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Medical empathy

Dumbiri J Onyeajam, Sudha Xirasagar, Mahmud M Khan, James W Hardin, Oluwole Odutolu
BACKGROUND: Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) is very low in Nigeria. Self-reported patient satisfaction may be useful to identify provider- and facility-specific factors that can be improved to increase ANC satisfaction and utilization. METHODS: Exit interview data collected from ANC users and facility assessment survey data from 534 systematically selected facilities in four northern Nigerian states were used. Associations between patient satisfaction (satisfied, not-satisfied) and patient ratings of the provider's interactions, care processes, out-of-pocket costs, and quality of facility infrastructure were studied...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nausheen Bakht
The social contract between medicine and society is being renegotiated and demands the reorientation of healthcare. Neither society nor doctors are happy with the way modern medicine is being practised. An obtuse focus on medical sciences and a myopic view of medical humanities (MH) has been incriminated. MH reflects on healthcare-related topics in the light of shared human experiences. It addresses the genuine concerns of patients and their attendants. It also helps inculcate humanistic values in doctors by enhancing ethical understanding, cultural sensitivity, mutual respect, empathy, communication skills and decision-making...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Mustafa Afifi
OBJECTIVE: To find the association of Empathy, Self-Efficacy, and/or Hope with readiness for lifelong learning among medical students. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2016 at Ras Al-Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University in the United Arab Emirates, and comprised medical students from all five years. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data .Standard scales and analysis of variance test were used to compare the mean scores of different variables for different groups...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
José María Ariso
Most scholars agree that empathy is one of the keys for medical education, but it is not yet clear precisely how this term should be defined. Currently, the predominant tendency in this area consists in considering empathy within the context of narrative medicine or, more specifically, within the interaction theory instead of the simulation theory of empathy. A significant development of the interaction theory is "second-order empathy". After describing the outlines of this kind of empathy, I suggest that the practitioner should also inquire about the patient's certainties - in Wittgenstein's sense - in order the better to enrich and understand her narrative...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Robson Aparecido Dos Santos Boni, Carlos Eduardo Paiva, Marco Antonio de Oliveira, Giancarlo Lucchetti, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro Paiva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and possible factors associated with the development of burnout among medical students in the first years of undergraduate school. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Barretos School of Health Sciences, Dr. Paulo Prata. A total of 330 students in the first four years of medical undergraduate school were invited to participate in responding to the sociodemographic and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaires...
2018: PloS One
Patrick C Dolder, Petra Strajhar, Patrick Vizeli, Alex Odermatt, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: Amphetamines are used as medications but are also misused as cognitive enhancers by healthy subjects and may have additional effects on social cognition. METHODS: We investigated the acute effects of single, high, equimolar doses of D-amphetamine (40 mg) and lisdexamfetamine (100 mg) on social cognition and cognitive performance using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design in 24 healthy volunteers. Effects on social cognition were assessed using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task (FERT), Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), and Sexual Arousal Task (SAT)...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Julie Youm, Warren Wiechmann
Purpose: This case study explored the use of Google Glass in a clinical examination scenario to capture the firstperson perspective of a standardized patient to provide formative feedback of students' communication and empathy skills "through the patient's eyes". Methods: During a three-year period between 2014-2017, third-year students enrolled in the Family Medicine clerkship participated in a Google Glass station during the summative clinical examination where standardized patients wore Google Glass to record an encounter focused on communication and empathy skills "through the patient's eyes"...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Hans Magnus Solli, António Barbosa da Silva
BACKGROUND: The article defines a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity (CCCO) applied to embodied subjects in health care. The aims of this study were: (1) to specify some necessary conditions for the definition of a CCCO that will allow objective descriptions and assessments in health care, (2) to formulate criteria for application of such a CCCO, and (3) to investigate the usefulness of the criteria in work disability assessments in medical certificates from health care provided for social security purposes...
March 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Michaela Herzog, Josef Sucec, Ilse Van Diest, Omer Van den Bergh, Cecile Chenivesse, Paul Davenport, Thomas Similowski, Andreas von Leupoldt
Dyspnoea is usually caused by diagnosable cardiorespiratory mechanisms. However, frequently dyspnoea relates only weakly or not at all to cardiorespiratory functioning, suggesting that additional neuropsychosocial processes contribute to its experience. We tested whether the mere observation of dyspnoea in others constitutes such a process and would elicit dyspnoea, negative affect, and increased brain responses in the observer.In three studies, series of pictures and videos were presented, which either depicted persons suffering from dyspnoea or non-dyspnoeic control stimuli...
