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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913990/sirukumab-a-potential-treatment-for-mood-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Aileen J Zhou, Yena Lee, Giacomo Salvadore, Benjamin Hsu, Trehani M Fonseka, Sidney H Kennedy, Roger S McIntyre
Convergent evidence indicates that abnormalities in the innate immune system may be pertinent to the pathogenesis, phenomenology, and possible treatment of several mental disorders. In keeping with this view, the targeting of interleukin-6 with the human monoclonal antibody sirukumab may represent a possible treatment and disease modification approach, for adults with brain-based disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder). A PubMed/Medline database search was performed using the following search terms: sirukumab; anti-IL-6; IL-6; major depressive disorder; inflammation...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913706/stat1-promotes-kras-colon-tumor-growth-and-susceptibility-to-pharmacological-inhibition-of-translation-initiation-factor-eif4a
#2
Shuo Wang, Cedric Darini, Laurent Désaubry, Antonis E Koromilas
The transcription factor STAT1 displays antitumor functions for certain forms of cancer via immunoregulatory and cell-autonomous pathways. Paradoxically, STAT1 can promote the survival of different tumor types treated with chemotherapeutic drugs through mechanisms that are not clearly defined. Herein, we demonstrate that STAT1 displays prosurvival effects in human KRAS colon tumor cells by regulating pathways that converge on the initiation of mRNA translation. Specifically, STAT1 increases PI3K class IB signaling and promotes the downregulation of the programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), a protein with tumor-suppressive properties...
December 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913600/the-evolution-of-jaw-protrusion-mechanics-has-been-tightly-coupled-to-bentho-pelagic-divergence-in-damselfishes-pomacentridae
#3
W James Cooper, Casey B Carter, Andrew J Conith, Aaron N Rice, Mark W Westneat
Most species-rich lineages of aquatic organisms have undergone divergence between forms that feed from the substrate (benthic feeding) and forms that feed from the water column (pelagic feeding). Changes in trophic niche are frequently accompanied by changes in skull mechanics, and multiple fish lineages have evolved highly specialized biomechanical configurations that allow them to protrude their upper jaws toward the prey during feeding. Damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) are an example of a species-rich lineage with multiple trophic morphologies and feeding ecologies...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913586/local-circuits-of-v1-layer-4b-neurons-projecting-to-v2-thick-stripes-define-distinct-cell-classes-and-avoid-cytochrome-oxidase-blobs
#4
Jeff Yarch, Frederick Federer, Alessandra Angelucci
: Decades of anatomical studies on the primate primary visual cortex (V1) have led to a detailed diagram of V1 intrinsic circuitry, but this diagram lacks information about the output targets of V1 cells. Understanding how V1 local processing relates to downstream processing requires identification of neuronal populations defined by their output targets. In primates, V1 layers (L)2/3 and 4B send segregated projections to distinct cytochrome oxidase (CO) stripes in area V2: neurons in CO blob-columns project to thin stripes, and those outside blob columns to thick and pale stripes, suggesting functional specialization of V1-to-V2 CO streams...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913557/translation-and-validation-of-the-cancer-related-fatigue-scale-in-greek-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-advanced-prostate-cancer
#5
Andreas Charalambous, Charis Kaite, Marianna Constantinou, Christiana Kouta
OBJECTIVE: To translate and validate the Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF) Scale in the Greek language. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used in order to translate and validate the CRF Scale in Greek. Factor analyses were performed to understand the psychometric properties of the scale and to establish construct, criterion and convergent validity. SETTING: Outpatients' oncology clinics of two public hospitals in Cyprus. PARTICIPANTS: 148 patients with advanced prostate cancer undergoing chemotherapy...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913419/benzene-degradation-by-variovorax-sp-within-a-coal-tar-contaminated-groundwater-microbial-community
#6
Kevin M Posman, Christopher M DeRito, Eugene L Madsen
: Investigations of environmental microbial communities are crucial for the discovery of populations capable of degrading hazardous compounds and may lead to improved bioremediation strategies. The goal of this study was to identify microorganisms responsible for aerobic benzene degradation in coal-tar contaminated groundwater. Benzene degradation was monitored in laboratory incubations of well waters using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments using (13)C-benzene allowed us to obtain (13)C-labled community DNA; from this, 16S rRNA clone libraries identified γ- and β-Proteobacteria as the active benzene metabolizing microbial populations...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913369/adaptive-optimal-control-using-frequency-selective-information-of-the-system-uncertainty-with-application-to-unmanned-aircraft
#7
Arnab Maity, Leonhard Hocht, Christian Heise, Florian Holzapfel
A new efficient adaptive optimal control approach is presented in this paper based on the indirect model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture for improvement of adaptation and tracking performance of the uncertain system. The system accounts here for both matched and unmatched unknown uncertainties that can act as plant as well as input effectiveness failures or damages. For adaptation of the unknown parameters of these uncertainties, the frequency selective learning approach is used. Its idea is to compute a filtered expression of the system uncertainty using multiple filters based on online instantaneous information, which is used for augmentation of the update law...
