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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314241/characterizing-articulation-in-apraxic-speech-using-real-time-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Christina Hagedorn, Michael Proctor, Louis Goldstein, Stephen M Wilson, Bruce Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Shrikanth S Narayanan
Purpose: Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and accompanying analytical methods are shown to capture and quantify salient aspects of apraxic speech, substantiating and expanding upon evidence provided by clinical observation and acoustic and kinematic data. Analysis of apraxic speech errors within a dynamic systems framework is provided and the nature of pathomechanisms of apraxic speech discussed. Method: One adult male speaker with apraxia of speech was imaged using real-time MRI while producing spontaneous speech, repeated naming tasks, and self-paced repetition of word pairs designed to elicit speech errors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255915/microbiologic-methods-in-the-diagnostics-of-upper-respiratory-tract-pathogens
#2
J Kompanikova, A Zumdick, M Neuschlova, V Sadlonova, E Novakova
Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a nonspecific term used to describe acute infections involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and larynx above the vocal cords. The aim of this study was to provide a summary of the most common pathogens of URI and to compare advantages and disadvantages of traditional and new rapid microbiological tests used to identify them. Blood samples were simultaneously examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by the FilmArray Respiratory Panel for eight different pathogens in a total of 15 tests performed in nasopharyngeal swabs...
March 3, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243588/computational-modeling-of-fluid-structure-acoustics-interaction-during-voice-production
#3
Weili Jiang, Xudong Zheng, Qian Xue
The paper presented a three-dimensional, first-principle based fluid-structure-acoustics interaction computer model of voice production, which employed a more realistic human laryngeal and vocal tract geometries. Self-sustained vibrations, important convergent-divergent vibration pattern of the vocal folds, and entrainment of the two dominant vibratory modes were captured. Voice quality-associated parameters including the frequency, open quotient, skewness quotient, and flow rate of the glottal flow waveform were found to be well within the normal physiological ranges...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228242/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-the-laryngo-pharyngeal-tract
#4
Abdul-Latif Hamdan, Ghina Fakhri, Ghassan Haddad, Gabriel Dunya, Doja Sarieddine, Bilal Turfe, Georges Tabet, Sami Azar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the laryngopharyngeal tract. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 38 human subjects were prospectively recruited, equally divided into two groups. The Vitamin D deficiency group defined as 25-OH<25ng/dl and the control subjects with normal vitamin D level defined as 25-OH>25ng/dl. The presence and severity of vocal tract symptoms was assessed using the Vocal Tract Discomfort score...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225537/laryngeal-sensitivity-testing-in-youth-with-exercise-inducible-laryngeal-obstruction
#5
Irena Hočevar-Boltežar, Uroš Krivec, Maja Šereg-Bahar
Exercise-inducible laryngeal obstruction (EILO) has been recognized as a not rare respiratory problem in youth practicing sports. The aim of the study was to test the mechanosensitivity of the larynx, and to identify the factors affecting it in a group of youth with proven EILO. Laryngeal sensory testing was performed in 54 adolescents and young adults with EILO. Laryngeal mucosal alterations were assessed according to the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). The data concerning diseases possibly affecting the upper airway, findings of previously performed flexible videolaryngoscopy during exercise, and RFS score were compared between the participants with laryngeal hyposensitivity and those with normal sensitivity...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222332/acquisition-of-vowel-articulation-in-childhood-investigated-by-acoustic-to-articulatory-inversion
#6
Hiroki Oohashi, Hama Watanabe, Gentaro Taga
While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219323/a-preliminary-assessment-of-the-lma-protector%C3%A2-in-non-paralysed-patients
#7
Ban Leong Sng, Farida Binte Ithnin, Deepak Mathur, Eileen Lew, Nian-Lin Reena Han, Alex Tiong-Heng Sia
BACKGROUND: The LMA Protector™ is the latest CE marked single use supraglottic airway device. This airway device provides access and functional separation of the respiratory and digestive tracts. There are two ports (male, female ports) to provide suction in the laryngeal region and insertion of the gastric tube. The aim of our study is to assess the ease of use, airway quality, device positioning, airway leak and complications associated with initial clinical experience in LMA Protector™ usage...
