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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541243/czy-smog-ma-wp%C3%A5-yw-na-cz%C3%A4-sto%C3%A5-%C3%A4-wyst%C3%A4-powania-zaostrze%C3%A5-przewlek%C3%A5-ego-zapalenia-krtani-analiza-na-przyk%C3%A5-adzie-mieszka%C3%A5-c%C3%A3-w-wojew%C3%A3-dztwa-ma%C3%A5-opolskiego
#1
Remigiusz Ziarno, Anna Suska, Wojciech Kulinowski, Aleksandra Grudzień-Ziarno, Magdalena Kostrzon, Magdalena Paciorek, Jacek Składzień
INTRODUCTION: Due to dynamic industrialisation smog became a frequent phenomenon in most developing cities. According to the last WHO report from Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, Krakow has been classified in the 11th place among the most polluted cities in Europe. It seems to be an urgent issue because of the influence of air pollution on the condition of upper respiratory tract. Materials & Methods: In December 2015 there were 141 patients aged 17-91 years with upper respiratory tract diseases admitted to the phoniatric outpatient clinic in the University Hospital in Cracow...
June 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538821/sensory-symptoms-in-patients-undergoing-thyroidectomy
#2
Lillian Fernandes de Araújo, Leonardo Wanderley Lopes, Priscila Oliveira Costa Silva, Victor Jose Ferreira Perrusi, Vívian Lisboa de Lucena Farias, Elma Heitmann Mares Azevedo
Purpose: To verify the occurrence of sensory symptoms in thyroidectomy patients pre- and post-operatively. Methods: This is a prospective, quantitative, descriptive study conducted with a sample of twelve patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The participants underwent visual laryngeal examination and responded to the Upper Aerodigestive Symptoms (UADS) and Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTDS) questionnaires before and after the surgery. Results: There was higher occurrence of vocal fatigue, hoarseness, pharyngeal bolus, dry throat, and throat clearing preoperatively, whereas higher occurrence of hoarseness, vocal fatigue, cough, and pharyngeal bolus was observed postoperatively for the UADS...
May 15, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528785/resonance-tube-phonation-in-water-the-effect-of-tube-diameter-and-water-depth-on-back-pressure-and-bubble-characteristics-at-different-airflows
#3
Greta Wistbacka, Pedro Amarante Andrade, Susanna Simberg, Britta Hammarberg, Maria Södersten, Jan G Švec, Svante Granqvist
OBJECTIVES: Resonance tube phonation with tube end in water is a voice therapy method in which the patient phonates through a glass tube, keeping the free end of the tube submerged in water, creating bubbles. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine flow-pressure relationship, flow thresholds between bubble types, and bubble frequency as a function of flow and back volume. METHODS: A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used for recording the back pressure produced by resonance tubes with inner diameters of 8 and 9 mm submerged at water depths of 0-7 cm...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523949/developmental-changes-in-pharyngeal-swallowing-acoustics-a-comparison-of-adults-and-children
#4
Neville W Hennessey, Gemma Fisher, Natalie Ciccone
This study examined developmental differences in the acoustics of pharyngeal swallowing. Thirty-one young children (M = 4.5 years) and 29 adults (M = 22.5 years) were recorded swallowing thin liquid and puree boluses. In comparison with adults, children showed longer total swallow sound duration and duration to peak intensity, as well as greater variability in the duration to peak intensity and mean of the averaged spectrum in Hz. Thin and puree boluses differed in measures of duration, intensity and frequency of the averaged sound spectrum, although these effects did not interact with age...
