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Speech production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226798/decoding-speech-using-the-timing-of-neural-signal-modulation
#1
Werner Jiang, Tejaswy Pailla, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Werner Jiang, Tejaswy Pailla, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Vikash Gilja, Werner Jiang, Tejaswy Pailla, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have great potential for applications that restore and assist communication for paralyzed individuals. Recently, BMIs decoding speech have gained considerable attention due to their potential for high information transfer rates. In this study, we propose a novel decoding approach based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) that uses the timing of neural signal changes to decode speech. We tested the decoder's performance by predicting vowels from electrocorticographic (ECoG) data of three human subjects...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226639/an-initial-investigation-into-the-real-time-conversion-of-facial-surface-emg-signals-to-audible-speech
#2
Lorenz Diener, Christian Herff, Matthias Janke, Tanja Schultz, Lorenz Diener, Christian Herff, Matthias Janke, Tanja Schultz, Lorenz Diener, Christian Herff, Matthias Janke, Tanja Schultz
This paper presents early-stage results of our investigations into the direct conversion of facial surface electromyographic (EMG) signals into audible speech in a real-time setting, enabling novel avenues for research and system improvement through real-time feedback. The system uses a pipeline approach to enable online acquisition of EMG data, extraction of EMG features, mapping of EMG features to audio features, synthesis of audio waveforms from audio features and output of the audio waveforms via speakers or headphones...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224285/abnormal-effective-connectivity-in-the-brain-is-involved-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#3
Baojuan Li, Long-Biao Cui, Yi-Bin Xi, Karl J Friston, Fan Guo, Hua-Ning Wang, Lin-Chuan Zhang, Yuan-Han Bai, Qing-Rong Tan, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu
Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222332/acquisition-of-vowel-articulation-in-childhood-investigated-by-acoustic-to-articulatory-inversion
#4
Hiroki Oohashi, Hama Watanabe, Gentaro Taga
While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220929/increasing-the-efficiency-on-producing-radiology-reports-for-breast-cancer-diagnosis-by-means-of-structured-reports-a-comparative-study
#5
J Damian Segrelles, Rosana Medina, Ignacio Blanquer, Luis Martí-Bonmatí
BACKGROUND: Radiology reports are commonly written on free-text using voice recognition devices. Structured reports (SR) have a high potential but they are usually considered more difficult to fill-in so their adoption in clinical practice leads to a lower efficiency. However, some studies have demonstrated that in some cases, producing SRs may require shorter time than plain-text ones. This work focuses on the definition and demonstration of a methodology to evaluate the productivity of software tools for producing radiology reports...
February 21, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216127/speaking-related-changes-in-cortical-functional-connectivity-associated-with-assisted-and-spontaneous-recovery-from-developmental-stuttering
#6
Christian A Kell, Katrin Neumann, Marion Behrens, Alexander W von Gudenberg, Anne-Lise Giraud
We previously reported speaking-related activity changes associated with assisted recovery induced by a fluency shaping therapy program and unassisted recovery from developmental stuttering (Kell et al., Brain 2009). While assisted recovery re-lateralized activity to the left hemisphere, unassisted recovery was specifically associated with the activation of the left BA 47/12 in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These findings suggested plastic changes in speaking-related functional connectivity between left hemispheric speech network nodes...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199505/influence-of-left-right-asymmetries-on-voice-quality-in-simulated-paramedian-vocal-fold-paralysis
#7
Robin A Samlan, Brad H Story
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the vocal fold structural and vibratory symmetries that are important to vocal function and voice quality in a simulated paramedian vocal fold paralysis. Method: A computational kinematic speech production model was used to simulate an exemplar "voice" on the basis of asymmetric settings of parameters controlling glottal configuration. These parameters were then altered individually to determine their effect on maximum flow declination rate, spectral slope, cepstral peak prominence, harmonics-to-noise ratio, and perceived voice quality...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187331/temporal-acoustic-measures-distinguish-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech-from-primary-progressive-aphasia
#8
Joseph R Duffy, Holly Hanley, Rene Utianski, Heather Clark, Edythe Strand, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The purpose of this study was to determine if acoustic measures of duration and syllable rate during word and sentence repetition, and a measure of within-word lexical stress, distinguish speakers with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) from nonapraxic speakers with the agrammatic or logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and control speakers. Results revealed that the PPAOS group had longer durations and reduced rate of syllable production for most words and sentences, and the measure of lexical stress...
