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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145428/abnormal-brain-white-matter-microstructure-is-associated-with-both-pre-hypertension-and-hypertension
#1
Hideaki Suzuki, He Gao, Wenjia Bai, Evangelos Evangelou, Ben Glocker, Declan P O'Regan, Paul Elliott, Paul M Matthews
OBJECTIVES: To characterize effects of chronically elevated blood pressure on the brain, we tested for brain white matter microstructural differences associated with normotension, pre-hypertension and hypertension in recently available brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 4659 participants without known neurological or psychiatric disease (62.3±7.4 yrs, 47.0% male) in UK Biobank. METHODS: For assessment of white matter microstructure, we used measures derived from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) including the intracellular volume fraction (an estimate of neurite density) and isotropic volume fraction (an index of the relative extra-cellular water diffusion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102929/three-dimensional-laser-scanning-confocal-analysis-of-conjunctival-microcysts-in-glaucomatous-patients-before-and-after-trabeculectomy
#2
Silvio DI Staso, Luca Agnifili, Angela DI Gregorio, Hilary Climastone, Emilio Galassi, Vincenzo Fasanella, Marco Ciancaglini
BACKGROUND/AIM: In glaucoma, conjunctival epithelial microcysts (CEM) have been extensively investigated by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. In the present case series, we examined eight glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy to obtain a 3-dimensional (3-D) characterization of CEM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Image acquisition was performed in z-scan automatic volume mode by Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III/Rostock Cornea Module and a series of 40 images of 300×300 μm (384×384 pixels) to a maximum depth of 40 μm were acquired throughout the upper bulbar conjunctiva before (at the site planned for surgery) and eight weeks after trabeculectomy...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946878/extra-cellular-expansion-in-the-normal-non-infarcted-myocardium-is-associated-with-worsening-of-regional-myocardial-function-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Pankaj Garg, David A Broadbent, Peter P Swoboda, James R J Foley, Graham J Fent, Tarique A Musa, David P Ripley, Bara Erhayiem, Laura E Dobson, Adam K McDiarmid, Philip Haaf, Ananth Kidambi, Saul Crandon, Pei G Chew, R J van der Geest, John P Greenwood, Sven Plein
BACKGROUND: Expansion of the myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) is a surrogate measure of focal/diffuse fibrosis and is an independent marker of prognosis in chronic heart disease. Changes in ECV may also occur after myocardial infarction, acutely because of oedema and in convalescence as part of ventricular remodelling. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the pattern of distribution of regional (normal, infarcted and oedematous segments) and global left ventricular (LV) ECV using semi-automated methods early and late after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812126/myocardial-iodine-concentration-measurement-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-the-diagnosis-of-cardiac-amyloidosis-a-pilot-study
#4
Virgile Chevance, Thibaud Damy, Vania Tacher, François Legou, Fourat Ridouani, Alain Luciani, Hicham Kobeiter, Alain Rahmouni, Jean-François Deux
OBJECTIVE: To measure myocardium iodine concentration (MIC) in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). METHODS: Twenty-two patients with CA, 13 with non-amyloid hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (CH) and 10 control patients were explored with pre-contrast, arterial and 5-minute DECT acquisition (Iomeprol; 1.5 mL/kg). Inter-ventricular septum (IVS) thickness, blood pool iodine concentration (BPIC), MIC (mg/mL), iodine ratio and extra-cellular volume (ECV) were calculated...
August 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782585/weaving-for-heart-valve-tissue-engineering
#5
REVIEW
Albert Liberski, Nadia Ayad, Dorota Wojciechowska, Radoslaw Kot, Duy M P Vo, Dilibaier Aibibu, Gerald Hoffmann, Chokri Cherif, Katharina Grobelny-Mayer, Marek Snycerski, Helmut Goldmann
Weaving is a resourceful technology which offers a large selection of solutions that are readily adaptable for tissue engineering (TE) of artificial heart valves (HV). The different ways that the yarns are interlaced in this technique could be used to produce complex architectures, such as the three-layer architecture of the leaflets. Once the assembly is complete, growth of cells in the scaffold would occur in the orientation of the yarn, enabling the deposition of extra cellular matrixes proteins in an oriented manner...