May 19, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502668/spectrographic-and-electroglottographic-findings-of-religious-vocal-performers-in-d%C3%A3-zce-province-of-turkey
#5
Sahin Saruhan, Ender Guclu, Ali Ertugrul
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, the register phenomenon and spectral characteristics of vocal styles used by vocal performers in a Muslim community were investigated. METHODS: Electroglottography was performed on 17 subjects, whereas spectrography was performed on 18 subjects, and 16 of these subjects participated in both parts of the study. RESULTS: We observed that the participants used chest register in voice production and there was no change in this situation related to the increase in frequency...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500350/formants-provide-honest-acoustic-cues-to-body-size-in-american-alligators
#6
Stephan A Reber, Judith Janisch, Kevin Torregrosa, Jim Darlington, Kent A Vliet, W Tecumseh Fitch
In many vertebrates, acoustic cues to body size are encoded in resonance frequencies of the vocal tract ("formants"), rather than in the rate of tissue vibration in the sound source ("pitch"). Anatomical constraints on the vocal tract's size render formants honest cues to size in many bird and mammal species, but it is not clear whether this correlation evolved convergently in these two clades, or whether it is widespread among amniotes (mammals, birds, and non-avian reptiles). We investigated the potential for honest acoustic cues in the bellows of adult American alligators and found that formant spacing provided highly reliable cues to body size, while presumed correlates of the source signal did not...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495329/dynamics-of-the-driving-force-during-the-normal-vocal-fold-vibration-cycle
#7
Philippe Henri DeJonckere, Jean Lebacq, Ingo R Titze
Intraglottal pressure is the driving force of vocal fold vibration. Theoretically, simultaneous quantification of glottal area and transglottal airflow allows the calculation of the intraglottal pressure waveform during a single vibration cycle. In this study, we show that, by combining photoglottography (transglottal light transmission) and airflow (Rothenberg mask) measurements during sustained vocal emissions in vivo, the intraglottal pressure wave can be approximated in a way similar to what has been done in models...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489908/sexual-dimorphism-in-african-elephant-social-rumbles
#8
Anton Baotic, Angela S Stoeger
This study used the source and filter theory approach to analyse sex differences in the acoustic features of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) low-frequency rumbles produced in social contexts ('social rumbles'). Permuted discriminant function analysis revealed that rumbles contain sufficient acoustic information to predict the sex of a vocalizing individual. Features primarily related to the vocalizer's size, i.e. fundamental frequency variables and vocal tract resonant frequencies, differed significantly between the sexes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472866/innervation-of-the-syrinx-of-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#9
Macarena Faunes, João F Botelho, J Martin Wild
In songbirds the learning and maintenance of song is dependent on auditory feedback, but little is known about the presence or role of other forms of sensory feedback. Here we studied the innervation of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, in the zebra finch. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and neural tracing with subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB), we analysed the peripheral and central endings of the branch of the hypoglossal nerve that supplies the syrinx, the tracheosyringeal nerve...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467509/laryngeal-evidence-for-the-first-and-second-passaggio-in-professionally-trained-sopranos
#10
Matthias Echternach, Fabian Burk, Marie Köberlein, Andreas Selamtzis, Michael Döllinger, Michael Burdumy, Bernhard Richter, Christian Thomas Herbst
INTRODUCTION: Due to a lack of empirical data, the current understanding of the laryngeal mechanics in the passaggio regions (i.e., the fundamental frequency ranges where vocal registration events usually occur) of the female singing voice is still limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study the first and second passaggio regions of 10 professionally trained female classical soprano singers were analyzed. The sopranos performed pitch glides from A3 (ƒo = 220 Hz) to A4 (ƒo = 440 Hz) and from A4 (ƒo = 440 Hz) to A5 (ƒo = 880 Hz) on the vowel [iː]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466659/effects-of-ageing-on-orofacial-fine-force-control-and-its-relationship-with-parallel-change-in-sensory-perception
#11
Nicole M Etter, Patrick O Mckeon, Emily V Dressler, Richard D Andreatta
PURPOSE: Current theoretical models suggest the importance of a bidirectional relationship between sensation and production in the vocal tract to maintain lifelong speech skills. The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in orofacial skilled force production and to begin defining the orofacial perception-action relationship in healthy adults. METHOD: Low-level orofacial force control measures (reaction time, rise time, peak force, mean hold force (N) and force hold SD) were collected from 60 adults (19-84 years)...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464691/estimating-the-spectral-tilt-of-the-glottal-source-from-telephone-speech-using-a-deep-neural-network
#12
Emma Jokinen, Paavo Alku
Estimation of the spectral tilt of the glottal source has several applications in speech analysis and modification. However, direct estimation of the tilt from telephone speech is challenging due to vocal tract resonances and distortion caused by speech compression. In this study, a deep neural network is used for the tilt estimation from telephone speech by training the network with tilt estimates computed by glottal inverse filtering. An objective evaluation shows that the proposed technique gives more accurate estimates for the spectral tilt than previously used techniques that estimate the tilt directly from telephone speech without glottal inverse filtering...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408141/the-effects-of-heel-height-on-head-position-long-term-average-spectra-and-perceptions-of-female-singers
#13
Amelia A Rollings
Female singers often wear high heels for auditions and performances. Heel height research in non-singing contexts indicates that wearing heels can affect body alignment and head position. Studies in orthodontics, sleep apnea, and voice science suggest that head and neck positioning can alter the vocal tract. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects, if any, of heel height (barefoot, 10.16-cm stilettos) on three angles of singer head position (calculated from C7-tragus-nasion), long-term average spectra data, and perceptual data (questionnaire) acquired from female (N = 30) soloists during alternating periods of silence and singing...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392085/voice-handicap-index-and-interpretation-of-the-cutoff-points-using-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve-as-screening-for-young-adult-female-smokers
#14
Dionysios Tafiadis, Evangelia I Kosma, Spyridon K Chronopoulos, Aggelos Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Drosos, Vassiliki Siafaka, Eugenia I Toki, Nausica Ziavra
The relationship between smoking and alterations of the vocal tract and larynx is well known. This pathology leads to the degradation of voice performance in daily living. Multiple assessment methods of vocal tract and larynx have been developed, and in recent years they were enriched with self-reported questionnaires such as Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study determined the cutoff points of VHI's total score and its three domains for young female smokers in Greece. These estimated cutoff points could be used by voice specialists as an indicator for further clinical evaluation (foreseeing a potential risk of developing a vocal symptom because of smoking habits)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382115/nasalance-changes-following-various-endonasal-surgeries
#15
Hazem Saeed Amer, Ahmed Shaker Elaassar, Ahmad Mohammad Anany, Amal Saeed Quriba
Introduction There is change in nasalance post endonasal surgery which is not permanent. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term nasalance changes following different types of endonasal surgeries. Methods We included in this study patients who underwent sinonasal surgery at the Otorhinolaryngology Department in Zagazig University Hospitals from February 2015 until March 2016. We divided the patients into two groups according to the surgeries they underwent: Group (A) was the FESS group and group (B), the septoturbinoplasty group...
