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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340250/improving-safety-culture-in-hospitals-facilitators-and-barriers-to-implementation-of-systemic-falls-investigative-method-sfim
#1
Aleksandra A Zecevic, Alvin Ho-Ting Li, Charity Ngo, Michelle Halligan, Anita Kothari
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitators and barriers to implementation of the Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM) on selected hospital units. Design: A cross-sectional explanatory mixed methods design was used to converge results from a standardized safety culture survey with themes that emerged from interviews and focus groups. Findings were organized by six elements of the Ottawa Model of Research Use framework. Setting: A geriatric rehabilitation unit of an acute care hospital and a neurological unit of a rehabilitation hospital were selected purposefully due to the high frequency of falls...
March 17, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339603/optimization-of-stem-imaging-conditions-for-cryo-tomography
#2
Kazuhiro Aoyama, Kotaro Nagano, Kaoru Mitsuoka
For three-dimensional analysis of cryo-specimens using tomography at low and medium magnifications, the use of STEM images has some important advantages over TEM. A clear understanding of the electron dose in STEM is essential for optimized cryo-microscopy so a dose estimation technique for STEM imaging has been developed. The STEM convergence angle was shown to have a large impact on the image quality, in particular on the signal-to-noise ratio in the acquired images. Importantly, there is a clear trade-off between good STEM spatial resolution in the images with a large convergence angle and the signal-to-noise ratio, which is improved by reducing the convergence angle as much as possible...
February 9, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339423/spherically-symmetric-volume-elements-as-basis-functions-for-image-reconstructions-in-computed-laminography
#3
Patrick Trampert, Jonas Vogelgesang, Christian Schorr, Michael Maisl, Sviatoslav Bogachev, Nico Marniok, Alfred Louis, Tim Dahmen, Philipp Slusallek
BACKGROUND: Laminography is a tomographic technique that allows three-dimensional imaging of flat and elongated objects that stretch beyond the extent of a reconstruction volume. Laminography images can be reconstructed using iterative algorithms based on the Kaczmarz method. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop and demonstrate a new reconstruction algorithm that may provide superior image reconstruction quality for this challenged imaging application. METHODS: The images are initially represented using the coefficients over basis functions, which are typically piecewise constant functions (voxels)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339280/size-resolved-photoelectron-anisotropy-of-gas-phase-water-clusters-and-predictions-for-liquid-water
#4
Sebastian Hartweg, Bruce L Yoder, Gustavo A Garcia, Laurent Nahon, Ruth Signorell
We report the first measurements of size-resolved photoelectron angular distributions for the valence orbitals of neutral water clusters with up to 20 molecules. A systematic decrease of the photoelectron anisotropy is found for clusters with up to 5-6 molecules, and most remarkably, convergence of the anisotropy for larger clusters. We suggest the latter to be the result of a local short-range scattering potential that is fully described by a unit of 5-6 molecules. The cluster data and a detailed electron scattering model are used to predict the anisotropy of slow photoelectrons in liquid water...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338816/conserved-patterns-of-sex-chromosome-dosage-compensation-in-the-lepidoptera-wz-zz-insights-from-a-moth-neo-z-chromosome
#5
Liuqi Gu, James R Walters, Douglas C Knipple
Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared to autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, i.e. Z ≈ ZZ < AA. This pattern is not easily reconciled with theoretical expectations for the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation...
March 2, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338472/robust-cardiac-motion-estimation-using-ultrafast-ultrasound-data-a-low-rank-topology-preserving-approach
#6
Angelica I Aviles, Thomas Widlak, Alicia Casals, Maartje Nillesen, Habib Ammari
Cardiac motion estimation is an important diagnostic tool to detect heart diseases and it has been explored with modalities such as MRI and conventional ultrasound (US) sequences. US cardiac motion estimation still presents challenges because of the complex motion patterns and the presence of noise. In this work, we propose a novel approach to estimate the cardiac motion using ultrafast ultrasound data. -- Our solution is based on a variational formulation characterized by the L2-regularized class. The displacement is represented by a lattice of b-splines and we ensure robustness by applying a maximum likelihood type estimator...
