the myocardium due to interaction with cardiac ion channels leading to limited pharmaceutical options for development of new drugs. OBJECTIVE: Addresses the safety of drugs for gastroparesis in terms of cardiotoxicity related to the clinical use of prokinetics and antiemetics...
November 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154687/pyruvate-enhancement-of-cardiac-performance-cellular-mechanisms-and-clinical-application
#4
Robert T Mallet, Albert H Olivencia-Yurvati, Rolf Bünger
Cardiac contractile function is adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-intensive, and the myocardium's high demand for oxygen and energy substrates leaves it acutely vulnerable to interruptions in its blood supply. The myriad cardioprotective properties of the natural intermediary metabolite pyruvate make it a potentially powerful intervention against the complex injury cascade ignited by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. A readily oxidized metabolic substrate, pyruvate augments myocardial free energy of ATP hydrolysis to a greater extent than the physiological fuels glucose, lactate and fatty acids, particularly when it is provided at supra-physiological plasma concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153572/prognostic-value-of-quantitative-stress-perfusion-cardiac-magnetic-resonance
#5
Eva C Sammut, Adriana D M Villa, Gabriella Di Giovine, Luke Dancy, Filippo Bosio, Thomas Gibbs, Swarna Jeyabraba, Susanne Schwenke, Steven E Williams, Michael Marber, Khaled Alfakih, Tevfik F Ismail, Reza Razavi, Amedeo Chiribiri
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the prognostic usefulness of visual and quantitative perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) ischemic burden in an unselected group of patients and to assess the validity of consensus-based ischemic burden thresholds extrapolated from nuclear studies. BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the prognostic value of assessing myocardial ischemic burden by CMR, and there are none using quantitative perfusion analysis. METHODS: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease referred for adenosine-stress perfusion CMR were included (n = 395; 70% male; age 58 ± 13 years)...
November 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150492/predictors-of-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-undergoing-surgical-mitral-valve-intervention
#6
Kenya Kusunose, Nancy A Obuchowski, Marc Gillinov, Zoran B Popovic, Scott D Flamm, Brian P Griffin, Deborah H Kwon
BACKGROUND: Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with substantial risk of death. Although surgical mitral valve intervention (MVi) may improve symptoms, it has not been shown to improve survival. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of mortality in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation and MVi. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 117 consecutive patients (age, 65±10 years) with advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance and subsequent MVi between January 1, 2002 and January 1, 2012...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131444/native-t1-reference-values-for-nonischemic-cardiomyopathies-and-populations-with-increased-cardiovascular-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Maaike van den Boomen, Riemer H J A Slart, Enzo V Hulleman, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Birgitta K Velthuis, Pim van der Harst, David E Sosnovik, Ronald J H Borra, Niek H J Prakken
BACKGROUND: Although cardiac MR and T1 mapping are increasingly used to diagnose diffuse fibrosis based cardiac diseases, studies reporting T1 values in healthy and diseased myocardium, particular in nonischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) and populations with increased cardiovascular risk, seem contradictory. PURPOSE: To determine the range of native myocardial T1 value ranges in patients with NICM and populations with increased cardiovascular risk. STUDY TYPE: Systemic review and meta-analysis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119398/myocardial-protection-against-ischemic-and-reperfusion-injuries-experimental-study
#8
I A Mandel', A Yu Podoksenov, I V Sukhodolo, Yu K Podoksenov, Yu S Svirko, N O Kamenshchikov, S L Mikheev, A S Sementsov, Yu V Rogovskaya, D A An, V M Shipulin, L N Maslov
The effects of hypoxic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic-hyperoxic preconditioning were examined in the prospective study on narcotized and artificially ventilated rabbits. Under artificial circulation, acute myocardial ischemia was modeled by ligation of anterior descending coronary artery, which was followed by reperfusion. The degree of ventricular arrhythmias was assessed, and the ischemic area was evaluated in percent of the area at risk. Microscopic characterization of the myocardium was employed to assess the cardioprotective effect of hypoxic and/or hyperoxic preconditioning...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102362/drug-eluting-stents-in-elderly-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-senior-a-randomised-single-blind-trial
#9
Olivier Varenne, Stéphane Cook, Georgios Sideris, Sasko Kedev, Thomas Cuisset, Didier Carrié, Thomas Hovasse, Philippe Garot, Rami El Mahmoud, Christian Spaulding, Gérard Helft, José F Diaz Fernandez, Salvatore Brugaletta, Eduardo Pinar-Bermudez, Josepa Mauri Ferre, Philippe Commeau, Emmanuel Teiger, Kris Bogaerts, Manel Sabate, Marie-Claude Morice, Peter R Sinnaeve