August 4, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755376/the-cracam-robot-two-dimensional-crystallization-of-membrane-protein
#6
Philippe Rosier, Frédéric Gélébart, Nicolas Dumesnil, Gauthier Esnot, Manuela Dezi, Marc Morand, Catherine Vénien-Bryan
Membrane proteins are key cellular components that perform essential functions. They are major therapeutic targets. Electron crystallography can provide structural experimental information at atomic scale for membrane proteins forming two-dimensional (2D) crystals. There are two different methods to produce 2D crystals of membrane proteins. (1) either directly in the bulk of the solution (2) or under a lipid monolayer at the air-water interface. This extra lipid monolayer helps to pre-orient the proteins in order to facilitate the growth of 2D crystals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592435/gender-differences-in-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-affect-extra-cellular-volume-in-healthy-subjects
#7
Tsjitske J Toering, Christina M Gant, Folkert W Visser, Anne Marijn van der Graaf, Gozewijn D Laverman, A H Jan Danser, Marijke M Faas, Gerjan Navis, A Titia Lely
OBJECTIVE Several studies reported gender differences in aldosterone. It is unknown whether these differences are associated with differences in volume regulation. Therefore, we studied both aldosterone and extracellular volume in men and women on different sodium intakes. METHODS In healthy normotensive men (n=18) and premenopausal women (n=18) we investigated plasma aldosterone, blood pressure, and extracellular volume (125I-iothalamate), during both a low (target intake 50 mmol Na+/day) and high sodium intake (target intake 200 mmol Na+/day) in a cross-over set-up...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583026/a-prolonged-antibiotic-protocol-to-treat-persistent-chlamydophila-pneumoniae-infection-improves-the-extracranial-venous-circulation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Paul Thibault, John Attia, Chris Oldmeadow
Objective Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a condition associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). One mechanism that has been proposed is that the venous obstructions found in MS are due to a chronic persistent venulitis caused by the intra-cellular bacterial parasite, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cpn). The objective of the current study is to determine the effect of a combined antibiotic protocol (CAP) on the venous flow in MS patients as measured by a quantitative duplex ultrasound examination (QDUS)...
January 1, 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482435/-expression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-degenerative-human-intervertebral-disc-model
#9
X F Wang, A P Zhang, Z Y Sun, C Liu, L H Kuang, J W Tian
Objective: To investigate the changes in the expression of NF-κB signaling pathway in human degenerative intervertebral discs. Methods: From October 2014 to March 2016, 55 nucleus pulposus of surgical patients with degenerative human intervertebral disc were collected for study in Department of Orthopedic Surgey, Hospital of Zaozhuang Mining Corporation, and Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai General Hospital Affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine.The collected nucleus pulposus tissues were divided into two groups: experimental group(30) and control group(25)...
May 9, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413347/a-biochemo-mechano-coupled-computational-model-combining-membrane-transport-and-pericellular-proteolysis-in-tissue-mechanics
#10
A-T Vuong, A D Rauch, W A Wall
We present a computational model for the interaction of surface- and volume-bound scalar transport and reaction processes with a deformable porous medium. The application in mind is pericellular proteolysis, i.e. the dissolution of the solid phase of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a response to the activation of certain chemical species at the cell membrane and in the vicinity of the cell. A poroelastic medium model represents the extra cellular scaffold and the interstitial fluid flow, while a surface-bound transport model accounts for the diffusion and reaction of membrane-bound chemical species...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281249/immunosensing-with-near-infrared-plasmonic-optical-fiber-gratings
#11
Christophe Caucheteur, Clotilde Ribaut, Viera Malachovska, Ruddy Wattiez
Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) optical fiber biosensors constitute a miniaturized counterpart to the bulky prism configuration and offer remote operation in very small volumes of analyte. They are a cost-effective and relatively straightforward technique to yield in situ (or even possibly in vivo) molecular detection. They are usually obtained from a gold-coated fiber segment for which the core-guided light is brought into contact with the surrounding medium, either by etching (or side-polishing) or by using grating coupling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087487/bioprinting-for-vascular-and-vascularized-tissue-biofabrication
#12
REVIEW
Pallab Datta, Bugra Ayan, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073559/characterization-of-total-retinoid-like-activity-of-compounds-produced-by-three-common-phytoplankton-species
#13
Eliška Sychrová, Jana Priebojová, Marie Smutná, Kateřina Nováková, Jiří Kohoutek, Klára Hilscherová
Phytoplankton can produce various bioactive metabolites, which may affect other organisms in the aquatic environment. This study provides the first information on the total retinoid-like activity associated with both intracellular and extracellular metabolites produced by selected phytoplankton species that could play a role in teratogenic effects and developmental disruption in exposed organisms. The studied species included a coccoid cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), a filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) and a green alga (Desmodesmus quadricauda), all of which commonly occur in freshwater bodies in Europe...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039592/loss-or-mislocalization-of-aquaporin-4-affects-diffusion-properties-and-intermediary-metabolism-in-gray-matter-of-mice
#14
T Pavlin, E A Nagelhus, C Brekken, E M Eyjolfsson, A Thoren, O Haraldseth, U Sonnewald, O P Ottersen, A K Håberg
The first aim of this study was to determine how complete or perivascular loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels affects membrane permeability for water in the mouse brain grey matter in the steady state. Time-dependent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed on global Aqp4 knock out (KO) and α-syntrophin (α-syn) KO mice, in the latter perivascular AQP4 are mislocalized, but still functioning. Control animals were corresponding wild type (WT) mice. By combining in vivo diffusion measurements with the effective medium theory and previously measured extra-cellular volume fractions, the effects of membrane permeability and extracellular volume fraction were uncoupled for Aqp4 and α-syn KO...
