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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093574/an-acoustically-driven-vocal-tract-model-for-stop-consonant-production
#1
Brad H Story, Kate Bunton
The purpose of this study was to further develop a multi-tier model of the vocal tract area function in which the modulations of shape to produce speech are generated by the product of a vowel substrate and a consonant superposition function. The new approach consists of specifying input parameters for a target consonant as a set of directional changes in the resonance frequencies of the vowel substrate. Using calculations of acoustic sensitivity functions, these "resonance deflection patterns" are transformed into time-varying deformations of the vocal tract shape without any direct specification of location or extent of the consonant constriction along the vocal tract...
March 2017: Speech Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092262/vocal-development-in-a-waddington-landscape
#2
Yayoi Teramoto, Daniel Takahashi, Philip Holmes, Asif A Ghazanfar
Vocal development is the adaptive coordination of the vocal apparatus, muscles, the nervous system, and social interaction. Here, we use a quantitative framework based on optimal control theory and Waddington's landscape metaphor to provide an integrated view of this process. With a biomechanical model of the marmoset monkey vocal apparatus and behavioral developmental data, we show that only the combination of the developing vocal tract, vocal apparatus muscles and nervous system can fully account for the patterns of vocal development...
January 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072470/sonographic-dynamic-description-of-the-laryngeal-tract-definition-of-quantitative-measures-to-characterize-vocal-fold-motion-and-estimation-of-their-normal-values
#3
Héloïse Bergeret-Cassagne, Diane S Lazard, Muriel Lefort, Siham Hachi, Laurence Leenhardt, Fabrice Menegaux, Gilles Russ, Christophe Trésallet, Frédérique Frouin
Vocal fold motion was analyzed during free breathing using two-dimensional dynamic ultrasound imaging. Two cadavers were first analyzed to define easily identifiable landmarks. Motion of the laryngeal tract was then analyzed in an axial plane. Left and right arytenoids and thyroid cartilage were defined on images corresponding to abduction and adduction of the laryngeal tract. Associated area measurements were established for 50 healthy subjects. All area indices were significantly larger during abduction than adduction...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069761/functional-and-quantitative-mri-mapping-of-somatomotor-representations-of-human-supralaryngeal-vocal-tract
#4
Daniel Carey, Saloni Krishnan, Martina F Callaghan, Martin I Sereno, Frederic Dick
Speech articulation requires precise control of and coordination between the effectors of the vocal tract (e.g., lips, tongue, soft palate, and larynx). However, it is unclear how the cortex represents movements of and contact between these effectors during speech, or how these cortical responses relate to inter-regional anatomical borders. Here, we used phase-encoded fMRI to map somatomotor representations of speech articulations. Phonetically trained participants produced speech phones, progressing from front (bilabial) to back (glottal) place of articulation...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060384/effects-of-functional-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-on-the-acoustics-of-the-sinonasal-tract
#5
M Havel, S Becker, M Schuster, T Johnson, A Maier, J Sundberg
BACKGROUND: Nasal and paranasal cavities are supposed to contribute substantially to the vocal tract resonator properties. However, their acoustical effects as well as the effects of sinus surgery on the voice remain unclear. In this work we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses prior to and after various rhinosurgical procedures in cadaveric human sinonasal tracts and corresponding 3D casts. METHODOLOGY: Nasal and paranasal cavities of formalin-preserved cadavers and corresponding 3D replicas were excited by sine-tone sweeps from an earphone placed in the epipharynx...