February 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182997/assessing-language-skills-in-adult-key-word-signers-with-intellectual-disabilities-insights-from-sign-linguistics
#9
REVIEW
Nicola Grove, Bencie Woll
Manual signing is one of the most widely used approaches to support the communication and language skills of children and adults who have intellectual or developmental disabilities, and problems with communication in spoken language. A recent series of papers reporting findings from this population raises critical issues for professionals in the assessment of multimodal language skills of key word signers. Approaches to assessment will differ depending on whether key word signing (KWS) is viewed as discrete from, or related to, natural sign languages...
February 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168061/right-hemisphere-remapping-of-naming-functions-depends-on-lesion-size-and-location-in-poststroke-aphasia
#10
Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Elizabeth H Lacey, Shihui Xing, Peter E Turkeltaub
The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167006/development-and-evaluation-of-the-littlears-%C3%A2-early-speech-production-questionnaire-leespq
#11
Bianka Wachtlin, Joanna Brachmaier, Edda Amann, Vanessa Hoffmann, Annerose Keilmann
OBJECTIVE: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, now instituted throughout the German-speaking countries, allow hearing loss to be detected and treated much earlier than ever before. With this earlier detection, arises the need for tools fit for assessing the very early speech and language production development of today's younger (0-18 month old) children. We have created the LittlEARS(®) Early Speech Production Questionnaire, with the aim of meeting this need. METHODS: 600 questionnaires of the pilot version of the LittlEARS(®) Early Speech Production Questionnaire were distributed to parents via pediatricians' practices, day care centers, and personal contact...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166843/the-emergence-of-phonetic-categories-in-korean-english-bilingual-children
#12
Sue Ann S Lee, Gregory K Iverson
The present study examined the speech production of three-year-old Korean-English bilingual (KEB) children. English and Korean stops, as well as front vowels in both languages, were compared acoustically among the KEB children, then also measured against those of their age-equivalent monolingual counterparts. Evidence of distinctive phonetic categorization in bilingual children was more salient in vowels than in stops. Vowels and stops produced by the bilingual children were not significantly different from those of their monolingual counterparts...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163663/micropower-mixed-signal-vlsi-independent-component-analysis-for-gradient-flow-acoustic-source-separation
#13
Milutin Stanaćević, Shuo Li, Gert Cauwenberghs
A parallel micro-power mixed-signal VLSI implementation of independent component analysis (ICA) with reconfigurable outer-product learning rules is presented. With the gradient sensing of the acoustic field over a miniature microphone array as a pre-processing method, the proposed ICA implementation can separate and localize up to 3 sources in mild reverberant environment. The ICA processor is implemented in 0.5 µm CMOS technology and occupies 3 mm × 3 mm area. At 16 kHz sampling rate, ASIC consumes 195 µW power from a 3 V supply...
July 2016: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems. I, Regular Papers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162107/dense-home-based-recordings-reveal-typical-and-atypical-development-of-tense-aspect-in-a-child-with-delayed-language-development
#14
Iris Chin, Matthew S Goodwin, Soroush Vosoughi, Deb Roy, Letitia R Naigles
Studies investigating the development of tense/aspect in children with developmental disorders have focused on production frequency and/or relied on short spontaneous speech samples. How children with developmental disorders use future forms/constructions is also unknown. The current study expands this literature by examining frequency, consistency, and productivity of past, present, and future usage, using the Speechome Recorder, which enables collection of dense, longitudinal audio-video recordings of children's speech...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160355/the-effect-of-uni-and-bilateral-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-on-speech-in-patients-with-essential-tremor-acoustics-and-intelligibility
#15
Johannes Becker, Michael T Barbe, Mariam Hartinger, Till A Dembek, Jil Pochmann, Jochen Wirths, Niels Allert, Doris Mücke, Anne Hermes, Ingo G Meister, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Martine Grice, Lars Timmermann
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) is performed to suppress medically-resistant essential tremor (ET). However, stimulation induced dysarthria (SID) is a common side effect, limiting the extent to which tremor can be suppressed. To date, the exact pathogenesis of SID in VIM-DBS treated ET patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigate the effect of inactivated, uni- and bilateral VIM-DBS on speech production in patients with ET...
