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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322535/anatomy-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-in-domestic-birds-with-emphasis-on-vocalization
#1
REVIEW
C Casteleyn, P Cornillie, S Van Cruchten, W Van den Broeck, C Van Ginneken, P Simoens
This work reviews the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract in domestic birds including the chicken and pigeon. Non-exhaustive additional information on other bird species, illustrating the extraordinary diversity in the biological class Aves, can be found in several footnotes. The described anatomical structures are functionally considered in view of avian sound production. In particular, the Syrinx is invaluable. Its most important structures are the Labia and the lateral and medial tympaniform membranes in non-songbirds and songbirds, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313147/voice-discrimination-by-adults-with-cochlear-implants-the-benefits-of-early-implantation-for-vocal-tract-length-perception
#2
Yael Zaltz, Raymond L Goldsworthy, Liat Kishon-Rabin, Laurie S Eisenberg
Cochlear implant (CI) users find it extremely difficult to discriminate between talkers, which may partially explain why they struggle to understand speech in a multi-talker environment. Recent studies, based on findings with postlingually deafened CI users, suggest that these difficulties may stem from their limited use of vocal-tract length (VTL) cues due to the degraded spectral resolution transmitted by the CI device. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of adult CI users who had no prior acoustic experience, i...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306526/vocal-tract-discomfort-scale-vtds-and-voice-symptom-scale-voiss-in-the-evaluation-of-patients-with-voice-disorders
#3
Leonardo Wanderley Lopes, Vanessa de Oliveira Florencio, Priscila Oliveira Costa Silva, Ana Celiane da Nóbrega E Ugulino, Anna Alice Almeida
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to correlate the Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTDS) with the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) for evaluation of patients with dysphonia. In addition, we aimed to compare vocal tract discomfort symptoms in patients with and without self-reported voice problem. STUDY DESIGN: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective study. We analyzed 143 women and 62 men with voice disorders, as confirmed by endoscopic larynx examination. All patients completed the VTDS and VoiSS at vocal evaluation...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287204/toddlers-comprehension-of-adult-and-child-talkers-adult-targets-versus-vocal-tract-similarity
#4
Angela Cooper, Natalie Fecher, Elizabeth K Johnson
How do children represent words? If lexical representations are based on encoding the indexical characteristics of frequently-heard speakers, this predicts that speakers like a child's own mother should be best understood. Alternatively, if they are based on the child's own motor productions, this predicts an own-voice advantage in word recognition. Here, we address this question by presenting 2.5-year-olds with recordings of their own voice, another child's voice, their own mother's voice, and another mother's voice in a child-friendly eye-tracking procedure...
December 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277351/estimation-of-source-filter-interaction-regions-based-on-electroglottography
#5
Anil Palaparthi, Lynn Maxfield, Ingo R Titze
Source-filter interaction is a phenomenon in which acoustic airway pressures influence the glottal airflow at the source (level 1) and the vibration pattern of the vocal folds (level 2). This interaction is most significant when dominant source harmonics are near airway resonances. The influence of acoustic airway pressures on vocal fold vibration (level 2) was studied systematically by changing the supraglottal vocal tract length in human subjects with tube extensions. The subjects were asked to perform fundamental frequency (fo) glides while phonating through tubes of various lengths...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275451/voice-alterations-in-patients-with-morquio-a-syndrome
#6
Krzysztof Szklanny, Ryszard Gubrynowicz, Anna Tylki-Szymańska
Morquio A syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IV A), is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder which belongs to the group of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). It is caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) activity deficiency, which results in impaired degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS). These compounds infiltrate and disrupt the architecture of the extracellular matrix, compromising the integrity of the connective tissue. Patients with Morquio A have also been noted for exhibiting abnormalities of the larynx and vocal tract...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273232/the-impact-of-double-source-of-vibration-semioccluded-voice-exercises-on-objective-and-subjective-outcomes-in-subjects-with-voice-complaints
#7
Marco Guzman, Gabriela Acuña, Fernanda Pacheco, Francisca Peralta, Constanza Romero, Cecilia Vergara, Camilo Quezada
PURPOSE: The present study reports the effects of double source of vibration semioccluded vocal tract exercises (SOVTEs) on subjective and objective variables in subjects with voice complaints. METHODS: Eighty-four participants with voice complaints were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) water resistance therapy, (2) tongue trills, (3) lip trills, and (4) raspberry (tongue and lip trills at the same time). Before and after voice therapy, participants underwent aerodynamic, electroglottographic, and acoustic assessments...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235013/effects-of-weight-loss-on-acoustic-parameters-after-bariatric-surgery
#8
Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de Souza, Marquiony Marques Dos Santos, Leandro Araújo Pernambuco, Cynthia Meira de Almeida Godoy, Deysianne Meire da Silva Lima
BACKGROUND: Patients with morbid obesity may present vocal alterations, since large accumulation of fat in the vocal tract may interfere with voice production of these individuals. OBJECTIVE: Verify the neck circumference and the acoustic parameters of voice in obese women, before and after the bariatric surgery, and compare the results with a control group, with normal weight. METHODS: Observational, longitudinal, descriptive study with patients referred to the SCODE (Obesity Surgery and Related Disorders Center) in a university hospital...