March 1, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Anette Fischer Pedersen, Mads Lind Ingeman, Peter Vedsted
OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested that physicians' gut feelings are associated with parents' concerns for the well-being of their children. Gut feeling is particularly important in diagnosis of serious low-incidence diseases in primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether empathy, that is, the ability to understand what another person is experiencing, relates to general practitioners' (GPs) use of gut feelings. Since empathy is associated with burn-out, we also examined whether the hypothesised influence of empathy on gut feeling use is dependent on level of burn-out...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Rowan Hordijk, Kristin Hendrickx, Katja Lanting, Anne MacFarlane, Maaike Muntinga, Jeanine Suurmond
BACKGROUND: Medical students need to be trained in delivering diversity-responsive health care but unknown is what competencies teachers need. The aim of this study was to devise a framework of competencies for diversity teaching. METHODS: An open-ended questionnaire about essential diversity teaching competencies was sent to a panel. This resulted in a list of 74 teaching competencies, which was sent in a second round to the panel for rating. The final framework of competencies was approved by the panel...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Jennifer N Stojan, Eleanor Y Sun, Arno K Kumagai
PURPOSE: Educational approaches involving patient stories aim at enhancing empathy and patient-centered care; however, it is not known whether the influence of such programs on physician attitudes persists beyond medical school. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Family Centered Experience (FCE) paired preclinical medical students with patient families over two years and engaged students in reflective dialogs about the volunteers' stories. This study examined possible long-term influences on attitudes toward medicine and doctoring...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Lester Liao, Edwin Cheng
Empathy has been difficult to sustain and foster in medical training. Based on empirical evidence and intuitive human experience, this paper proposes that empathy can be re-conceptualized as a dynamic reservoir, referred to as an "empathy tank." Physicians and learners who have personally experienced or received much empathy will naturally have a stronger tendency and greater capacity for empathy than others who have experienced little. These instances of empathy that fill the "empathy tank" can take the form of personal experiences, re-experiencing memories, and vicarious experiences...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Robert Englander, Carol Carraccio
The paradigm shift to competency-based medical education (CBME) is under way, but incomplete implementation is blunting the potential impact on learning and patient outcomes. The fundamental principles of CBME call for standardizing outcomes addressing population health needs, then allowing time-variable progression to achieving them. Operationalizing CBME principles requires continuity within and across phases of the education, training, and practice continuum. However, the piecemeal origin of the phases of the "continuum" has resulted in a sequence of undergraduate to graduate medical education to practice that may be continuous temporally but bears none of the integration of a true continuum...
March 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jochanan Benbassat
Undergraduate clinical education follows the "bedside" tradition that exposes students to inpatients. However, the hospital learning environment has two main limitations. First, most inpatients require acute care, and students may complete their training without seeing patients with frequent non-emergent and chronic diseases that are managed in outpatient settings. Second, students rarely cope with diagnostic problems, because most inpatients are diagnosed in the community or the emergency room. These limitations have led some medical schools to offer longitudinal integrated clerkships in community settings instead of hospital block clerkship rotations...
February 24, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Lisa Jane Gould, Peter Griffiths, Hannah Ruth Barker, Paula Libberton, Ines Mesa-Eguiagaray, Ruth M Pickering, Lisa Jane Shipway, Jackie Bridges
OBJECTIVE: Compassionate care continues to be a focus for national and international attention, but the existing evidence base lacks the experimental methodology necessary to guide the selection of effective interventions for practice. This study aimed to evaluate the Creating Learning Environments for Compassionate Care (CLECC) intervention in improving compassionate care. SETTING: Ward nursing teams (clusters) in two English National Health Service hospitals randomised to intervention (n=4) or control (n=2)...
February 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Daniel Skinner, Kyle Rosenberger
In response to changes in health care, American medical schools are transforming their curricula to cultivate empathy, promote professionalism, and increase cultural competency. Many scholars argue that an infusion of the humanities in premedical and medical training may help achieve these ends. This study analyzes Web-based messaging of Ohio's undergraduate institutions to assess premedical advising attitudes toward humanities-based coursework and majors. Results suggest that although many institutions acknowledge the humanities, most steer students toward science majors; strong advocates of the humanities tend to have religious or other special commitments, and instead of acknowledging the intrinsic value that the humanities might have for future physicians, most institutions promote the humanities because entrance exams now contain related material...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
D Jeffrey
The medical profession has adopted a cognitive model of empathy, or detached concern, in its professionalism and practice. As a consequence there is now an empathy gap which has been demonstrated by lapses in patient care in the UK. There may also be an empathy gap developing in medical students during their training. This paper argues for the adoption of a relational view of empathy which embraces emotional and moral dimensions of the concept, acknowledges the importance of the clinical context and prioritises the relationship between the doctor and patient...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Anthony E Brenneman, Constance Goldgar, Karen J Hills, Jennifer H Snyder, Stephane P VanderMeulen, Steven Lane
Physician assistant (PA) admissions processes have typically given more weight to cognitive attributes than to noncognitive ones, both because a high level of cognitive ability is needed for a career in medicine and because cognitive factors are easier to measure. However, there is a growing consensus across the health professions that noncognitive attributes such as emotional intelligence, empathy, and professionalism are important for success in clinical practice and optimal care of patients. There is also some evidence that a move toward more holistic admissions practices, including evaluation of noncognitive attributes, can have a positive effect on diversity...
March 2018: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
Kimberly R Myers, Michael D F Goldenberg
Graphic medicine is a swiftly growing movement that explores, theoretically and practically, the use of comics in medical education and patient care. At the heart of graphic medicine are graphic pathographies, stories of illness conveyed in comic form. These stories are helpful tools for health care professionals who seek new insight into the personal, lived experience of illness and for patients who want to learn more about their disease from others who have actually experienced it. Featuring excerpts from five graphic pathographies, this essay illustrates how the medium can be used to educate patients and enhance empathy in health care professionals, particularly with regard to informed consent and end-of-life issues...
February 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
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