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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108497/cortical-thickness-and-local-gyrification-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#1
Victoria J Williams, Jenifer Juranek, Paul Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
Developmental dyslexia is frequently associated with atypical brain structure and function within regions of the left hemisphere reading network. To date, few studies have employed surface-based techniques to evaluate cortical thickness and local gyrification in dyslexia. Of the existing cortical thickness studies in children, many are limited by small sample size, variability in dyslexia identification, and the recruitment of prereaders who may or may not develop reading impairment. Further, no known study has assessed local gyrification index (LGI) in dyslexia, which may serve as a sensitive indicator of atypical neurodevelopment...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108496/connectivity-of-the-cingulate-sulcus-visual-area-csv-in-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#2
Andrew T Smith, Anton L Beer, Michele Furlan, Rogier B Mars
The human cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) responds selectively to visual and vestibular cues to self-motion. Although it is more selective for visual self-motion cues than any other brain region studied, it is not known whether CSv mediates perception of self-motion. An alternative hypothesis, based on its location, is that it provides sensory information to the motor system for use in guiding locomotion. To evaluate this hypothesis we studied the connectivity pattern of CSv, which is completely unknown, with a combination of diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108347/combined-recession-and-resection-surgery-in-the-management-of-convergence-excess-esotropia-with-different-levels-of-ac-a-ratio
#3
Deniz Somer, Fatma Gul Cinar, Baris Oral, Firdevs Ornek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108346/medial-rectus-pulley-posterior-fixation-for-esotropia-with-a-high-ac-a-ratio
#4
Tiana Y Clark, Robert A Clark
Many different surgical approaches have been advocated for the treatment of esotropia with a high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation, most involving increasing the magnitude of medial rectus recessions over than the amount recommended for the distance esotropia to either partially or fully correct the larger near esotropia. Maximal medial rectus recessions are relatively successful in correcting the excess near esotropia without overcorrecting the distance esotropia, but the expected loss of excess convergence over time raises the possibility of late overcorrections...
January 17, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108294/the-dimensional-reduction-method-for-identification-of-parameters-that-trade-off-due-to-similar-model-roles
#5
Shaun M Davidson, Paul D Docherty, Rua Murray
Parameter identification is an important and widely used process across the field of biomedical engineering. However, it is susceptible to a number of potential difficulties, such as parameter trade-off, causing premature convergence at non-optimal parameter values. The proposed Dimensional Reduction Method (DRM) addresses this issue by iteratively reducing the dimension of hyperplanes where trade off occurs, and running subsequent identification processes within these hyperplanes. The DRM was validated using clinical data to optimize 4 parameters of the widely used Bergman Minimal Model of glucose and insulin kinetics, as well as in-silico data to optimize 5 parameters of the Pulmonary Recruitment (PR) Model...
January 17, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108181/convergent-repression-of-mir156-by-sugar-and-the-cdk8-module-of-arabidopsis-mediator
#6
Manuel Buendía-Monreal, C Stewart Gillmor
In Arabidopsis, leaves produced during the juvenile vegetative phase are simple, while adult leaves are morphologically complex. The juvenile to adult transition is regulated by miR156, a microRNA that promotes juvenility by impeding the function of SPL transcription factors, which specify adult leaf traits. Both leaf derived sugars, as well as the Mediator Cyclin Dependent Kinase 8 (CDK8) module genes CENTER CITY (CCT)/MED12 and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT)/MED13, act upstream of miR156 to promote the juvenile to adult transition...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108151/a-functional-genetic-screen-identifies-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-pathway-as-a-determinant-of-resistance-to-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitors-in-fgfr-mutant-urothelial-cell-carcinoma
#7
Liqin Wang, Tonći Šuštić, Rodrigo Leite de Oliveira, Cor Lieftink, Pasi Halonen, Marieke van de Ven, Roderick L Beijersbergen, Michel M van den Heuvel, René Bernards, Michiel S van der Heijden
Activating mutations and translocations of the FGFR3 gene are commonly seen in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder and urinary tract. Several fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors are currently in clinical development and response rates appear promising for advanced UCC. A common problem with targeted therapeutics is intrinsic or acquired resistance of the cancer cells. To find potential drug targets that can act synergistically with FGFR inhibition, we performed a synthetic lethality screen for the FGFR inhibitor AZD4547 using a short hairpin RNA library targeting the human kinome in the UCC cell line RT112 (FGFR3-TACC3 translocation)...
