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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626493/a-kinematic-study-of-prosodic-structure-in-articulatory-and-manual-gestures-results-from-a-novel-method-of-data-collection
#1
Jelena Krivokapić, Mark K Tiede, Martha E Tyrone
The primary goal of this work is to examine prosodic structure as expressed concurrently through articulatory and manual gestures. Specifically, we investigated the effects of phrase-level prominence (Experiment 1) and of prosodic boundaries (Experiments 2 and 3) on the kinematic properties of oral constriction and manual gestures. The hypothesis guiding this work is that prosodic structure will be similarly expressed in both modalities. To test this, we have developed a novel method of data collection that simultaneously records speech audio, vocal tract gestures (using electromagnetic articulometry) and manual gestures (using motion capture)...
2017: Laboratory Phonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620283/octopus-cells-in-the-posteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-provide-the-main-excitatory-input-to-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus
#2
Richard A Felix Ii, Boris Gourévitch, Marcelo Gómez-Álvarez, Sara C M Leijon, Enrique Saldaña, Anna K Magnusson
Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616866/vocal-palsy-increases-the-risk-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-low-risk-low-morbidity-patients-undergoing-thyroidectomy-for-benign-disease-a-big-data-analysis
#3
S A R Nouraei, J Allen, H Kaddour, S E Middleton, P Aylin, A Darzi, N S Tolley
OBJECTIVES: Thyroidectomy is the commonest and most rapidly-growing operation which places normally-functioning laryngeal nerves at risk of injury. Laryngeal palsy is a major risk-factor for dysphonia, dysphagia, and less commonly, airway obstruction. We investigated the association between post-thyroidectomy vocal palsy and long-term risks of pneumonia and laryngeal failure. DESIGN: An N=near-all analysis of the English administrative dataset using a previously-validated informatics algorithm to identify young and otherwise low-risk patients undergoing thyroidectomy for benign disease...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599994/vocal-tract-discomfort-and-voice-related-quality-of-life-in-wind-instrumentalists
#4
Juliane Cappellaro, Bárbara Costa Beber
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate vocal tract discomfort and quality of life in the voice of wind instrumentalists. METHOD: It is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 37 musicians of the orchestra of Caxias do Sul city, RS, Brazil. The participants answered a nonstandard questionnaire about demographic and professional information, the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL), the Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale, and additional items about fatigue after playing the instrument and pain in the cervical muscles...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583268/voice-disorders-in-residual-paracoccidioidomycosis-in-upper-airways-and-digestive-tract
#5
Ananda Dutra da Costa, Amanda Pereira Vargas, Marcia Mendonça Lucena, Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas, Fernanda da Silva Santos Braga, Mateus Pereira Bom-Braga, Frederico Pereira Bom-Braga, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis of acute and chronic evolution, caused by species belonging to the genus Paracoccidioides. It is considered the most prevalent systemic endemic mycosis in Latin America, with cases in the tropical and subtropical regions. Residual PCM refers to the fibrotic scar sequelae resulting from the disease treatment which, when associated with collagen accumulation, leads to functional and anatomic alterations in the organs. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vocal function of patients with residual PCM in upper airways and digestive tract...
June 2, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578533/unusually-high-pitched-neonate-distress-calls-of-the-open-habitat-mongolian-gazelle-procapra-gutturosa-and-their-anatomical-and-hormonal-predictors
#6
Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Volodina, Roland Frey, Vadim E Kirilyuk, Sergey V Naidenko
In neonate ruminants, the acoustic structure of vocalizations may depend on sex, vocal anatomy, hormonal profiles and body mass and on environmental factors. In neonate wild-living Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa, hand-captured during biomedical monitoring in the Daurian steppes at the Russian-Mongolian border, we spectrographically analysed distress calls and measured body mass of 22 individuals (6 males, 16 females). For 20 (5 male, 15 female) of these individuals, serum testosterone levels were also analysed...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554824/the-perception-of-formant-tuning-in-soprano-voices
#7
Rebecca R Vos, Damian T Murphy, David M Howard, Helena Daffern
INTRODUCTION: At the upper end of the soprano range, singers adjust their vocal tract to bring one or more of its resonances (Rn) toward a source harmonic, increasing the amplitude of the sound; this process is known as resonance tuning. This study investigated the perception of (R1) and (R2) tuning, key strategies observed in classically trained soprano voices, which were expected to be preferred by listeners. Furthermore, different vowels were compared, whereas previous investigations have usually focused on a single vowel...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541243/czy-smog-ma-wp%C3%A5-yw-na-cz%C3%A4-sto%C3%A5-%C3%A4-wyst%C3%A4-powania-zaostrze%C3%A5-przewlek%C3%A5-ego-zapalenia-krtani-analiza-na-przyk%C3%A5-adzie-mieszka%C3%A5-c%C3%A3-w-wojew%C3%A3-dztwa-ma%C3%A5-opolskiego
#8
Remigiusz Ziarno, Anna Suska, Wojciech Kulinowski, Aleksandra Grudzień-Ziarno, Magdalena Kostrzon, Magdalena Paciorek, Jacek Składzień
INTRODUCTION: Due to dynamic industrialisation smog became a frequent phenomenon in most developing cities. According to the last WHO report from Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, Krakow has been classified in the 11th place among the most polluted cities in Europe. It seems to be an urgent issue because of the influence of air pollution on the condition of upper respiratory tract. Materials & Methods: In December 2015 there were 141 patients aged 17-91 years with upper respiratory tract diseases admitted to the phoniatric outpatient clinic in the University Hospital in Cracow...