November 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913368/content-driven-associative-memories-for-color-image-patterns
#8
Mingming Li, Shuzhi Sam Ge, Tong Heng Lee
This paper presents a novel content-driven associative memory (CDAM) to associate large-scale color images based on the subjects that represent the images' content. Compared to traditional associative memories, CDAM inherits their tolerance to random noise in images and possesses greater robustness against correlated noise that distorts an image's spatial contextual structure. A three-layer recurrent neural tensor network (RNTN) is designed as the network model of CDAM. Multiple salient objects detection algorithm and partial radial basis function (PRBF) kernel are proposed for subject determination and content-driven association, respectively...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913361/constrained-null-space-component-analysis-for-semiblind-source-separation-problem
#9
Wen-Liang Hwang, Keng-Shih Lu, Jinn Ho
The blind source separation (BSS) problem extracts unknown sources from observations of their unknown mixtures. A current trend in BSS is the semiblind approach, which incorporates prior information on sources or how the sources are mixed. The constrained independent component analysis (ICA) approach has been studied to impose constraints on the famous ICA framework. We introduced an alternative approach based on the null space component (NCA) framework and referred to the approach as the c-NCA approach. We also presented the c-NCA algorithm that uses signal-dependent semidefinite operators, which is a bilinear mapping, as signatures for operator design in the c-NCA approach...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913347/tree-structure-sparsity-pattern-guided-convex-optimization-for-compressive-sensing-of-large-scale-images
#10
Wei-Jie Liang, Gang-Xuan Lin, Chun-Shien Lu
Cost-efficient compressive sensing of large-scale images with quickly reconstructed high-quality results is very challenging. In this paper, we present an algorithm to solve convex optimization via the tree structure sparsity pattern, which can be run in the operator to reduce computation cost and maintain good quality, especially for large-scale images. We also provide convergence analysis and convergence rate analysis for the proposed method. The feasibility of our method is verified through simulations and comparison with state-of-theart algorithms...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913329/2-d-ultrasound-sparse-arrays-multidepth-radiation-optimization-using-simulated-annealing-and-spiral-array-inspired-energy-functions
#11
Emmanuel Roux, Alessandro Ramalli, Piero Tortoli, Christian Cachard, Marc C Robini, Herve Liebgott
Full matrix arrays are excellent tools for 3-D ultrasound imaging, but the required number of active elements is too high to be individually controlled by an equal number of scanner channels. The number of active elements is significantly reduced by the sparse array techniques, but the position of the remaining elements must be carefully optimized. This issue is faced here by introducing novel energy functions in the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. At each iteration step of the optimization process, one element is freely translated and the associated radiated pattern is simulated...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913283/i-love-it-when-a-plan-comes-together-insight-gained-through-convergence-of-competing-mathematical-models
#12
EDITORIAL
Jingqi Q X Gong, Jaehee V Shim, Elisa Núñez-Acosta, Eric A Sobie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913159/assessing-functional-performance-using-computer-based-simulations-of-everyday-activities
#13
Sara J Czaja, David A Loewenstein, Chin Chin Lee, Shih Hua Fu, Philip D Harvey
Current functional capacity (FC) measures for patients with schizophrenia typically involve informant assessments or are in paper and pencil format, requiring in-person administration by a skilled assessor. This approach presents logistic problems and limits the possibilities for remote assessment, an important issue for these patients. This study evaluated the feasibility of using a computer-based assessment battery, including simulations of everyday activities. The battery was compared to in-person standard assessments of cognition and FC with respect to baseline convergence and sensitivity to group differences...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911820/map4-regulated-dynein-dependent-trafficking-of-btn3a1-controls-the-tbk1-irf3-signaling-axis
#14
Minji Seo, Seong-Ok Lee, Ji-Hoon Kim, Yujin Hong, Seongchan Kim, Yeumin Kim, Dal-Hee Min, Young-Yun Kong, Jinwook Shin, Kwangseog Ahn