December 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206291/cranial-shape-variation-in-adult-howler-monkeys-alouatta-seniculus
#9
Luca Fiorenza, Emiliano Bruner
Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) display a distinctive cranial architecture characterized by airorhynchy (or retroflexion of the facial skeleton on the cranial base), a small braincase, and a posteriorly oriented foramen magnum. This configuration has been associated with distinct factors including a high folivory diet, locomotion, and the presence of a specialized vocal tract characterized by large hyoid bone. However, the morphological relationships between the facial and neurocranial blocks in Alouatta have been scarcely investigated...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205443/digitized-evaluation-of-speech-intelligibility-using-vowels-in-maxillectomy-patients
#10
Yuka I Sumita, Mariko Hattori, Mai Murase, Mahmoud E Elbashti, Hisashi Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Among the functional disabilities that patients face following maxillectomy, speech impairment is a major factor influencing quality of life. Proper rehabilitation of speech, which may include prosthodontic and surgical treatment and speech therapy, requires accurate evaluation of speech intelligibility (SI). A simple, less time-consuming yet accurate evaluation is desirable both for maxillectomy patients and the various clinicians providing maxillofacial treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the utility of digital acoustic analysis of vowels for the prediction of SI in maxillectomy patients, based on a comprehensive understanding of speech production in the vocal tract of maxillectomy patients and its perception...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195472/simulating-alveolar-trills-using-a-two-mass-model-of-the-tongue-tip
#11
Benjamin Elie, Yves Laprie
This paper investigates the possibility of reproducing the self-sustained oscillation of the tongue tip in alveolar trills. The interest is to study the articulatory and phonatory configurations that are required to produce alveolar trills. Using a realistic geometry of the vocal tract, derived from cineMRI data of a real speaker, the paper studies the mechanical behavior of a lumped two-mass model of the tongue tip. Then, the paper proposes a solution to simulate the incomplete occlusion of the vocal tract during linguopalatal contacts by adding a lateral acoustic waveguide...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195455/ontogeny-of-individual-and-litter-identity-signaling-in-grunts-of-piglets
#12
Michaela Syrová, Richard Policht, Pavel Linhart, Marek Špinka
Many studies have shown that animal vocalizations can signal individual identity and group/family membership. However, much less is known about the ontogeny of identity information-when and how this individual/group distinctiveness in vocalizations arises and how it changes during the animal's life. Recent findings suggest that even species that were thought to have limited vocal plasticity could adjust their calls to sound more similar to each other within a group. It has already been shown that sows can acoustically distinguish their own offspring from alien piglets and that litters differ in their calls...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195437/a-revised-metric-for-calculating-acoustic-dispersion-applied-to-stop-inventories
#13
Ivy Hauser
Dispersion Theory [DT; Liljencrants and Lindblom (1972). Language 12(1), 839-862] claims that acoustically dispersed vowel inventories should be typologically common. Dispersion is often quantified using triangle area between three mean vowel formant points. This approach is problematic; it ignores distributions, which affect speech perception [Clayards, Tanenhaus, Aslin, and Jacobs (2008). Cognition 108, 804-809]. This letter proposes a revised metric for calculating dispersion which incorporates covariance...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194516/deficits-in-cortical-suppression-during-vocalization-are-associated-with-structural-abnormalities-in-the-arcuate-fasciculus-in-early-illness-schizophrenia-and-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#14
Thomas J Whitford, Lena K L Oestreich, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Rachel L Loewy, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon
Self-generated speech produces a smaller N1 amplitude in the auditory-evoked potential than externally generated speech; this phenomenon is known as N1-suppression. Schizophrenia patients show less N1-suppression than healthy controls. This failure to self-suppress may underlie patients' characteristic tendency to misattribute self-generated thoughts and actions to external sources. While the cause of N1-suppression deficits to speech in schizophrenia remains unclear, structural damage to the arcuate fasciculus is a candidate, due to its ostensible role in transmitting the efference copy of the motor plan to speak...
