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Vocal tract

Hideyuki Kataoka, Shiro Arii, Takahiro Fukuhara, Kazunori Fujiwara, Yasuomi Kunimoto, Kensaku Hasegawa, Hiromi Takeuchi
It is difficult to directly observe glottal airflow velocity just above the glottis due to sensor size requirements and limited accessibility. We developed a miniature hot-wire probe and flexible fiberscopic high-speed imaging system for human examinations. Simultaneous direct measurement of glottal airflow velocity, subglottal pressure, and vocal fold vibration was achieved in a patient who was treated with a T-tube for tracheal stenosis. Airflow velocity changes at the anterior midline of the vocal folds were synchronized with subglottal pressure changes during each phonation cycle...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
Katarzyna Pisanski, Emanuel C Mora, Annette Pisanski, David Reby, Piotr Sorokowski, Tomasz Frackowiak, David R Feinberg
Several mammalian species scale their voice fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies in competitive and mating contexts, reducing vocal tract and laryngeal allometry thereby exaggerating apparent body size. Although humans' rare capacity to volitionally modulate these same frequencies is thought to subserve articulated speech, the potential function of voice frequency modulation in human nonverbal communication remains largely unexplored. Here, the voices of 167 men and women from Canada, Cuba, and Poland were recorded in a baseline condition and while volitionally imitating a physically small and large body size...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Giorgio Biagetti, Paolo Crippa, Laura Falaschetti, Simone Orcioni, Claudio Turchetti
Speaker identification plays a crucial role in biometric person identification as systems based on human speech are increasingly used for the recognition of people. Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) have been widely adopted for decades in speech processing to capture the speech-specific characteristics with a reduced dimensionality. However, although their ability to decorrelate the vocal source and the vocal tract filter make them suitable for speech recognition, they greatly mitigate the speaker variability, a specific characteristic that distinguishes different speakers...
September 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Lorena de Almeida Ramos, Ana Cristina Côrtes Gama
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the effects of execution time on auditory-perceptual and acoustic responses in children with dysphonia completing straw phonation exercises. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, prospective, comparative intra-subject study design was used. METHODS: Twenty-seven children, ranging from 5 to 10 years of age, diagnosed with vocal cord nodules or cysts, were enrolled in the study. All subjects included in the Experimental Group were also included in the Control Group which involved complete voice rest...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Christian T Herbst
During phonation, the respiratory, the phonatory, and the resonatory parts of the voice organ can interact, where physiological action in one subsystem elicits a direct effect in another. Here, three major subsystems of these synergies are reviewed, creating a model of voice subsystem interactions: (1) Vocal tract adjustments can influence the behavior of the voice source via nonlinear source-tract interactions; (2) The type and degree of vocal fold adduction controls the expiratory airflow rate; and (3) The tracheal pull caused by the respiratory system affects the vertical larynx position and thus the vocal tract resonances...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Daniel J Croake, Richard D Andreatta, Joseph C Stemple
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to quantify immediate alterations in the airflow glottogram between the Vocal Function Exercises semi-occluded mouth posture (/ol/ with lip buzz) and the sustained vowel /o/ in individuals with normal voices, and to determine if noted changes were in agreement with established semi-occluded vocal tract aerodynamic theory. Based on semi-occluded vocal tract aerodynamic theory, we hypothesized the following immediate changes in the flow glottogram during the /ol-buzz/ condition: a greater open quotient, a greater skewing quotient, a greater maximum flow declination rate, increased average airflow, decreased peak airflow, and increased minimum airflow...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Takafumi Furuyama, Kohta I Kobayasi, Hiroshi Riquimaroux
The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the "coo call" to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jia-Shiou Liao
Purpose: This study investigated the acoustic properties of 6 Taiwan Southern Min vowels produced by 10 laryngeal speakers (LA), 10 speakers with a pneumatic artificial larynx (PA), and 8 esophageal speakers (ES). Method: Each of the 6 monophthongs of Taiwan Southern Min (/i, e, a, ɔ, u, ə/) was represented by a Taiwan Southern Min character and appeared randomly on a list 3 times (6 Taiwan Southern Min characters × 3 repetitions = 18 tokens). Each Taiwan Southern Min character in this study has the same syllable structure, /V/, and all were read with tone 1 (high and level)...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Ulrika Nygren, Bengt Isberg, Stefan Arver, Stellan Hertegård, Maria Södersten, Agneta Nordenskjöld
PURPOSE: Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) may develop a virilized voice due to late diagnosis or suboptimal suppression of adrenal androgens. Changes in the vocal folds due to virilization have not been studied in vivo. The purpose was to investigate if the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is affected by virilization and correlate findings to fundamental frequency (F0). METHOD: A case-control study using magnetic resonance imaging and voice recordings. Four women with CAH with virilized voices (26-40 years), and 5 female and 4 male controls participated...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Andrea Deme
High-pitched sung vowels may be considered phonetically "underspecified" because of (i) the tuning of the F1 to the f0 accompanying pitch raising and (ii) the wide harmonic spacing of the voice source resulting in the undersampling of the vocal tract transfer function. Therefore, sung vowel intelligibility is expected to decrease as the f0 increases. Based on the literature of speech perception, it is often suggested that sung vowels are better perceived if uttered in consonantal (CVC) context than in isolation even at high f0...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Lynn Maxfield, Anil Palaparthi, Ingo Titze