April 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372130/the-relation-between-tongue-shape-and-pitch-in-clarinet-playing-using-ultrasound-measurements
#16
Steven M Lulich, Sherman Charles, Benjamin Lulich
Tongue shapes during clarinet performances of chromatic scale, portamento and pitch bending exercises were imaged using an ultrasound machine while audio and video were recorded synchronously. Analysis of the data from four participants revealed that tongue position varies non-monotically with note frequency in the lowest register (up to ≈ 440 Hz) and then descends monotonically as note frequencies rise through the upper registers. The descent of the tongue results in an expansion of the vocal tract's posterior oral cavity, resulting in a vocal tract input impedance maximum tuned to high frequency...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372118/effects-of-tongue-position-in-the-simplified-vocal-tract-model-of-japanese-sibilant-fricatives-s-and-%C3%AA
#17
Tsukasa Yoshinaga, Kazunori Nozaki, Shigeo Wada
The effects of tongue position on sound properties were investigated by using simplified models of sibilant fricatives /s/ and /ʃ/. These were constructed from medical images of a native Japanese-speaking subject who pronounced both fricative sounds. The sounds generated by the models were experimentally measured and compared with the subjects /s/ and /ʃ/. The position of tongue models altered the main peak frequency and spectral mean of the generated sound, which resulted in the reproduction of frequency characteristics of /s/ or /ʃ/ with the subjects tongue position...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372071/the-role-of-vocal-tract-and-subglottal-resonances-in-producing-vocal-instabilities
#18
Laura Wade, Noel Hanna, John Smith, Joe Wolfe
During speech and singing, the vibrating vocal folds are acoustically loaded by resonant ducts upstream (the trachea) and downstream (the vocal tract). Some models suggest that the vocal fold vibration (at frequency fo) is more stable at frequencies below that of a vocal tract resonance, so that the downstream load is inertive (mass-like). If so, vocal fold vibration might become unstable when fo and resonance frequencies "cross over" and the load varies rapidly in phase and magnitude. In one experiment, singers produced a slow diphthong at constant pitch, thus shifting the first tract resonance R1 across fixed fo...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372057/a-study-of-voice-production-characteristics-of-astronuat-speech-during-apollo-11-for-speaker-modeling-in-space
#19
Chengzhu Yu, John H L Hansen
Human physiology has evolved to accommodate environmental conditions, including temperature, pressure, and air chemistry unique to Earth. However, the environment in space varies significantly compared to that on Earth and, therefore, variability is expected in astronauts' speech production mechanism. In this study, the variations of astronaut voice characteristics during the NASA Apollo 11 mission are analyzed. Specifically, acoustical features such as fundamental frequency and phoneme formant structure that are closely related to the speech production system are studied...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367052/articulating-what-infants-attune-to-in-native-speech
#20
Catherine T Best, Louis M Goldstein, Hosung Nam, Michael D Tyler
To become language users, infants must embrace the integrality of speech perception and production. That they do so, and quite rapidly, is implied by the native-language attunement they achieve in each domain by 6-12 months. Yet research has most often addressed one or the other domain, rarely how they interrelate. Moreover, mainstream assumptions that perception relies on acoustic patterns whereas production involves motor patterns entail that the infant would have to translate incommensurable information to grasp the perception-production relationship...
October 1, 2016: Ecological Psychology: a Publication of the International Society for Ecological Psychology
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