March 24, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338250/diversity-in-warning-coloration-is-easily-recognised-by-avian-predators
#7
Lina María Arenas, Martin Stevens
Warning coloration is a widespread strategy to alert predators about prey unprofitability. The success of this strategy partly depends on predators being able to learn and recognise certain signals as indicators of toxicity, and theory predicts that this is easier if signals converge on similar colours. However, the diversity in warning signal form is astonishing, contradicting predictions. Here, we quantified ladybird signal diversity with respect to avian vision, measuring how unique and discernable each signal is from one another...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338183/psychogenic-convergence-spasm-mimicking-ocular-myasthenia
#8
C Scoppetta, G Di Gennaro
A 14-year-old girl presented with a two-years history of fluctuating convergent strabismus, diplopia, and reading difficulty. She has been previously diagnosed by experienced neurologists as having ocular myasthenia and she had been treated for two years with anticholinesterase inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. After a thorough medical interview and neurological examination, a diagnosis of psychogenic convergence spasm was made. The patient was then reassured and the symptoms immediately disappeared. She also had psychotherapy and maintained a condition of sustained freedom from symptoms...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337974/theory-of-electrical-conductivity-and-dielectric-permittivity-of-highly-aligned-graphene-based-nanocomposites
#9
Xiaodong Xia, Jia Hao, Yang Wang, Zheng Zhong, George J Weng
Highly aligned graphene-based nanocomposites are of great interest due to their excellent electrical properties along the aligned direction. Graphene fillers in these composites are not necessarily perfectly aligned, but their orientations are highly confined to a certain angle, with 90-degree giving rise to the randomly oriented state and 0-degree to the perfectly aligned one. Recent experiments have shown that electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of highly aligned graphene-polymer nanocomposites are strongly dependent on this distribution angle, but at present no theory seems to exist to address this issue...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337924/making-sense-of-the-public-stigma-of-suicide
#10
Patrick W Corrigan, Lindsay Sheehan, Maya A Al-Khouja
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that stigma is a barrier to care for individuals who have attempted suicide. While extensive work has examined the stigma of mental illness, less research has focused on the public stigma of suicide. Existing measures of suicide stigma have lacked a conceptual foundation or have failed to include the perspectives of suicide stakeholders. AIMS: This research draws on previous qualitative research with suicide stakeholders to create a measure of public suicide stigma...
March 24, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337677/strain-induced-electronic-band-convergence-effect-on-the-seebeck-coefficient-of-mg2si-for-thermoelectric-applications
#11
H Balout, P Boulet, M-C Record
The present theoretical study, performed using density-functional theory and Boltzmann transport theory formalisms, shows that under 2.246 % isotropic tensile strain, the two energy-lowest conduction bands of Mg2Si overlap. The two, threefold-degenerated orbitals become a unique, sixfold-degenerated orbital. It is demonstrated that such degeneracy implies an increase of the Seebeck coefficient, of the electrical conductivity, of the power factor, and in fine of the figure of merit.
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337338/synthesis-of-malhamensilipin-a-exploiting-iterative-epoxidation-chlorination-experimental-and-computational-analysis-of-epoxide-derived-chloronium-ions
#12
J Saska, W Lewis, R S Paton, R M Denton
We report a 12-step catalytic enantioselective formal synthesis of malhamensilipin A (3) and diastereoisomeric analogues from (E)-2-undecenal. The convergent synthesis relied upon iterative epoxidation and phosphorus(v)-mediated deoxydichlorination reactions as well a titanium-mediated epoxide-opening to construct the C11-C16 stereohexad. The latter transformation occurred with very high levels of stereoretention regardless of the C13 configuration of the parent epoxide, implicating anchimeric assistance of either the γ- or δ-chlorine atoms, and the formation of chloretanium or chlorolanium ions, respectively...
December 11, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337068/statistical-analysis-of-latent-generalized-correlation-matrix-estimation-in-transelliptical-distribution
#13
Fang Han, Han Liu
Correlation matrix plays a key role in many multivariate methods (e.g., graphical model estimation and factor analysis). The current state-of-the-art in estimating large correlation matrices focuses on the use of Pearson's sample correlation matrix. Although Pearson's sample correlation matrix enjoys various good properties under Gaussian models, its not an effective estimator when facing heavy-tail distributions with possible outliers. As a robust alternative, Han and Liu (2013b) advocated the use of a transformed version of the Kendall's tau sample correlation matrix in estimating high dimensional latent generalized correlation matrix under the transelliptical distribution family (or elliptical copula)...