January 17, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107886/measuring-family-functioning-in-families-with-parental-cancer-reliability-and-validity-of-the-german-adaptation-of-the-family-assessment-device-fad
#8
Volker Beierlein, Johanna Christine Bultmann, Birgit Möller, Kai von Klitzing, Hans-Henning Flechtner, Franz Resch, Wolfgang Herzog, Elmar Brähler, Daniel Führer, Georg Romer, Uwe Koch, Corinna Bergelt
OBJECTIVE: The concept of family functioning is gaining importance in psycho-oncology research and health care services. The Family Assessment Device (FAD) is a well-established measure of family functioning. Psychometric properties inherent in the German 51-item adaptation of the FAD are examined in different samples of families with parental cancer. METHODS: Acceptance, reliability, and validity of FAD scales are analysed in samples from different study settings (N=1701 cancer patients, N=261 partners, N=158 dependent adolescent children 11 to 18years old)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107516/liver-amp-activated-protein-kinase-is-unnecessary-for-gluconeogenesis-but-protects-energy-state-during-nutrient-deprivation
#9
Clinton M Hasenour, D Emerson Ridley, Freyja D James, Curtis C Hughey, E Patrick Donahue, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Jamey D Young, David H Wasserman
AMPK is an energy sensor that protects cellular energy state by attenuating anabolic and promoting catabolic processes. AMPK signaling is purported to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and substrate oxidation; coordination of these processes is vital during nutrient deprivation or pathogenic during overnutrition. Here we directly test hepatic AMPK function in regulating metabolic fluxes that converge to produce glucose and energy in vivo. Flux analysis was applied in mice with a liver-specific deletion of AMPK (L-KO) or floxed control littermates to assess rates of hepatic glucose producing and citric acid cycle (CAC) fluxes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107515/regulatory-mechanisms-underlying-the-expression-of-prolactin-receptor-in-chicken-granulosa-cells
#10
Shenqiang Hu, Raj Duggavathi, David Zadworny
Prolactin (PRL) has both pro- and anti-gonadal roles in the regulation of avian ovarian functions through its interaction with the receptor (PRLR). However, neither the pattern of expression of PRLR nor its regulatory mechanisms during follicle development have been clearly defined. The objective of the present study was to investigate mechanisms of PRLR expression in chicken granulosa cells. Levels of PRLR transcript were highest in the stroma and walls of follicles < 2 mm in diameter and progressively declined with the maturation of follicles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107000/benchmark-of-bethe-salpeter-for-triplet-excited-states
#11
Denis Jacquemin, Ivan Duchemin, Aymeric Blondel, Xavier Blase
We have evaluated the accuracy of the Bethe-Salpeter singlet-triplet transition energies as well as singlet-triplet and triplet-triplet splittings for twenty organic molecules, using as reference the CC3 values determined by Thiel and coworkers with both the TZVP and aug-cc-pVTZ atomic basis sets. Our excitation energies are obtained on the basis of GW quasiparticle energy levels that are self-consistently converged with respect to the starting DFT eigenvalues. In its current form, BSE/GW is often unable to provide a balanced description of both singlet and triplet excited-states...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106849/a-reinforcement-learning-model-equipped-with-sensors-for-generating-perception-patterns-implementation-of-a-simulated-air-navigation-system-using-ads-b-automatic-dependent-surveillance-broadcast-technology
#12
Santiago Álvarez de Toledo, Aurea Anguera, José M Barreiro, Juan A Lara, David Lizcano
Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106445/quantum-mutual-information-as-a-probe-for-many-body-localization
#13
Giuseppe De Tomasi, Soumya Bera, Jens H Bardarson, Frank Pollmann
We demonstrate that the quantum mutual information (QMI) is a useful probe to study many-body localization (MBL). First, we focus on the detection of a metal-insulator transition for two different models, the noninteracting Aubry-André-Harper model and the spinless fermionic disordered Hubbard chain. We find that the QMI in the localized phase decays exponentially with the distance between the regions traced out, allowing us to define a correlation length, which converges to the localization length in the case of one particle...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106218/expeditious-assembly-of-fused-dihydropyranones-via-n-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed-tandem-michael-addition-lactonization
#14
Qiao Ren, Muyao Li, Lujiang Yuan
A convergent and efficient NHC-catalyzed enantioselective tandem Michael addition/lactonization sequence of ynals with 1,2-dione as the dual-nucleophile is disclosed. This straightforward strategy expeditiously assembles the synthetically and pharmaceutically valuable optically active fused dihydropyranones in good to high yields (70-88%) and with excellent enantioselectivities (92-99% ee).