June 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538821/sensory-symptoms-in-patients-undergoing-thyroidectomy
#9
Lillian Fernandes de Araújo, Leonardo Wanderley Lopes, Priscila Oliveira Costa Silva, Victor Jose Ferreira Perrusi, Vívian Lisboa de Lucena Farias, Elma Heitmann Mares Azevedo
Purpose: To verify the occurrence of sensory symptoms in thyroidectomy patients pre- and post-operatively. Methods: This is a prospective, quantitative, descriptive study conducted with a sample of twelve patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The participants underwent visual laryngeal examination and responded to the Upper Aerodigestive Symptoms (UADS) and Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTDS) questionnaires before and after the surgery. Results: There was higher occurrence of vocal fatigue, hoarseness, pharyngeal bolus, dry throat, and throat clearing preoperatively, whereas higher occurrence of hoarseness, vocal fatigue, cough, and pharyngeal bolus was observed postoperatively for the UADS...
May 15, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528785/resonance-tube-phonation-in-water-the-effect-of-tube-diameter-and-water-depth-on-back-pressure-and-bubble-characteristics-at-different-airflows
#10
Greta Wistbacka, Pedro Amarante Andrade, Susanna Simberg, Britta Hammarberg, Maria Södersten, Jan G Švec, Svante Granqvist
OBJECTIVES: Resonance tube phonation with tube end in water is a voice therapy method in which the patient phonates through a glass tube, keeping the free end of the tube submerged in water, creating bubbles. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine flow-pressure relationship, flow thresholds between bubble types, and bubble frequency as a function of flow and back volume. METHODS: A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used for recording the back pressure produced by resonance tubes with inner diameters of 8 and 9 mm submerged at water depths of 0-7 cm...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523949/developmental-changes-in-pharyngeal-swallowing-acoustics-a-comparison-of-adults-and-children
#11
Neville W Hennessey, Gemma Fisher, Natalie Ciccone
This study examined developmental differences in the acoustics of pharyngeal swallowing. Thirty-one young children (M = 4.5 years) and 29 adults (M = 22.5 years) were recorded swallowing thin liquid and puree boluses. In comparison with adults, children showed longer total swallow sound duration and duration to peak intensity, as well as greater variability in the duration to peak intensity and mean of the averaged spectrum in Hz. Thin and puree boluses differed in measures of duration, intensity and frequency of the averaged sound spectrum, although these effects did not interact with age...