January 6, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029556/a-formant-range-profile-for-singers
#6
Ingo R Titze, Lynn M Maxfield, Megan C Walker
Vowel selection is important in differentiating between singing styles. The timbre of the vocal instrument, which is related to its frequency spectrum, is governed by both the glottal sound source and the vowel choices made by singers. Consequently, the ability to modify the vowel space is a measure of how successfully a singer can maintain a desired timbre across a range of pitches. Formant range profiles were produced as a means of quantifying this ability. Seventy-seven subjects (including trained and untrained vocalists) participated, producing vowels with three intended mouth shapes: (1) neutral or speech-like, (2) megaphone-shaped (wide open mouth), and (3) inverted-megaphone-shaped (widened oropharynx with moderate mouth opening)...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017460/vocal-tract-adjustments-of-dysphonic-and-non-dysphonic-women-pre-and-post-flexible-resonance-tube-in-water-exercise-a-quantitative-mri-study
#7
Rosiane Yamasaki, Emi Z Murano, Eloisa Gebrim, Adriana Hachiya, Arlindo Montagnoli, Mara Behlau, Domingos Tsuji
OBJECTIVE: To compare vocal tract (VT) adjustments of dysphonic and non-dysphonic women before and after flexible resonance tube in water exercise (FRTWE) at rest and during phonation using magnetic resonance imaging. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Twenty women, aged 20-40 years, 10 dysphonic with vocal nodules (VNG) and 10 controls (CG), underwent four sets of sagittal VT MRI: two pre-FRTWE, at rest and during phonation, and two post-FRTWE, during phonation and at rest...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001646/effects-of-vocal-training-in-a-musicophile-with-congenital-amusia
#8
Jonathan M P Wilbiks, Dominique T Vuvan, Pier-Yves Girard, Isabelle Peretz, Frank A Russo
Congenital amusia is a condition in which an individual suffers from a deficit of musical pitch perception and production. Individuals suffering from congenital amusia generally tend to abstain from musical activities. Here, we present the unique case of Tim Falconer, a self-described musicophile who also suffers from congenital amusia. We describe and assess Tim's attempts to train himself out of amusia through a self-imposed 18-month program of formal vocal training and practice. We tested Tim with respect to music perception and vocal production across seven sessions including pre- and post-training assessments...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989394/combined-functional-voice-therapy-in-singers-with-muscle-tension-dysphonia-in-singing
#9
Ewelina Sielska-Badurek, Ewa Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Maria Sobol, Ewa Kazanecka, Anna Rzepakowska, Kazimierz Niemczyk
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate vocal tract function and the voice quality in singers with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) after undergoing combined functional voice therapy of the singing voice. DESIGN: This is a prospective, randomized study. METHODS: Forty singers (29 females and 11 males, mean age: 24.6 ± 8.8 years) with MTD were enrolled in the study. The study group consisted of 20 singers who underwent combined functional voice therapy (10-15 individual sessions, 30-40 minutes each)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988067/three-dimensional-vocal-tract-morphology-based-on-multiple-magnetic-resonance-images-is-highly-reproducible-during-sustained-phonation
#10
Alexander Mainka, Ivan Platzek, Willy Mattheus, Mario Fleischer, Ann-Sophie Müller, Dirk Mürbe
OBJECTIVES: The extraction of a three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the human vocal tract (VT) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during sustained phonation can be used for various analyses like numerical simulations or creating physical models. The precision of visualizing techniques nowadays allows for very targeted acoustical simulation evaluating the influence of subsections of the VT for the transfer function. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the 3D geometry based on MRI data in repetitive trials...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957536/monkey-vocal-tracts-are-speech-ready
#11
W Tecumseh Fitch, Bart de Boer, Neil Mathur, Asif A Ghazanfar
For four decades, the inability of nonhuman primates to produce human speech sounds has been claimed to stem from limitations in their vocal tract anatomy, a conclusion based on plaster casts made from the vocal tract of a monkey cadaver. We used x-ray videos to quantify vocal tract dynamics in living macaques during vocalization, facial displays, and feeding. We demonstrate that the macaque vocal tract could easily produce an adequate range of speech sounds to support spoken language, showing that previous techniques based on postmortem samples drastically underestimated primate vocal capabilities...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943448/one-second-mri-of-a-three-dimensional-vocal-tract-to-measure-dynamic-articulator-modifications
#12
Michael Burdumy, Louisa Traser, Fabian Burk, Bernhard Richter, Matthias Echternach, Jan G Korvink, Jürgen Hennig, Maxim Zaitsev
PURPOSE: To enable three-dimensional (3D) vocal tract imaging of dynamic singing or speech tasks at voxel sizes of 1.6 × 1.6 × 1.3 mm(3) at 1.3 s per image. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Stack-of-Stars method was implemented and enhanced to allow for fast and efficient k-space sampling of the box-shaped vocal tract using a 3 Tesla MRI system. Images were reconstructed using an off-line image reconstruction using compressed sensing theory, leading to the abovementioned spatial and temporal resolutions...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916330/epidemiology-of-voice-disorders-in-latvian-school-teachers
#13
Baiba Trinite
