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thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal

Hong-Jin Zou, Yu-Shu Li, Zhong-Yan Shan
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) is characterized by the coexistence of tumors that involve two or more endocrine glands within the same patient, and is defined as the occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma in association with pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and parathyroid tumors or hyperparathyroidism. The pathogenesis of MEN2A is due to the mutation of a tyrosine kinase receptor that is encoded by the rearrangement during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene. The mutation often occurs in exon 10q11.2. The present study reports the case of a 73-year-old man with severe hypercalcemia, bilateral adrenal PHEO and a thyroid nodule...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Audra Clark, Alan P Dackiw, Wendy D White, Fiemu E Nwariaku, Shelby A Holt, Jennifer L Rabaglia, Sarah C Oltmann
BACKGROUND: Preincision operating room (OR) preparation varies greatly. Cases requiring exacting preoperative setup may be more sensitive to inconsistent team members and trainees. Leadership and oversight by the surgeon may facilitate a timely start. The study hypothesized that early attending presence in the OR expedites surgery start time, improving efficiency, and decreasing cost. METHODS: Prospective data collection of endocrine surgery cases at an urban teaching hospital was performed...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
A Bergenfelz, A F Salem, H Jacobsson, E Nordenström, M Almquist
BACKGROUND: Vocal cord palsy occurs in 3-5 per cent of patients after thyroidectomy. To reduce this complication, intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) has been introduced, although its use remains controversial. This study investigated the risk of postoperative vocal cord palsy with and without the use of intermittent IONM. METHODS: Patients registered in the Scandinavian Quality Register for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery, 2009-2013, were included. Early palsy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was diagnosed within 6 weeks after surgery...
August 18, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Nassib Alsahwi, Delali Blavo, Harsha Karanchi
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder. The lungs are the principal organs affected, however, extrapulmonary involvement including disorders of the pituitary and thyroid glands has been reported but presentation with multiple endocrine manifestations is rare. We report the case of a 36-year-old African-American woman who presented with hypercalcaemia, abnormal thyroid function studies and secondary amenorrhoea. On workup including laboratory, radiological testing and biopsy she was diagnosed with sarcoidosis with multi-organ involvement...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Andy E Durham
Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
W Saeger, P A Schnabel, P Komminoth
The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, <2 per 10 high-power fields (HPF) and the Ki-67 (index <3 %) and G2 tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %)...
July 2016: Der Pathologe
Ka-Kit Wong, Arpit Gandhi, Benjamin L Viglianti, Lorraine M Fig, Domenico Rubello, Milton D Gross
AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders. METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and PubMed searches using the terms: "SPECT/CT"; "functional anatomic mapping"; "transmission emission tomography"; "parathyroid adenoma"; "thyroid cancer"; "neuroendocrine tumor"; "adrenal"; "pheochromocytoma"; "paraganglioma"; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Drew A Torigian, Geming Li, Abass Alavi
Many disorders commonly affect various organs of the endocrine system. The nuclear medicine physician and radiologist must be aware of the manifestations of these disorders that may be detected on structural imaging modalities. In this article, we provide a brief review of the advantages and disadvantages of CT, MR imaging, and ultrasonography. We then discuss the role of these structural imaging modalities in the evaluation of disorders affecting the endocrine organs. In particular, we focus our review on imaging evaluation of the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, and the adrenal gland...
July 2007: PET Clinics
Joseph R Grajo, Raj Mohan Paspulati, Dushyant V Sahani, Avinash Kambadakone
MEN1, MEN2, and MEN4 comprise a series of familial disorders involving the simultaneous occurrence of tumors in more than one endocrine organ, collectively known as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Patients with this family of disorders develop tumors of the parathyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland, along with miscellaneous neuroendocrine tumors of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although some patients undergo early prophylactic surgical management, particularly in the setting of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, many develop tumors later in life...
May 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Akiko Matsunaga, Makoto Yoneda
Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels...