February 20, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214051/effects-of-a-straw-phonation-protocol-on-acoustic-measures-of-an-satb-chorus-singing-two-contrasting-renaissance-works
#8
Jeremy N Manternach, Chad Clark, James F Daugherty
BACKGROUND: Researchers have found that semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) exercises may increase vocal economy by reducing phonation threshold pressure and effort while increasing or maintaining consistent acoustic output. This research has focused solely on individual singers. Much singing instruction, however, takes place in choral settings. Choral singers may use different resonance strategies or unconsciously adjust their singing based on the ability to hear their own sound in relation to others...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199318/acoustic-correlates-of-body-size-and-individual-identity-in-banded-penguins
#9
Livio Favaro, Marco Gamba, Claudia Gili, Daniela Pessani
Animal vocalisations play a role in individual recognition and mate choice. In nesting penguins, acoustic variation in vocalisations originates from distinctiveness in the morphology of the vocal apparatus. Using the source-filter theory approach, we investigated vocal individuality cues and correlates of body size and mass in the ecstatic display songs the Humboldt and Magellanic penguins. We demonstrate that both fundamental frequency (f0) and formants (F1-F4) are essential vocal features to discriminate among individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196377/speaking-tongues-are-actively-braced
#10
Bryan Gick, Blake Allen, François Roewer-Després, Ian Stavness
Purpose: Bracing of the tongue against opposing vocal-tract surfaces such as the teeth or palate has long been discussed in the context of biomechanical, somatosensory, and aeroacoustic aspects of tongue movement. However, previous studies have tended to describe bracing only in terms of contact (rather than mechanical support), and only in limited phonetic contexts, supporting a widespread view of bracing as an occasional state, peculiar to specific sounds or sound combinations. Method: The present study tests the pervasiveness and effortfulness of tongue bracing in continuous English speech passages using electropalatography and 3-D biomechanical simulations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185301/feasibility-of-through-time-spiral-generalized-autocalibrating-partial-parallel-acquisition-for-low-latency-accelerated-real-time-mri-of-speech
#11
Sajan Goud Lingala, Yinghua Zhu, Yongwan Lim, Asterios Toutios, Yunhua Ji, Wei-Ching Lo, Nicole Seiberlich, Shrikanth Narayanan, Krishna S Nayak
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of through-time spiral generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) for low-latency accelerated real-time MRI of speech. METHODS: Through-time spiral GRAPPA (spiral GRAPPA), a fast linear reconstruction method, is applied to spiral (k-t) data acquired from an eight-channel custom upper-airway coil. Fully sampled data were retrospectively down-sampled to evaluate spiral GRAPPA at undersampling factors R = 2 to 6...
February 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171875/applicability-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-to-the-assessment-of-the-vocal-tract-before-and-after-vocal-exercises-in-normal-subjects
#12
Elisângela Zacanti Garcia, Hélio Kiitiro Yamashita, Davi Sousa Garcia, Marina Martins Pereira Padovani, Renata Rangel Azevedo, Brasília Maria Chiari
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which represents an alternative to traditional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, may be a useful instrument to study vocal tract physiology related to vocal exercises. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of CBCT to the assessment of variations in the vocal tract of healthy individuals before and after vocal exercises. METHODS: Voice recordings and CBCT images before and after vocal exercises performed by 3 speech-language pathologists without vocal complaints were collected and compared...
