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Vocal tract

Josh Chartier, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
When speaking, we dynamically coordinate movements of our jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying articulation, we used direct cortical recordings from human sensorimotor cortex while participants spoke natural sentences that included sounds spanning the entire English phonetic inventory. We used deep neural networks to infer speakers' articulator movements from produced speech acoustics. Individual electrodes encoded a diversity of articulatory kinematic trajectories (AKTs), each revealing coordinated articulator movements toward specific vocal tract shapes...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
Hilmar P Sigurdsson, Sophia E Pépés, Georgina M Jackson, Amelia Draper, Paul S Morgan, Stephen R Jackson
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by repetitive and intermittent motor and vocal tics. TS is thought to reflect fronto-striatal dysfunction and the aetiology of the disorder has been linked to widespread alterations in the functional and structural integrity of the brain. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) abnormalities in a large sample of young patients with TS in comparison to a sample of matched typically developing control individuals (CS) using diffusion MRI...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
YeonWoo Lee, GeunHyo Kim, SooGeun Wang, JeonYeob Jang, Wonjae Cha, HongSik Choi, HyangHee Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the acoustic characteristics associated with alternation deformation of the vocal tract due to large epiglottic cyst, and to confirm the relation between the anatomical change and resonant function of the vocal tract. METHODS: Eight men with epiglottic cyst were enrolled in this study. The jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and first two formants were analyzed in vowels /a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, and /u:/. These values were analyzed before and after laryngeal microsurgery...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Deniz Başkent, Annika Luckmann, Jessy Ceha, Etienne Gaudrain, Terrin N Tamati
In discriminating speakers' voices, normal-hearing individuals effectively use two vocal characteristics, vocal pitch (related to fundamental frequency, F0) and vocal-tract length (VTL, related to speaker size). Typical cochlear-implant users show poor perception of these cues. However, in implant users with low-frequency residual acoustic hearing, this bimodal electro-acoustic stimulation may provide additional voice-related cues, such as low-numbered harmonics and formants, which could improve F0/VTL perception...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Rita Chiaramonte, Carmela Di Luciano, Ignazio Chiaramonte, Agostino Serra, Marco Bonfiglio
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the role of different specialists in the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), to understand changes in verbal expression and phonation, respiratory dynamics and swallowing that occurred rapidly over a short period of time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 22 patients with bulbar ALS were submitted for voice assessment, ENT evaluation, Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP), spectrogram, electroglottography, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing...
April 23, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Vanessa Veis Ribeiro, Amanda Gabriela de Oliveira, Jhonatan da Silva Vitor, Ana Carolina Ramos, Alcione Ghedini Brasolotto, Kelly Cristina Alves Silverio
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of vocal therapy associated with electromyographic biofeedback in women with behavioral dysphonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. Twenty-two adult women with behavioral dysphonia were randomly divided into two groups: Experimental Group-11 women participated in vocal therapy associated with the application of electromyographic biofeedback; Placebo Group-11 women participated in vocal therapy associated with the application of placebo electromyographic biofeedback...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Gustavo Polacow Korn, Anna Carolina Villar, Renata Rangel Azevedo
INTRODUCTION: An air traffic controller is a professional who performs air traffic control functions in air traffic control units and is responsible for controlling the various stages of a flight. OBJECTIVE: To compare hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort and their risk factors among air traffic controllers in the approach control of São Paulo. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, a voice self-evaluation adapted from to self-evaluation prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor for teachers was administered to 76 air traffic controllers at approach control of São Paulo, Brazil...
April 5, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Marcelo Saldias, Marco Guzman, Gonzalo Miranda, Anne-Maria Laukkanen
BACKGROUND: Vocal tract setting in hyperfunctional patients is characterized by a high larynx and narrowing of the epilaryngeal and pharyngeal region. Similar observations have been made for various singing styles, eg, belting. The voice quality in belting has been described to be loud, speech like, and high pitched. It is also often described as sounding "pressed" or "tense". The above mentioned has led to the hypothesis that belting may be strenuous to the vocal folds...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Jiří Přibil, Anna Přibilová, Ivan Frollo
This article compares open-air and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment working with a weak magnetic field as regards the methods of its generation, spectral properties of mechanical vibration and acoustic noise produced by gradient coils during the scanning process, and the measured noise intensity. These devices are used for non-invasive MRI reconstruction of the human vocal tract during phonation with simultaneous speech recording. In this case, the vibration and noise have negative influence on quality of speech signal...
April 5, 2018: Sensors
Maria Bane, Megan Brown, Vrushali Angadi, Daniel J Croake, Richard D Andreatta, Joseph C Stemple
PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of varying degrees of vocal tract (VT) occlusion used during Vocal Function Exercises (VFEs) on attainment of maximum phonation time (MPT) goals in normal voice. Greater VT occlusion was expected to result in increased MPT. The overarching goal was to determine whether the semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) posture used during VFEs could be modified while preserving efficacy. METHOD: Twenty-six females ages 18-30 participated in this pre-post longitudinal group study...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Marion David, Alexis N Tausend, Olaf Strelcyk, Andrew J Oxenham
Segregating and understanding speech in complex environments is a major challenge for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. It remains unclear to what extent these difficulties are dominated by direct interference, such as simultaneous masking, or by a failure of the mechanisms of stream segregation. This study compared older HI listeners' performance with that of young and older normal-hearing (NH) listeners in stream segregation tasks involving speech sounds. Listeners were presented with sequences of speech tokens, each consisting of a fricative consonant and a voiced vowel (CV)...