The traditional source-filter theory of voice production describes a linear relationship between the source (glottal flow pulse) and the filter (vocal tract). Such a linear relationship does not allow for nor explain how changes in the filter may impact the stability and regularity of the source. The objective of this experiment was to examine what effect unpredictable changes to vocal tract dimensions could have on fo stability and individual harmonic intensities in situations in which low frequency harmonics cross formants in a fundamental frequency glide...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Julia Lukaschyk, Meike Brockmann-Bauser, Ulla Beushausen
OBJECTIVES: Currently, there is no standardized German questionnaire to assess vocal tract discomfort in voice patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal consistency, reliability, and validity of the German version of the Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) Scale. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: First, a cross-cultural translation and adaptation from English to German was performed. One hundred seven patients between the ages of 18 and 76 with voice disorders were divided into two different diagnosis-related groups (organic and functional voice disorder) and 50 vocally healthy adults were included...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Ravi Shankar Prasad, B Yegnanarayana
This paper presents an approach to determine the open phase region of a glottal cycle based on changes in the characteristics of the vocal tract system. The glottal closing phase contributes to major excitation of the vocal tract system. The opening phase affects the vocal tract system characteristics by effectively increasing the length of the tract, due to coupling of the subglottal region. To determine the glottal open region, it is necessary to estimate the vocal tract characteristics from the segment with subglottal coupling...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Tracy Bourne, Maëva Garnier, Adeline Samson
Six male music theatre singers were recorded in three different voice qualities: legit and two types of belt ("chesty" and "twangy"), on two vowels ([e] and [ɔ]), at four increasing pitches in the upper limit of each singer's belt range (∼250-440 Hz). The audio signal, the electroglottographic (EGG) signal, and the vocal tract impedance were all measured simultaneously. Voice samples were analyzed and then evaluated perceptually by 16 expert listeners. The three qualities were produced with significant differences at the physiological, acoustical, and perceptual levels: Singers produced belt qualities with a higher EGG contact quotient (CQEGG) and greater contacting speed quotient (Qcs), greater sound pressure level (SPL), and energy above 1 kHz (alpha ratio), and with higher frequencies of the first two vocal tract resonances (fR1, fR2), especially in the upper pitch range when compared to legit...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Phayvanh P Sjogren, David E Skarda, Albert H Park
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentations and management of detergent pod ingestion at a tertiary children's hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with detergent pod ingestion from June 2010 and March 2015. RESULTS: Nine cases of detergent pod ingestion were included over a 5-year period. The average age was 26.3 months (range, 11-43 months). Eight (89%) of the cases were female...
July 28, 2016: Laryngoscope
M Florencia Assaneo, Jacobo Sitt, Gael Varoquaux, Mariano Sigman, Laurent Cohen, Marcos A Trevisan
The faculty of language depends on the interplay between the production and perception of speech sounds. A relevant open question is whether the dimensions that organize voice perception in the brain are acoustical or depend on properties of the vocal system that produced it. One of the main empirical difficulties in answering this question is to generate sounds that vary along a continuum according to the anatomical properties the vocal apparatus that produced them. Here we use a mathematical model that offers the unique possibility of synthesizing vocal sounds by controlling a small set of anatomically based parameters...
November 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Ingo R Titze
PURPOSE: Speech has been hailed as unique to human evolution. Although the inventory of distinct sounds producible with vocal tract articulators is a great advantage in human oral communication, it is argued here that the larynx as a sound source in speech is limited in its range and capability because a low fundamental frequency is ideal for phonemic intelligibility and source-filter independence. METHOD: Four existing data sets were combined to make an argument regarding exclusive use of the larynx for speech: (1) range of fundamental frequency, (2) laryngeal muscle activation, (3) vocal fold length in relation to sarcomere length of the major laryngeal muscles, and (4) vocal fold morphological development...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Kazlin N Mason, Jamie L Perry
The purpose of this study was to create a 3D volumetric segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharyngeal space and adenoid tissue and to examine the relationship between nasopharyngeal volume (NPV), adenoid volume, and linear measures of the velopharyngeal structures, pharynx, and vocal tract in children with and without cleft palate. A total of 24 participants including 18 typically developing children (4-8 years of age) and 6 children (4-8 years of age) with varying degrees of cleft palate were imaged using MRI...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sunday Iliya, Ferrante Neri
This paper presents a neural system-based technique for segmenting short impaired speech utterances into silent, unvoiced, and voiced sections. Moreover, the proposed technique identifies those points of the (voiced) speech where the spectrum becomes steady. The resulting technique thus aims at detecting that limited section of the speech which contains the information about the potential impairment of the speech. This section is of interest to the speech therapist as it corresponds to the possibly incorrect movements of speech organs (lower lip and tongue with respect to the vocal tract)...
September 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Marco Fantini, Giovanni Succo, Erika Crosetti, Alfonso Borragán Torre, Roberto Demo, Franco Fussi
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed at investigating the immediate effects of a semi-occluded vocal tract exercise with a ventilation mask in a group of contemporary commercial singers. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled study was carried out. METHODS: Thirty professional or semi-professional singers with no voice complaints were randomly divided into two groups on recruitment: an experimental group and a control group. The same warm-up exercise was performed by the experimental group with an occluded ventilation mask placed over the nose and the mouth and by the control group without the ventilation mask...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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