January 20, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105710/experiences-of-parents-of-children-with-special-needs-at-school-entry-a-mixed-method-approach
#15
A Siddiqua, M Janus
BACKGROUND: The transition from pre-school to kindergarten can be complex for children who need special assistance due to mental or physical disabilities (children with 'special needs'). We used a convergent mixed method approach to explore parents' experiences with service provision as their children transitioned to school. METHODS: Parents (including one grandparent) of 37 children aged 4 to 6 years completed measures assessing their perceptions of and satisfaction with services...
January 20, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105289/development-of-4-heteroarylamino-1-azaspiro-oxazole-5-3-bicyclo-2-2-2-octanes-as-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonists
#16
Matthew D Hill, Haiquan Fang, H Dalton King, Christiana I Iwuagwu, Ivar M McDonald, James Cook, F Christopher Zusi, Robert A Mate, Ronald J Knox, Debra Post-Munson, Amy Easton, Regina Miller, Kimberley Lentz, Wendy Clarke, Yulia Benitex, Nicholas Lodge, Robert Zaczek, Rex Denton, Daniel Morgan, Linda Bristow, John E Macor, Richard Olson
We describe the synthesis of quinuclidine-containing spiroimidates and their utility as α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists. A convergent synthetic route allowed for rapid SAR investigation and provided a diverse set of fused 6,5-heteroaryl analogs. Two potent and selective α7 nAChR partial agonists, (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-bromopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octan]-2-amine (20) and (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-chloropyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104946/mobious-syndrome-mr-findings
#17
Maskal Revanna Srinivas, Dhulappa Mudabasappagol Vaishali, Kadaba Shamachar Vedaraju, Bangalore Rangaswamy Nagaraj
Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder. We report a case of Möbius syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with bilateral convergent squint and left-sided facial weakness. The characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Möbius syndrome, which include absent bilateral abducens nerves and absent left facial nerve, were noted. In addition, there was absence of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and absence of bilateral facial colliculi. Clinical features, etiology, and imaging findings are discussed...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104587/pkc%C3%AE-expanding-role-in-hepatic-adaptation-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-to-dietary-fat-cholesterol
#18
Devina Mehta, Kamal D Mehta
Cholesterol homeostasis relies on an intricate network of cellular processes whose deregulation in response to Western type high-fat/cholesterol diets can lead to several life-threatening pathologies. Significant advances have been made in resolving the molecular identity and regulatory function of transcription factors sensitive to fat, cholesterol, or bile acids, but whether body senses the presence of both fat and cholesterol simultaneously is not known. Assessing the impact of a high-fat/cholesterol load, rather than an individual component alone, on cholesterol homeostasis is more physiologically relevant because Western diets deliver both fat and cholesterol at the same time...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104002/-ten-day-periodical-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-its-concept-of-confluence-of-chinese-and-western-medicine
#19
S B Zhang, Z W Wang
The Ten-day Periodical of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a TCM Journal founded by the Xiamen Professional School of Traditional Chinese Medicine in July 1934, had published a lot of essays written by many TCM physicians that interpret the concept of traditional Chinese medicine by western medicine, offering the academic way of probing confluence of Chinese and Western Medicine in Xiamen. The aim of the Journal includes "developing TCM academy" and the "confluence of TCM with western medicine" , the exploration of TCM and the penetration of Chinese and western medicine, and getting rid of blind faith on "science" to set up the belief of TCM and to prove the ideas of visceral theory and its gasification by the anatomical knowledge of western medicine...
September 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103872/the-use-of-the-eq-5d-y-health-related-quality-of-life-outcome-measure-in-children-in-the-western-cape-south-africa-psychometric-properties-feasibility-and-usefulness-a-longitudinal-analytical-study
#20
Des Scott, Gillian D Ferguson, Jennifer Jelsma
BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D-Y, an outcome measure of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children, was developed by an international task team in 2010. The multinational feasibility, reliability and validity study which followed was undertaken with mainly healthy children. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-Y when used to assess the HRQoL of children with different health states. METHOD: A sample of 224 children between eight and twelve years were grouped according to their health state...
January 19, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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