April 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Nicola Tartaglia, Pasquale Cianci, Amedeo Altamura, Vincenzo Lizzi, Fernanda Vovola, Alberto Fersini, Antonio Ambrosi, Vincenzo Neri
Functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma is very rare neoplasm. It is usually nonfunctional and benign and incidentally detected. Generally, these tumors originate in the kidneys, thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary or pituitary glands; they have also been reported in other sites including choroid plexus, respiratory tract, and larynx. Histologically, they are characterized by cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and numerous packed mitochondria. We reported a case of a 44-year-old female who presented with Cushing syndrome for hypersecretion of cortisol due to adrenocortical oncocytoma...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Rino Buzzola, Lilamani Romayne Kurukulasuriya, Mariana Touza, Norman S Litofsky, Stephen Brietzke, James R Sowers
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 syndrome is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by the occurrence of tumors involving two or more endocrine glands. These tumors include pheochromocytoma, adrenal cortical and neuroendocrine tumors including (bronchopulmonary, thymic, gastric), lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas, and meningiomas. MEN-4 is very rare and has been characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid and anterior pituitary tumors in association with tumors of the adrenals, kidneys, and reproductive organs...
February 2016: Cardiorenal Medicine
C Pelusi, D I Gasparini, N Bianchi, R Pasquali
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder of iron overload and subsequent organ damage. Five types of HH are known, classified by age of onset, genetic cause, clinical manifestations and mode of inheritance. Except for the rare form of juvenile haemochromatosis, symptoms do not usually appear until after decades of progressive iron loading and may be triggered by environmental and lifestyle factors. Despite the last decades discovery of genetic and phenotype diversity of HH, early studies showed a frequent involvement of the endocrine glands where diabetes and hypogonadism are the most common encountered endocrinopathies...
August 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Maria João Bugalho, Rita Domingues
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 (MEN 4) is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia caused by mutations in the CDKN1B gene. Its clinical presentation includes MEN 1-related tumours such as parathyroid and anterior pituitary tumours in possible association with gonadal, adrenal, renal and thyroid tumours as well as facial angiofibromas, colagenomas and meningiomas. We describe the case of a patient with meningioma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma and, additionally, Hürthle cell adenoma, cholesteatoma and uterine leiomyomas...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Shirley Yuk-Wah Liu, Brian Hung-Hin Lang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the advent of the robot has revolutionized the modern treatment of endocrine neoplasia, substantial controversies exist on its applicability, safety and benefits over the conventional laparoscopic operations. The present review aims to review the recent literature on various robotic approaches in treating thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pancreatic endocrine neoplasia and see whether its continued use should be supported. RECENT FINDINGS: In summary, the role of robotic thyroidectomy has been clearly established and should be continued by experienced surgeons on selected patients...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
D Luethy, P Habecker, B Murphy, R Nolen-Walston
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma is the most common adrenal medullary neoplasm of domestic animals, but it is rare in horses. Antemortem diagnosis in horses is difficult, with clinical signs often being vague or non-specific. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings of pheochromocytoma in horses. ANIMALS: Thirty-seven horses diagnosed with pheochromocytoma based on postmortem examination from 2007 to 2014...
January 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Michał Kunc, Anna Gabrych, Jacek M Witkowski
Commensal bacteria and their genes associated with host are known as microbiome. In recent years, microbial influence on host endocrine system has been under detailed investigation. The role of microbiome in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secretion of hormones regulating appetite is well described in world literature. In this article we discuss poorly reviewed issues: the microbiome role in modulation of non-peptide (sex and thyroid) and peptide (growth hormone and parathyroid hormone) functions...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Amit Lahoti, Yael T Harris, Phyllis W Speiser, Evangelia Atsidaftos, Jeffrey M Lipton, Adrianna Vlachos
BACKGROUND: Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. The mainstays of treatment involve chronic red cell transfusions, long-term glucocorticoid therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Systematic data concerning endocrine function in DBA are limited. We studied patients in the DBA Registry (DBAR) of North America to assess the prevalence of various endocrinopathies. PROCEDURE: In a pilot study, retrospective data were collected for 12 patients with DBA...
February 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Benjamin C James, Briseis Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Nicole Cipriani, Edwin L Kaplan, Peter Angelos, Raymon H Grogan
PURPOSE: With the exception of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, malignant cancers of the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and endocrine pancreas are uncommon. These rare malignancies present a challenge to both the clinician and patient, because few data exist on their incidence or survival. We analyzed the incidence and survival of these rare endocrine cancers (RECs), as well as the trends in incidence over time. METHODS: We used the NCI's SEER 18 database (2000-2012) to investigate incidence and survival of rare cancers of the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and endocrine pancreas...
February 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
G J Nataraju, Ramchandra K Ranvir, Viren R Kothule, Shekhar B Kadam, B V Ravichandra, Upendra Bhatnagar, Mukul R Jain
A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats...
January 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
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