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of voice disorders in the teacher population in Latvia has not been studied so far and this is the first epidemiological study whose goal is to investigate the prevalence of voice disorders and their risk factors in this professional group. METHODS: A wide cross-sectional study using stratified sampling methodology was implemented in the general education schools of Latvia. The self-administered voice risk factor questionnaire and the Voice Handicap Index were completed by 522 teachers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914393/influence-of-vocal-tract-geometry-simplifications-on-the-numerical-simulation-of-vowel-sounds
#14
Marc Arnela, Saeed Dabbaghchian, Rémi Blandin, Oriol Guasch, Olov Engwall, Annemie Van Hirtum, Xavier Pelorson
For many years, the vocal tract shape has been approximated by one-dimensional (1D) area functions to study the production of voice. More recently, 3D approaches allow one to deal with the complex 3D vocal tract, although area-based 3D geometries of circular cross-section are still in use. However, little is known about the influence of performing such a simplification, and some alternatives may exist between these two extreme options. To this aim, several vocal tract geometry simplifications for vowels [ɑ], [i], and [u] are investigated in this work...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912151/euclidean-distances-as-measures-of-speaker-similarity-including-identical-twin-pairs-a-forensic-investigation-using-source-and-filter-voice-characteristics
#15
Eugenia San Segundo, Athanasios Tsanas, Pedro Gómez-Vilda
There is a growing consensus that hybrid approaches are necessary for successful speaker characterization in Forensic Speaker Comparison (FSC); hence this study explores the forensic potential of voice features combining source and filter characteristics. The former relate to the action of the vocal folds while the latter reflect the geometry of the speaker's vocal tract. This set of features have been extracted from pause fillers, which are long enough for robust feature estimation while spontaneous enough to be extracted from voice samples in real forensic casework...
November 17, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900487/lipoid-proteinosis-unveiled-by-oral-mucosal-lesions-a-comprehensive-analysis-of-137-cases
#16
Boaz Frenkel, Marilena Vered, Shlomo Taicher, Noam Yarom
OBJECTIVES: Lipoid proteinosis (LP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deposits of hyaline material within skin and mucous membranes of the upper aerodigestive tract, especially the vocal cords. We aimed to investigate possible associations between oral LP (oLP) manifestations and demographic data and extra-oral lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases of oLP were collected following a systematic search of Medline's PubMed and Google Scholar (1948-2014)...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896423/long-term-outcomes-following%C3%A2-h-type-tracheoesophageal-fistula%C3%A2-repair-in-infants
#17
Augusto Zani, Luai Jamal, Giovanni Cobellis, Justyna M Wolinska, Samuel Fung, Evan J Propst, Priscilla P L Chiu, Agostino Pierro
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes following repair of H-type tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of infants with H-type TEF treated at our institution between 2000 and 2014. Patient demographics, surgical management, and postoperative function were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 268 patients with esophageal atresia/TEF treated at our center, 16 (6%) had an H-type TEF (10 males). Thirteen (81%) had associated anomalies...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876268/vocal-changes-accompanying-the-descent-of-the-larynx-during-ontogeny-from-neonates-to-adults-in-male-and-female-goitred-gazelles-gazella-subgutturosa
#18
Ilya A Volodin, Kseniya O Efremova, Roland Frey, Natalia V Soldatova, Elena V Volodina
The pronouncedly enlarged and descended larynx in male goitred gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa), Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) and fallow deer (Dama dama) represents an interesting parallel to the 'Adam's apple' of human males. Goitred gazelles, as humans, are not born with a descended larynx. Therefore the sexual dimorphism of larynx size and position develops during ontogeny. In this study, the vocal ontogeny of male and female goitred gazelles was investigated across five age classes from neonates to adults...
September 12, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865877/cough-in-the-athlete-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#19
Louis-Philippe Boulet, Julie Turmel, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom experienced by athletes, particularly after exercise. We performed a systematic review to assess in this population: 1) the main etiologies of acute and recurrent cough, either exercise-induced or not; 2) how it is assessed; and 3) how cough is treated in this population. From the systematic review, suggestions for management were developed. METHOD: ology: This review was done according to the CHEST methodological guidelines and GRADE framework up to April 2015...
November 16, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859573/intra-and-interobserver-reliability-estimates-for-identification-and-grading-of-upper-respiratory-tract-abnormalities-recorded-in-horses-at-rest-and-during-overground-endoscopy
#20
C L McGivney, J Sweeney, F David, J M O'Leary, E W Hill, L M Katz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies support good intra- and interobserver agreements for endoscopic evaluation of various upper respiratory tract (URT) diseases in horses. However, these studies mainly assessed resting endoscopic examination videos and/or focussed on a single URT abnormality. OBJECTIVES: To estimate intra- and interobserver agreement for identification and grading of all URT abnormalities from resting and overground endoscopy (OGE) videos of Thoroughbreds...
November 14, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
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