May 19, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502668/spectrographic-and-electroglottographic-findings-of-religious-vocal-performers-in-d%C3%A3-zce-province-of-turkey
#12
Sahin Saruhan, Ender Guclu, Ali Ertugrul
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, the register phenomenon and spectral characteristics of vocal styles used by vocal performers in a Muslim community were investigated. METHODS: Electroglottography was performed on 17 subjects, whereas spectrography was performed on 18 subjects, and 16 of these subjects participated in both parts of the study. RESULTS: We observed that the participants used chest register in voice production and there was no change in this situation related to the increase in frequency...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500350/formants-provide-honest-acoustic-cues-to-body-size-in-american-alligators
#13
Stephan A Reber, Judith Janisch, Kevin Torregrosa, Jim Darlington, Kent A Vliet, W Tecumseh Fitch
In many vertebrates, acoustic cues to body size are encoded in resonance frequencies of the vocal tract ("formants"), rather than in the rate of tissue vibration in the sound source ("pitch"). Anatomical constraints on the vocal tract's size render formants honest cues to size in many bird and mammal species, but it is not clear whether this correlation evolved convergently in these two clades, or whether it is widespread among amniotes (mammals, birds, and non-avian reptiles). We investigated the potential for honest acoustic cues in the bellows of adult American alligators and found that formant spacing provided highly reliable cues to body size, while presumed correlates of the source signal did not...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495329/dynamics-of-the-driving-force-during-the-normal-vocal-fold-vibration-cycle
#14
Philippe Henri DeJonckere, Jean Lebacq, Ingo R Titze
Intraglottal pressure is the driving force of vocal fold vibration. Theoretically, simultaneous quantification of glottal area and transglottal airflow allows the calculation of the intraglottal pressure waveform during a single vibration cycle. In this study, we show that, by combining photoglottography (transglottal light transmission) and airflow (Rothenberg mask) measurements during sustained vocal emissions in vivo, the intraglottal pressure wave can be approximated in a way similar to what has been done in models...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489908/sexual-dimorphism-in-african-elephant-social-rumbles
#15
Anton Baotic, Angela S Stoeger
This study used the source and filter theory approach to analyse sex differences in the acoustic features of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) low-frequency rumbles produced in social contexts ('social rumbles'). Permuted discriminant function analysis revealed that rumbles contain sufficient acoustic information to predict the sex of a vocalizing individual. Features primarily related to the vocalizer's size, i.e. fundamental frequency variables and vocal tract resonant frequencies, differed significantly between the sexes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472866/innervation-of-the-syrinx-of-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#16
Macarena Faunes, João F Botelho, J Martin Wild
In songbirds, the learning and maintenance of song is dependent on auditory feedback, but little is known about the presence or role of other forms of sensory feedback. Here, we studied the innervation of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, in the zebra finch. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and neural tracing with subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB), we analysed the peripheral and central endings of the branch of the hypoglossal nerve that supplies the syrinx, the tracheosyringeal nerve...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467509/laryngeal-evidence-for-the-first-and-second-passaggio-in-professionally-trained-sopranos
#17
Matthias Echternach, Fabian Burk, Marie Köberlein, Andreas Selamtzis, Michael Döllinger, Michael Burdumy, Bernhard Richter, Christian Thomas Herbst
INTRODUCTION: Due to a lack of empirical data, the current understanding of the laryngeal mechanics in the passaggio regions (i.e., the fundamental frequency ranges where vocal registration events usually occur) of the female singing voice is still limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study the first and second passaggio regions of 10 professionally trained female classical soprano singers were analyzed. The sopranos performed pitch glides from A3 (ƒo = 220 Hz) to A4 (ƒo = 440 Hz) and from A4 (ƒo = 440 Hz) to A5 (ƒo = 880 Hz) on the vowel [iː]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466659/effects-of-ageing-on-orofacial-fine-force-control-and-its-relationship-with-parallel-change-in-sensory-perception
#18
Nicole M Etter, Patrick O Mckeon, Emily V Dressler, Richard D Andreatta
PURPOSE: Current theoretical models suggest the importance of a bidirectional relationship between sensation and production in the vocal tract to maintain lifelong speech skills. The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in orofacial skilled force production and to begin defining the orofacial perception-action relationship in healthy adults. METHOD: Low-level orofacial force control measures (reaction time, rise time, peak force, mean hold force (N) and force hold SD) were collected from 60 adults (19-84 years)...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464691/estimating-the-spectral-tilt-of-the-glottal-source-from-telephone-speech-using-a-deep-neural-network
#19
Emma Jokinen, Paavo Alku
Estimation of the spectral tilt of the glottal source has several applications in speech analysis and modification. However, direct estimation of the tilt from telephone speech is challenging due to vocal tract resonances and distortion caused by speech compression. In this study, a deep neural network is used for the tilt estimation from telephone speech by training the network with tilt estimates computed by glottal inverse filtering. An objective evaluation shows that the proposed technique gives more accurate estimates for the spectral tilt than previously used techniques that estimate the tilt directly from telephone speech without glottal inverse filtering...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408141/the-effects-of-heel-height-on-head-position-long-term-average-spectra-and-perceptions-of-female-singers
#20
Amelia A Rollings
Female singers often wear high heels for auditions and performances. Heel height research in non-singing contexts indicates that wearing heels can affect body alignment and head position. Studies in orthodontics, sleep apnea, and voice science suggest that head and neck positioning can alter the vocal tract. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects, if any, of heel height (barefoot, 10.16-cm stilettos) on three angles of singer head position (calculated from C7-tragus-nasion), long-term average spectra data, and perceptual data (questionnaire) acquired from female (N = 30) soloists during alternating periods of silence and singing...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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