February 8, 2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155703/numerical-study-of-the-effects-of-bronchial-structural-abnormalities-on-respiratory-flow-distribution
#13
Shen Yu, Jizhe Wang, Xiuzhen Sun, Yingxi Liu
BACKGROUND: The anatomical configurations of respiratory tract would be directly associated with their ventilatory function. It is necessary to fully understand the association between airway configurations and their functions as well as the interactions between different airway segments. In this study, we developed a respiratory airway model to investigate the effects of bronchial structural abnormalities on flow distribution in the bronchi and upper airway. METHODS: Derived from computed tomography (CT) scanner data, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of healthy human respiratory tracts were developed with anatomically realistic configurations, including the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and partial bronchi...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139959/inside-speech-multisensory-and-modality-specific-processing-of-tongue-and-lip-speech-actions
#14
Avril Treille, Coriandre Vilain, Thomas Hueber, Laurent Lamalle, Marc Sato
Action recognition has been found to rely not only on sensory brain areas but also partly on the observer's motor system. However, whether distinct auditory and visual experiences of an action modulate sensorimotor activity remains largely unknown. In the present sparse sampling fMRI study, we determined to which extent sensory and motor representations interact during the perception of tongue and lip speech actions. Tongue and lip speech actions were selected because tongue movements of our interlocutor are accessible via their impact on speech acoustics but not visible because of its position inside the vocal tract, whereas lip movements are both "audible" and visible...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118481/connectivity-and-ultrastructure-of-dopaminergic-innervation-of-the-inner-ear-and-auditory-efferent-system-of-a-vocal-fish
#15
Jonathan T Perelmuter, Paul M Forlano
Dopamine (DA) is a conserved modulator of vertebrate neural circuitry, yet our knowledge of its role in peripheral auditory processing is limited to mammals. The present study combines immunohistochemistry, neural tract tracing and electron microscopy to investigate the origin and synaptic characteristics of DA fibers innervating the inner ear and the hindbrain auditory efferent nucleus in the plainfin midshipman, a vocal fish that relies upon the detection of mate calls for reproductive success. We identify a DA cell group in the diencephalon as a common source for innervation of both the hindbrain auditory efferent nucleus and saccule, the main hearing endorgan of the inner ear...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093574/an-acoustically-driven-vocal-tract-model-for-stop-consonant-production
#16
Brad H Story, Kate Bunton
The purpose of this study was to further develop a multi-tier model of the vocal tract area function in which the modulations of shape to produce speech are generated by the product of a vowel substrate and a consonant superposition function. The new approach consists of specifying input parameters for a target consonant as a set of directional changes in the resonance frequencies of the vowel substrate. Using calculations of acoustic sensitivity functions, these "resonance deflection patterns" are transformed into time-varying deformations of the vocal tract shape without any direct specification of location or extent of the consonant constriction along the vocal tract...
March 2017: Speech Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092262/vocal-development-in-a-waddington-landscape
#17
Yayoi Teramoto, Daniel Y Takahashi, Philip Holmes, Asif A Ghazanfar
Vocal development is the adaptive coordination of the vocal apparatus, muscles, the nervous system, and social interaction. Here, we use a quantitative framework based on optimal control theory and Waddington's landscape metaphor to provide an integrated view of this process. With a biomechanical model of the marmoset monkey vocal apparatus and behavioral developmental data, we show that only the combination of the developing vocal tract, vocal apparatus muscles and nervous system can fully account for the patterns of vocal development...
January 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072470/sonographic-dynamic-description-of-the-laryngeal-tract-definition-of-quantitative-measures-to-characterize-vocal-fold-motion-and-estimation-of-their-normal-values
#18
Héloïse Bergeret-Cassagne, Diane S Lazard, Muriel Lefort, Siham Hachi, Laurence Leenhardt, Fabrice Menegaux, Gilles Russ, Christophe Trésallet, Frédérique Frouin
Vocal fold motion was analyzed during free breathing using two-dimensional dynamic ultrasound imaging. Two cadavers were first analyzed to define easily identifiable landmarks. Motion of the laryngeal tract was then analyzed in an axial plane. Left and right arytenoids and thyroid cartilage were defined on images corresponding to abduction and adduction of the laryngeal tract. Associated area measurements were established for 50 healthy subjects. All area indices were significantly larger during abduction than adduction...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069761/functional-and-quantitative-mri-mapping-of-somatomotor-representations-of-human-supralaryngeal-vocal-tract
#19
Daniel Carey, Saloni Krishnan, Martina F Callaghan, Martin I Sereno, Frederic Dick
Speech articulation requires precise control of and coordination between the effectors of the vocal tract (e.g., lips, tongue, soft palate, and larynx). However, it is unclear how the cortex represents movements of and contact between these effectors during speech, or how these cortical responses relate to inter-regional anatomical borders. Here, we used phase-encoded fMRI to map somatomotor representations of speech articulations. Phonetically trained participants produced speech phones, progressing from front (bilabial) to back (glottal) place of articulation...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060384/effects-of-functional-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-on-the-acoustics-of-the-sinonasal-tract
#20
M Havel, S Becker, M Schuster, T Johnson, A Maier, J Sundberg
BACKGROUND: Nasal and paranasal cavities are supposed to contribute substantially to the vocal tract resonator properties. However, their acoustical effects as well as the effects of sinus surgery on the voice remain unclear. In this work we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses prior to and after various rhinosurgical procedures in cadaveric human sinonasal tracts and corresponding 3D casts. METHODOLOGY: Nasal and paranasal cavities of formalin-preserved cadavers and corresponding 3D replicas were excited by sine-tone sweeps from an earphone placed in the epipharynx...
March 1, 2017: Rhinology
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