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients regularly receive bare-metal stents (BMS) instead of drug-eluting stents (DES) to shorten the duration of double antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between these two types of stents with a short duration of DAPT in such patients. METHODS: In this randomised single-blind trial, we recruited patients from 44 centres in nine countries. Patients were eligible if they were aged 75 years or older; had stable angina, silent ischaemia, or an acute coronary syndrome; and had at least one coronary artery with a stenosis of at least 70% (≥50% for the left main stem) deemed eligible for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
October 31, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101167/transient-denervation-of-viable-myocardium-after-myocardial-infarction-does-not-alter-arrhythmia-susceptibility
#10
Diana C Parrish, Samantha D Francis Stuart, Antoinette Olivas, Lianguo Wang, Anders Nykjaer, Crystal May Ripplinger, Beth Ann Habecker
Cardiac sympathetic nerves stimulate heart rate and force of contraction. Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to the loss of sympathetic nerves within the heart, and clinical studies indicate that sympathetic denervation is a risk factor for arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Two distinct types of denervation have been identified in the mouse heart after MI caused by ischemia-reperfusion: transient denervation of peri-infarct myocardium, and sustained denervation of the infarct. Sustained denervation is linked to increased arrhythmia risk, but it is not known if acute nerve loss in peri-infarct myocardium also contributes to arrhythmia risk...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070834/myocardial-changes-in-incident-haemodialysis-patients-over-6-months-an-observational-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#11
Elaine Rutherford, Kenneth Mangion, Christie McComb, Elizabeth Bell, Samantha Cockburn, Mohammed Talle, Giles Roditi, Paul Welsh, Rosemary Woodward, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Allan D Struthers, Alan G Jardine, Colin Berry, Rajan K Patel, Patrick B Mark
Patients commencing on haemodialysis (HD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular events in the first year after starting HD compared to those patients established on HD longer. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial strain predict mortality. There may be changes in the myocardium of incident HD patients over a 6-month period of HD which may explain changes in cardiovascular risk. We used CMR to consider changes in LV mass, myocardial strain and T1 mapping. We examined changes in pre-dialysis highly sensitive troponin T...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050512/iron-deficiency-beyond-erythropoiesis-should-we-be-concerned
#12
Khaled M Musallam, Ali T Taher
OBJECTIVE: To consider the key implications of iron deficiency for biochemical and physiological functions beyond erythropoiesis. METHODS: PubMed was searched for relevant journal articles published up to August 2017. RESULTS: Anemia is the most well-recognized consequence of persisting iron deficiency, but various other unfavorable consequences can develop either before or concurrently with anemia. Mitochondrial function can be profoundly disturbed since iron is a cofactor for heme-containing enzymes and non-heme iron-containing enzymes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain...
October 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034073/unmet-goals-in-the-treatment-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-review
#13
REVIEW
Alejandro Farah, Alejandro Barbagelata
Reperfusion therapy decreases myocardium damage during an acute coronary event and consequently mortality. However, there are unmet needs in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, consequently mortality and heart failure continue to occur in about 10% and 20% of cases, respectively. Different strategies could improve reperfusion. These strategies, like generation of warning sign recognition and being initially assisted and transferred by an emergency service, could reduce the time to reperfusion. If the first electrocardiogram is performed en route, it can be transmitted and interpreted in a timely manner by a specialist at the receiving center, bypassing community hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025406/impact-of-empagliflozin-on-subclinical-left-ventricular-dysfunctions-and-on-the-mechanisms-involved-in-myocardial-disease-progression-in-type-2-diabetes-rationale-and-design-of-the-empa-heart-trial
#14
Andrea Natali, Lorenzo Nesti, Iacopo Fabiani, Enrico Calogero, Vitantonio Di Bello
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes patients. Unlike the other hypoglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular death and risk factors, aside from lowering plasma glucose levels. With this study we aim at determining whether the treatment with empagliflozin is associated with an improvement in LV functions in diabetic patients with asymptomatic LV dysfunction against Sitagliptin, which is presumably neutral on myocardial function...
