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extra cellular volume

Sofya Kulikova, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cyril Poupon, Jessica Dubois
The volume fraction of water related to myelin (fmy) is a promising MRI index for in vivo assessment of brain myelination, that can be derived from multi-component analysis of T1 and T2 relaxometry signals. However, existing quantification methods require rather long acquisition and/or post-processing times, making implementation difficult both in research studies on healthy unsedated children and in clinical examinations. The goal of this work was to propose a novel strategy for fmy quantification within acceptable acquisition and post-processing times...
2016: PloS One
Narges Sadat Zahed, Omid Gharooi, Latif Gachkar, Hajar Nikbakht
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is one of the traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extra cellular volume expansion and Na retention remain the main cause of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between concentration of Na dialysate and blood pressure (BP) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patient. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 266 adult patients undergoing HD for at least three months...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
J Chris Pires, Gavin C Conant
The complex manner in which organisms respond to changes in their gene dosage has long fascinated geneticists. Oddly, although the existence of dominance implies that dosage reductions often have mild phenotypes, extra copies of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy) are generally strongly deleterious. Even more paradoxically, an extra copy of the genome is better tolerated than is aneuploidy. We review the resolution of this paradox, highlighting the roles of biochemistry, protein aggregation, and disruption of cellular microstructure in that explanation...
September 12, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
Jonathan Nadjiri, Hanna Nieberler, Eva Hendrich, Albrecht Will, Costanza Pellegrini, Oliver Husser, Christian Hengstenberg, Andreas Greiser, Stefan Martinoff, Martin Hadamitzky
The benefit of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can differ in patients, and therapy bears severe risks. High-degree aortic stenosis can lead to cardiac damage such as diffuse myocardial fibrosis, evaluable by extra-cellular volume (ECV) in CMR. Therefore, fibrosis might be a possible risk factor for unfavorable outcome after TAVR. We sought to assess the prognostic value of T1-mapping and ECV to predict adverse events during and after TAVR. The study population consisted of patients undergoing clinically indicated TAVR by performing additional CMR with native and contrast-enhanced T1-mapping sequences for additional evaluation of ECV...
November 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
A L McNamara, W W Y Kam, N Scales, S J McMahon, J W Bennett, H L Byrne, J Schuemann, H Paganetti, R Banati, Z Kuncic
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown potential as dose enhancers for radiation therapy. Since damage to the genome affects the viability of a cell, it is generally assumed that GNPs have to localise within the cell nucleus. In practice, however, GNPs tend to localise in the cytoplasm yet still appear to have a dose enhancing effect on the cell. Whether this effect can be attributed to stress-induced biological mechanisms or to physical damage to extra-nuclear cellular targets is still unclear. There is however growing evidence to suggest that the cellular response to radiation can also be influenced by indirect processes induced when the nucleus is not directly targeted by radiation...
August 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Keisuke Kiba, Akihide Hirayama, Motokiyo Yoshikawa, Yutaka Yamamoto, Kazumasa Torimoto, Kiyohide Fujimoto, Hirotsugu Uemura
A total of 29 men 60 years and older (mean age 74 years) who complained at least once about nocturnal voiding and were diagnosed with nocturnal polyuria in the frequency volume chart (FVC) were enrolled in this study. Body water was measured by bioelectric impedance analysis just after lying down at 4 pm and after raising legs 30 minutes later. Nocturnal urine production was measured by FVC, and urine production per unit of time at first nocturnal voiding (urine volume at first nocturnal voiding/hours of undisturbed sleep (HUS) : UFN/HUS), urine production per unit of time during sleep (total nocturnal urine volume/hours of sleep : TNV/HS), etc was evaluated...
May 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Fani Deligianni, David W Carmichael, Gary H Zhang, Chris A Clark, Jonathan D Clayden
In Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging (DWI), the signal is affected by the biophysical properties of neuronal cells and their relative placement, as well as extra-cellular tissue compartments. Typically, microstructural indices, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), are based on a tensor model that cannot disentangle the influence of these parameters. Recently, Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) has exploited multi-shell acquisition protocols to model the diffusion signal as the contribution of three tissue compartments...
2016: PloS One
Tracy N Clevenger, Cassidy R Hinman, Rebekah K Ashley Rubin, Kate Smither, Daniel J Burke, Craig J Hawker, Darin Messina, Dennis Van Epps, Dennis O Clegg
Soft tissue defects are relatively common, yet currently used reconstructive treatments have varying success rates, and serious potential complications such as unpredictable volume loss and reabsorption. Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), isolated from liposuction aspirate have great potential for use in soft tissue regeneration, especially when combined with a supportive scaffold. To design scaffolds that promote differentiation of these cells down an adipogenic lineage, we characterized changes in the surrounding extracellular environment during adipogenic differentiation...
April 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Maria Petracca, Roxana O Vancea, Lazar Fleysher, Laura E Jonkman, Niels Oesingmann, Matilde Inglese
Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes...
March 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Raj Raghav, Rachael Middleton, Rinshiya Ahamed BSc, Raji Arjunan, Valentina Caliendo
Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA)...
December 2015: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
(no author information available yet)
ON THE COVER Notch3 aggregation is one of the important hallmarks of CADASIL. Confocal microscopy image here shows Notch3 extra cellular domain aggregates (magenta) in the proximity of PDGFRβ-positive pericytes (red) on lectin-positive capillaries (green) in a 12-month-old transgenic CADASIL mouse brain section. For more information, see the article by Ghosh et al. (pages 887-900).