The innate immune system detects viral nucleic acids and induces type I interferon (IFN) responses. The RNA- and DNA-sensing pathways converge on the protein kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and the transcription factor IFN-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Activation of the IFN signaling pathway is known to trigger the redistribution of key signaling molecules to punctate perinuclear structures, but the mediators of this spatiotemporal regulation have yet to be defined. Here we identify butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) as a positive regulator of nucleic acid-mediated type I IFN signaling...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911743/synaptic-actin-dysregulation-a-convergent-mechanism-of-mental-disorders
#15
Zhen Yan, Eunjoon Kim, Dibyadeep Datta, David A Lewis, Scott H Soderling
Actin polymerization governs activity-dependent modulation of excitatory synapses, including their morphology and functionality. It is clear from human genetics that neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disturbances are multigenetic in nature, highlighting the need to better understand the critical neural pathways associated with these disorders and how they are altered by genetic risk alleles. One such signaling pathway that is heavily implicated by candidate genes for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders are regulators of signaling to the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that its disruption and the ensuring abnormalities of spine structures and postsynaptic complexes is a commonly affected pathway in brain disorders...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911727/role-of-the-bone-morphogenic-protein-pathway-in-developmental-haemopoiesis-and-leukaemogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Parto Toofan, Helen Wheadon
Myeloid leukaemias share the common characteristics of being stem cell-derived clonal diseases, characterised by excessive proliferation of one or more myeloid lineage. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) arises from a genetic alteration in a normal haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) giving rise to a leukaemic stem cell (LSC) within the bone marrow (BM) 'niche'. CML is characterised by the presence of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase fusion protein breakpoint cluster region-abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (BCR-ABL), which is responsible for driving the disease through activation of downstream signal transduction pathways...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911490/what-does-it-take-to-learn-a-word
#17
REVIEW
Larissa K Samuelson, Bob McMurray
Vocabulary learning is deceptively hard, but toddlers often make it look easy. Prior theories proposed that children's rapid acquisition of words is based on language-specific knowledge and constraints. In contrast, more recent work converges on the view that word learning proceeds via domain-general processes that are tuned to richly structured-not impoverished-input. We argue that new theoretical insights, coupled with methodological tools, have pushed the field toward an appreciation of simple, content-free processes working together as a system to support the acquisition of words...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#18
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911343/pink1-parkin-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-what-can-we-learn-about-parkinson-s-disease-pathobiology
#19
Dominika Truban, Xu Hou, Thomas R Caulfield, Fabienne C Fiesel, Wolfdieter Springer
The first clinical description of Parkinson's disease (PD) will embrace its two century anniversary in 2017. For the past 30 years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been hypothesized to play a central role in the pathobiology of this devastating neurodegenerative disease. The identifications of mutations in genes encoding PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) and Parkin (E3 ubiquitin ligase) in familial PD and their functional association with mitochondrial quality control provided further support to this hypothesis. Recent research focused mainly on their key involvement in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, a process known as mitophagy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911296/screening-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-with-automated-anonymous-online-and-telephone-cognitive-self-tests
#20
Lisa D Van Mierlo, Hans Wouters, Sietske A M Sikkes, Wiesje M Van der Flier, Niels D Prins, Jonne A E Bremer, Teddy Koene, Hein P J Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Many older people worry about cognitive decline. Early cognitive screening in an anonymous and easily accessible manner may reassure older people who are unnecessarily worried about normal cognitive aging while it may also expedite help seeking in case of suspicious cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate online and telephone-based automated self-tests of cognitive function. METHODS: We examined the feasibility and validity of the self-tests in a prospective study of 117 participants of whom 34 had subjective cognitive decline (SCD), 30 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 53 had dementia...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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