November 29, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120706/administration-of-cloprostenol-and-oxytocin-before-electroejaculation-in-goat-bucks-reduces-the-needed-amount-of-electrical-stimulation-without-affecting-seminal-quality
#15
Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Daniela Casuriaga, Julia Giriboni, Aline Freitas-de-Melo, Patricia Silveira, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
Electroejaculation (EE) is a widely used semen collection technique; but, it is stressful and painful for the animals. Considering these concerns, it may be important to develop practices to decrease the negative implications of EE on animals. Oxytocin and prostaglandin-F2alpha (PGF2α) stimulate the contractions of the muscles of the male genital tract. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the administration of oxytocin and/or a PGF2α analogue (cloprostenol) to bucks in relation to their stress response and sperm parameters before semen collection by EE was performed...
October 28, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111338/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-italian-version-of-the-vocal-tract-discomfort-scale-i-vtd
#16
Carlo Robotti, Francesco Mozzanica, Ilaria Pozzali, Laura D'Amore, Patrizia Maruzzi, Daniela Ginocchio, Stafania Barozzi, Rosaria Lorusso, Francesco Ottaviani, Antonio Schindler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Italian version of the VTD scale (I-VTD scale). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, nonrandomized, prospective study with controls. METHODS: For the item generation, a cross-cultural adaptation and translation process was performed following the back translation process (phase 1). For reproducibility analysis (phase 2), 102 patients with dysphonia were recruited (internal consistency analysis); 57 of them completed the I-VTD scale twice (test-retest reliability analysis)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111337/the-vocal-tract-organ-a-new-musical-instrument-using-3-d-printed-vocal-tracts
#17
David M Howard
The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068595/computational-fluid-dynamics-in-the-assessment-of-patients-postoperative-status-after-glottis-widening-surgery
#18
Magdalena Marków, Daniel Janecki, Bogusława Orecka, Maciej Misiołek, Krzysztof Warmuziński
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a rapidly developing instrument with a number of practical applications, allows calculation and visualization of the changing parameters of airflow in the upper respiratory tract. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of CFD as an instrument for noninvasive tests of the larynx in patients who had undergone surgical treatment due to bilateral vocal fold paralysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Surface measurements of the glottic space were made during maximum adduction of the vocal folds...
September 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031288/case-report-old-world-mucosal-leishmaniasis-report-of-five-imported-cases-to-the-hospital-for-tropical-diseases-london-united-kingdom
#19
Trupti A Patel, Glenis K Scadding, David E Phillips, Diana N Lockwood
Old World species of Leishmania typically cause visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mucosal involvement is typically seen with infection by Leishmania species found in South America, usually after the healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis. We present five imported cases of mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Old World Mediterranean Leishmania infantum exclusively affecting the nasal mucosa or vocal cord. In only one case was there a recollection of a preceding cutaneous lesion compatible with cutaneous Leishmaniasis...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986153/contemporary-commercial-music-singing-students-voice-quality-and-vocal-function-at-the-beginning-of-singing-training
#20
Ewelina M Sielska-Badurek, Maria Sobol, Katarzyna Olszowska, Kazimierz Niemczyk
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the voice quality and the vocal tract function in popular singing students at the beginning of their singing training at the High School of Music. DESIGN: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study consisted of 45 popular singing students (35 females and 10 males, mean age: 19.9 ± 2.8 years). They were assessed in the first 2 months of their 4-year singing training at the High School of Music, between 2013 and 2016...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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