December 2015: Annals of Neurology
Benjamin L Schwartz, Rosalind J Sadleir
The recently increasing role in medical imaging that electrophysiology plays has spurned the need for its quantitative analysis at all scales-ions, cells, tissues, organs, etc.; so, here is presented a model of nerve tissue in a spherical volume excited by a point current source at one pole and a point current sink at the opposite pole. The sphere of tissue is described as an isotropic bidomain, consisting of the intra- and extra-cellular regions and the membrane that separates them, and is immersed in an infinite isotropic conductive bath...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Manoj Kumar Narasimhan, Muthukumaran Chandrasekaran, Mathur Rajesh
The discovery of plasmin-like microbial fibrinolytic enzymes having high specificity and negligible side effects is crucial for thrombolytic therapy. Herein, we report one such extra-cellular fibrinolytic enzyme producing Bacillus cereus SRM-001 isolated from the blood-laden soil of a chicken dump yard. The potency of the enzyme was established with fibrin plate assay and in-vitro blood clot lysis assay. The shake-flask operating parameters and media composition were optimized for maximizing the productivity of the enzyme...
2015: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Adam K McDiarmid, David A Broadbent, David M Higgins, Peter P Swoboda, Ananth Kidambi, David P Ripley, Bara Erhayiem, Tarique A Musa, Laura E Dobson, John P Greenwood, Sven Plein
BACKGROUND: Diffuse myocardial fibrosis may be quantified with magnetic resonance (MR) by calculating extracellular volume (ECV) fraction from native and post-contrast T1 values. The ideal modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for deriving T1 values has not been determined. This study aims to establish if systematic differences exist between suggested MOLLI schemes. METHODS: Twelve phantom gels were studied with inversion recovery spin echo MR at 3...
August 2015: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Jung Eun Lee, In Young Jo, Song Mi Lee, Woo Jeong Kim, Hoon Young Choi, Sung Kyu Ha, Hyung Jong Kim, Hyeong Cheon Park
BACKGROUND: The number of elderly people on dialysis is increasing rapidly. Fluid overload and malnutrition status are serious problems in elderly dialysis patients. We aimed to compare the hydration and nutritional status through bioimpedance analysis (BIA) between young and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients and to analyze risk factors related to fluid overload and malnutrition status in these patients. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which 82 HD (males 42, mean age 58...
2015: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Pedro Ventura Aguiar, Olívia Santos, Laetitia Teixeira, Fernanda Silva, Pedro Azevedo, Joana Vidinha, Francisco Ferrer, Maria João Carvalho, António Cabrita, Anabela Rodrigues
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypervolemia is a major concern in dialysis patients, and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and death. Cross sectional analysis have previously demonstrated that peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are not more overhydrated when compared to haemodialysiś ones. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal trends in hydration status and corporal composition in a PD population. METHODS: We conducted a 2 year prospective observational study of 58 PD patients from a single centre...
2015: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Ziyi Guo, Qiang Zhang, Xiaoguang Li, Zhengyu Jing
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) as a potential valuable marker to monitor the therapy responses of VX2 to radiofrequency ablation (RF Ablation). METHODS: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. In 10 VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits, IVIM-DWI examinations were performed with a 3.0T imaging unit by using 16 b values from 0 to 800 sec/mm2. The true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*) and perfusion fraction (f) of tumors were compared between before and instantly after RF Ablation treatment...
2015: PloS One
Yones Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Nasim Moazzez-Lalaklo, Nosratollah Zarghami
Mimicking morphological similarities of the natural extra cellular matrix (ECM), described by ultrafine continuous fibers, high surface to volume ratio, and high porosity is valuable for effective regeneration of injured skin tissue. Electrospun nanofibers, being one of the most favorable and fast developing products of technology today, display a tremendous potential in wound healing and skin tissue engineering. Under the remarkable attention being given to electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in promoting wound healing and skin regeneration, this review focuses on the potential of the electrospinning technique as a promising tool for constructing polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds with the favorable physicochemical properties needed for skin bioengineering...
September 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Xiaowen Xu, Peijun Wang, Liang Ma, Zhihong Shao, Min Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in identifying benign and malignant renal masses and differentiating the histological types of renal masses. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers and 46 patients with renal masses proven by pathology, including clear cell carcinomas (n = 18), papillary carcinomas (n = 8), chromophobe carcinomas (n = 7) and angiomyolipomas (n = 13), were examined with DWI and PWI scan at 3...
January 20, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Juha P Ahtiainen, Simon Walker, Mika Silvennoinen, Heikki Kyröläinen, Bradley C Nindl, Keijo Häkkinen, Kai Nyman, Harri Selänne, Juha J Hulmi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare activation of cellular signaling pathways regulating protein synthesis and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle between resistance and endurance exercise. Moreover, the effect of resistance exercise volume was examined. METHODS: Three groups of male volunteers (26 ± 3 years) were examined: 5 × 10 repetition maximum (RM) resistance exercise (RE) with leg press device (5 × 10 RE; n = 8), 10 × 10 RE (n = 11), and endurance exercise (strenuous 50-min walking with extra load on a treadmill; EE; n = 8)...
September 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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