February 2017: Bernoulli: Official Journal of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336569/cued-memory-retrieval-exhibits-reinstatement-of-high-gamma-power-on-a-faster-timescale-in-the-left-temporal-lobe-and-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Robert B Yaffe, Ammar Shaikhouni, Jennifer Arai, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Converging evidence suggests that reinstatement of neural activity underlies our ability to successfully retrieve memories. However, the temporal dynamics of reinstatement in the human cortex remain poorly understood. One possibility is that neural activity during memory retrieval, like replay of spiking neurons in the hippocampus, occurs at a faster timescale than during encoding. We tested this hypothesis in 34 participants who performed a verbal episodic memory task while we recorded high gamma (62-100 Hz) activity from subdural electrodes implanted for seizure monitoring...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335823/the-forge-ahead-clinical-readiness-consultation-tool-a-validated-tool-to-assess-clinical-readiness-for-chronic-disease-care-mobilization-in-canada-s-first-nations
#15
Mariam Naqshbandi Hayward, Selam Mequanint, Jann Paquette-Warren, Ross Bailie, Alexandra Chirila, Roland Dyck, Michael Green, Anthony Hanley, Jordan Tompkins, Stewart Harris
BACKGROUND: Given the astounding rates of diabetes and related complications, and the barriers to providing care present in Indigenous communities in Canada, intervention strategies that take into account contextual factors such as readiness to mobilize are needed to maximize improvements and increase the likelihood of success and sustainment. As part of the national FORGE AHEAD Program, we sought to develop, test and validate a clinical readiness consultation tool aimed at assessing the readiness of clinical teams working on-reserve in First Nations communities to participate in quality improvement (QI) to enhance diabetes care in Canada...
March 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335799/convergent-and-sequential-synthesis-designs-implications-for-conducting-and-reporting-systematic-reviews-of-qualitative-and-quantitative-evidence
#16
Quan Nha Hong, Pierre Pluye, Mathieu Bujold, Maggy Wassef
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence can provide a rich understanding of complex phenomena. This type of review is increasingly popular, has been used to provide a landscape of existing knowledge, and addresses the types of questions not usually covered in reviews relying solely on either quantitative or qualitative evidence. Although several typologies of synthesis designs have been developed, none have been tested on a large sample of reviews. The aim of this review of reviews was to identify and develop a typology of synthesis designs and methods that have been used and to propose strategies for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence...
March 23, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335722/generalizing-cell-segmentation-and-quantification
#17
Zhenzhou Wang, Haixing Li
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the microscopy technology for imaging cells has developed greatly and rapidly. The accompanying requirements for automatic segmentation and quantification of the imaged cells are becoming more and more. After studied widely in both scientific research and industrial applications for many decades, cell segmentation has achieved great progress, especially in segmenting some specific types of cells, e.g. muscle cells. However, it lacks a framework to address the cell segmentation problems generally...
March 23, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#18
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335567/cross-regulation-between-transposable-elements-and-host-dna-replication
#19
REVIEW
Mikel Zaratiegui
Transposable elements subvert host cellular functions to ensure their survival. Their interaction with the host DNA replication machinery indicates that selective pressures lead them to develop ancestral and convergent evolutionary adaptations aimed at conserved features of this fundamental process. These interactions can shape the co-evolution of the transposons and their hosts.
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335463/dysfunctional-mtorc1-signaling-a-convergent-mechanism-between-syndromic-and-nonsyndromic-forms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Juliana Magdalon, Sandra M Sánchez-Sánchez, Karina Griesi-Oliveira, Andréa L Sertié
Whereas autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibits striking heterogeneity in genetics and clinical presentation, dysfunction of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway has been identified as a molecular feature common to several well-characterized syndromes with high prevalence of ASD. Additionally, recent findings have also implicated mTORC1 signaling abnormalities in a subset of nonsyndromic ASD, suggesting that defective mTORC1 pathway may be a potential converging mechanism in ASD pathology across different etiologies...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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