January 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993655/chitosan-based-nanofibers-in-bone-tissue-engineering
#15
REVIEW
K Balagangadharan, S Dhivya, N Selvamurugan
Bone tissue engineering involves biomaterials, cells and regulatory factors to make biosynthetic bone grafts with efficient mineralization for regeneration of fractured or damaged bones. Out of all the techniques available for scaffold preparation, electrospinning is given priority as it can fabricate nanostructures. Also, electrospun nanofibers possess unique properties such as the high surface area to volume ratio, porosity, stability, permeability and morphological similarity to that of extra cellular matrix...
December 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879037/nanomembrane-based-thermal-transport-biosensor-for-living-cells
#16
Rami T ElAfandy, Ayman F AbuElela, Pawan Mishra, Bilal Janjua, Hassan M Oubei, Ulrich Büttner, Mohammed A Majid, Tien Khee Ng, Jasmeen S Merzaban, Boon S Ooi
Knowledge of materials' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes...
November 23, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863840/long-term-pre-treatment-of-antioxidant-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-neuronal-damage-in-aged-mice
#17
Xiaomei Zhou, Yinliang Qi, Ting Chen
Antioxidant activity has been attributed to the neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb-761 on brain disorders including ischemic stroke. It is suggested that oxidative stress implicates in neuron injuries during aging. However, whether or not EGb-761 could be used to treat age-related cerebral ischemia is unclear. In the present study, we directly studied the protective effects of EGb-761 in brain ischemia in the mice with different age. As expected, the recovery from brain damages was impaired in aged mice (24 months) in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794025/effect-of-contrast-dose-in-the-quantification-of-myocardial-extra-cellular-volume-in-adenosine-stress-rest-perfusion-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-examinations
#18
Meylin Caballeros, Pablo Bartolomé, Óscar Fernández González, Andreas Greiser, Loreto García Del Barrio, Jesús Pueyo, Gorka Bastarrika
Background Diffuse myocardial fibrosis can be quantified by calculating extra-cellular volume (ECV) from native and post-contrast T1 values using dedicated single bolus contrast medium injection protocols. Purpose To evaluate differences in T1 maps and myocardial ECV measurements in routine stress/rest perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations after injection of single and double dose of contrast medium. Material and Methods Thirty-seven consecutive patients (30 men; mean age, 62 ± 13 years) underwent clinically indicated adenosine stress/rest perfusion CMR examination to rule out myocardial ischemia following a conventional split-dose contrast medium injection strategy...
July 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736872/a-new-strategy-for-fast-mri-based-quantification-of-the-myelin-water-fraction-application-to-brain-imaging-in-infants
#19
Sofya Kulikova, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cyril Poupon, Jessica Dubois
The volume fraction of water related to myelin (fmy) is a promising MRI index for in vivo assessment of brain myelination, that can be derived from multi-component analysis of T1 and T2 relaxometry signals. However, existing quantification methods require rather long acquisition and/or post-processing times, making implementation difficult both in research studies on healthy unsedated children and in clinical examinations. The goal of this work was to propose a novel strategy for fmy quantification within acceptable acquisition and post-processing times...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689106/the-evaluation-of-relationship-between-blood-pressure-and-dialysate-na-concentration-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#20
Narges Sadat Zahed, Omid Gharooi, Latif Gachkar, Hajar Nikbakht
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is one of the traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extra cellular volume expansion and Na retention remain the main cause of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between concentration of Na dialysate and blood pressure (BP) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patient. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 266 adult patients undergoing HD for at least three months...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
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