February 3, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155306/an-audiological-profile-of-patients-infected-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-at-a-district-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal
#16
Delicia Appana, Lavanithum Joseph, Jessica Paken
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the consequent use of aminoglycosides with their ototoxic potential necessitate a better understanding of the audiological pattern of infected patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence and nature of hearing loss in patients with MDR-TB receiving aminoglycosides over a period of 6 months. METHODS: Baseline and five consecutive monthly audiological assessments were conducted on 52 adults at a hospital in KwaZulu-Natal...
November 25, 2016: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151491/clinical-and-molecular-consequences-of-disease-associated-de-novo-mutations-in-satb2
#17
Hemant Bengani, Mark Handley, Mohsan Alvi, Rita Ibitoye, Melissa Lees, Sally Ann Lynch, Wayne Lam, Madeleine Fannemel, Ann Nordgren, H Malmgren, M Kvarnung, Sarju Mehta, Shane McKee, Margo Whiteford, Fiona Stewart, Fiona Connell, Jill Clayton-Smith, Sahar Mansour, Shehla Mohammed, Alan Fryer, Jenny Morton, Detelina Grozeva, Tara Asam, David Moore, Alejandro Sifrim, Jeremy McRae, Matthew E Hurles, Helen V Firth, F Lucy Raymond, Usha Kini, Christoffer Nellåker, Ddd Study, David R FitzPatrick
PURPOSE: To characterize features associated with de novo mutations affecting SATB2 function in individuals ascertained on the basis of intellectual disability. METHODS: Twenty previously unreported individuals with 19 different SATB2 mutations (11 loss-of-function and 8 missense variants) were studied. Fibroblasts were used to measure mutant protein production. Subcellular localization and mobility of wild-type and mutant SATB2 were assessed using fluorescently tagged protein...
February 2, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147604/large-region-acoustic-source-mapping-using-a-movable-array-and-sparse-covariance-fitting
#18
Shengkui Zhao, Cagdas Tuna, Thi Ngoc Tho Nguyen, Douglas L Jones
Large-region acoustic source mapping is important for city-scale noise monitoring. Approaches using a single-position measurement scheme to scan large regions using small arrays cannot provide clean acoustic source maps, while deploying large arrays spanning the entire region of interest is prohibitively expensive. A multiple-position measurement scheme is applied to scan large regions at multiple spatial positions using a movable array of small size. Based on the multiple-position measurement scheme, a sparse-constrained multiple-position vectorized covariance matrix fitting approach is presented...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146333/quantitative-linguistic-predictors-of-infants-learning-of-specific-english-words
#19
Daniel Swingley, Colman Humphrey
To evaluate which features of spoken language aid infant word learning, a corpus of infant-directed speech (M. R. Brent & J. M. Siskind, 2001) was characterized on several linguistic dimensions and statistically related to the infants' vocabulary outcomes word by word. Comprehension (at 12 and 15 months) and production (15 months) were predicted by frequency, frequency of occurrence in one-word utterances, concreteness, utterance length, and typical duration. These features have been proposed to influence learning before, but here their relative contributions were measured...
February 1, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144832/cognitive-basis-of-individual-differences-in-speech-perception-production-and-representations-the-role-of-domain-general-attentional-switching
#20
Jinghua Ou, Sam-Po Law
This study investigated whether individual differences in cognitive functions, attentional abilities in particular, were associated with individual differences in the quality of phonological representations, resulting in variability in speech perception and production. To do so, we took advantage of a tone merging phenomenon in Cantonese, and identified three groups of typically developed speakers who could differentiate the two rising tones (high and low rising) in both perception and production [+Per+Pro], only in perception [+Per-Pro], or in neither modalities [-Per-Pro]...
January 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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