October 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986361/regulating-microrna-expression-at-the-heart-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-mitochondrion
#15
Quincy A Hathaway, Mark V Pinti, Andrya J Durr, Shanawar Waris, Danielle L Shepherd, John M Hollander
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus results in a systemic milieu of increased circulating glucose and fatty acids. The development of insulin resistance in cardiac tissue decreases cellular glucose import and enhances mitochondrial fatty acid uptake. While triacylglycerol and cytotoxic lipid species begin to accumulate in the cardiomyocyte, the energy substrate utilization ratio of free fatty acids (FFAs) to glucose changes to almost entirely FFAs...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982571/role-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of%C3%A2-nonischemic%C3%A2-cardiomyopathy
#16
REVIEW
Amit R Patel, Christopher M Kramer
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a valuable tool for the evaluation of patients with, or at risk for, heart failure and has a growing impact on diagnosis, clinical management, and decision making. Through its ability to characterize the myocardium by using multiple different imaging parameters, it provides insight into the etiology of the underlying heart failure and its prognosis. CMR is widely accepted as the reference standard for quantifying chamber size and ejection fraction. Additionally, tissue characterization techniques such as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and other quantitative parameters such as T1 mapping, both native and with measurement of extracellular volume fraction; T2 mapping; and T2* mapping have been validated against histological findings in a wide range of clinical scenarios...
October 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972062/time-varying-edema-requires-cautious-interpretation-of-myocardium-at-risk-and-infarct-size-by-all-imaging-methods
#17
EDITORIAL
Andrew E Arai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966019/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-levels-are-related-to-the-extent-of-hibernating-myocardium-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-failure
#18
Jason G E Zelt, Peter P Liu, Fernanda Erthal, Robert A deKemp, George Wells, Eileen O'Meara, Linda Garrard, Rob S B Beanlands, Lisa M Mielniczuk
BACKGROUND: Increased N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) can identify patients with heart failure (HF) who are at increased risk of cardiac events. The relationship of these biomarkers to the extent of hibernating myocardium and scar has not been previously characterized in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction and HF. METHODS: Patients with ischemic HF meeting recruitment criteria and undergoing perfusion and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography to define myocardial hibernation and scar were included in the study...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964663/saffron-crocus-sativus-intake-provides-nutritional-preconditioning-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-wild-type-and-apoe-mice-involvement-of-nrf2-activation
#19
P Efentakis, A Rizakou, E Christodoulou, A Chatzianastasiou, M G López, R León, E Balafas, N P E Kadoglou, I Tseti, H Skaltsa, N Kostomitsopoulos, E K Iliodromitis, G Valsami, I Andreadou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Saffron is an antioxidant herbal derivative; however, its efficacy as a nutritional cardioprotective agent has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the cardioprotective properties of a standardized saffron aqueous extract (SFE) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in Wild-Type (WT) and ApoE((-/-)) mice and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: WT and ApoE((-/-)) mice were subjected to 30 min I and 2 h R, with the following per os interventions for 4 weeks: 1) WT Control Group, receiving Water for Injection (WFI); 2) WT Crocus Group, receiving SFE at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day; 3) WT Crocus + Wort group, receiving SFE as described above and wortmannin at a dose of 60 μg/kg bolus 15 min before R; 4) ApoE((-/-)) Control Group, receiving WFI; 5) ApoE((-/-)) Crocus Group, receiving SFE at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day and 6) ApoE((-/-)) Crocus + Wort: receiving SFE as described above and wortmannin at a dose of 60 μg/kg bolus, 15 min before R...
October 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957532/arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-pathology-genetics-and-concepts-in-pathogenesis
#20
Edgar T Hoorntje, Wouter P Te Rijdt, Cynthia A James, Kalliopi Pilichou, Cristina Basso, Daniel P Judge, Connie R Bezzina, J Peter van Tintelen
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a rare, heritable heart disease characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of the myocardium and a high degree of electric instability. It was first thought to be a congenital disorder, but is now regarded as a dystrophic heart muscle disease that develops over time. There is no curative treatment and current treatment strategies focus on attenuating the symptoms, slowing disease progression, and preventing life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Identification of mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins and in other genes has led to insights into the disease pathogenesis and greatly facilitated identification of family members at risk...
October 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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