March 21, 2018: Hearing Research
Bruna M R de Andrade, Eugenia H O Valença, Roberto Salvatori, Anita H O Souza, Luiz A Oliveira-Neto, Alaíde H A Oliveira, Mario C P Oliveira, Enaldo V Melo, Michelle S Andrade, Carolina A Freitas, Michela P Santos, Fillipe A Custodio, Gisane C Monteiro, Susana de Carvalho, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: Voice is produced by the vibration of the vocal folds expressed by its fundamental frequency (Hz), whereas the formants (F) are fundamental frequency multiples, indicating amplification zones of the vowels in the vocal tract. We have shown that lifetime isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) causes high pitch voice, with higher values of most formant frequencies, maintaining a prepuberal acoustic prediction. The objectives of this work were to verify the effects of the therapy with a semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVTT) and choir training on voice in these subjects with IGHD...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Alan Taitz, M Florencia Assaneo, Natalia Elisei, Mónica Trípodi, Laurent Cohen, Jacobo D Sitt, Marcos A Trevisan
Sound-symbolic word classes are found in different cultures and languages worldwide. These words are continuously produced to code complex information about events. Here we explore the capacity of creative language to transport complex multisensory information in a controlled experiment, where our participants improvised onomatopoeias from noisy moving objects in audio, visual and audiovisual formats. We found that consonants communicate movement types (slide, hit or ring) mainly through the manner of articulation in the vocal tract...
2018: PloS One
Mario Fleischer, Alexander Mainka, Steffen Kürbis, Peter Birkholz
Recently, 3D printing has been increasingly used to create physical models of the vocal tract with geometries obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. These printed models allow measuring the vocal tract transfer function, which is not reliably possible in vivo for the vocal tract of living humans. The transfer functions enable the detailed examination of the acoustic effects of specific articulatory strategies in speaking and singing, and the validation of acoustic plane-wave models for realistic vocal tract geometries in articulatory speech synthesis...
2018: PloS One
Minyoung Jang, Krystyne Basa, Jessica Levi
OBJECTIVE: Intubation has been associated with laryngeal injury that often resolves spontaneously without complication. We present a case of a child intubated for less than 48 hours, who presented with dysphonia and intermittent dyspnea two months after intubation due to epiglottic and vocal process granulomas. This is unusual in that multiple granulomas were found in the posterior glottis and supraglottis after short-term intubation. Our objective was to determine if there are risk factors for developing persistent post-intubation sequelae, including the delayed presentation and unusual location of post-intubation granulomas in our case...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Marco Gamba, Livio Favaro, Alessandro Araldi, Valentina Matteucci, Cristina Giacoma, Olivier Friard
Vocal individuality is widespread in social animals. Individual variation in vocalizations is a prerequisite for discriminating among conspecifics and may have facilitated the evolution of large complex societies. Ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta live in relatively large social groups, have conspicuous vocal repertoires, and their species-specific utterances can be interpreted in light of source-filter theory of vocal production. Indeed, their utterances allow individual discrimination and even recognition thanks to the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Andrea Ravignani, Stephanie Gross, Maxime Garcia, Ana Rubio-Garcia, Bart de Boer
Vocal communication is a crucial aspect of animal behavior. The mechanism which most mammals use to vocalize relies on three anatomical components. First, air overpressure is generated inside the lower vocal tract. Second, as the airstream goes through the glottis, sound is produced via vocal fold vibration. Third, this sound is further filtered by the geometry and length of the upper vocal tract. Evidence from mammalian anatomy and bioacoustics suggests that some of these three components may covary with an animal's body size...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Ziya Salturk, Tolgar Lütfi Kumral, Gürcan Sunnetçi, Yavuz Atar, Çağlar Çakır, Güven Yıldırım, Güler Berkiten, Yavuz Uyar
Local treatment with corticosteroids results in side effects involving the upper respiratory tract including candidiasis, sore throat, and dysphonia. Although these effects are well known, they have not been evaluated using a histopathological approach. This study investigated the histopathological aspects of steroid-induced dysphonia. A total of 16 female Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups. The eight rats in the experimental group were given an inhaled dose of mometasone furoate daily for 4 weeks...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Patrick Hoyer, Simone Graf
In this study, an adjustment of the vocal tract shape toward selected sound waves in the frequency range of the first and second formants without phonation is discussed. The sound waves of a loudspeaker in front of the open mouth and amplified by the vocal tract are used as biofeedback signals. It is shown that the resonance amplification of the vocal tract complies with the concept of forced oscillation, with the driver being the sound source and the resonator being the vocal tract. An adjustment toward increased amplification via vocal tract resonance can be related to smaller bandwidths and lower damping...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Vaibhav Sonar, Sachin Patil
Choking is a form of asphyxia which is caused by an obstruction within the air passages. Here, we report a case of obstruction of the upper respiratory tract due to assassin bug ( Cydnocoris gilvus) where allegations of medical negligence were made by relatives of the deceased. Autopsy findings demonstrated that an insect was present inside the larynx, lodged at the epiglottis. Multiple haemorrhagic patches were present at the base of the tongue, larynx, epiglottis, vocal cords and tracheal bifurcation. As Reduviidae can be successfully used as a biological pest-control agents, they should be used with due precaution...
January 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
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