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Speech production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781570/effect-of-motor-based-speech-intervention-on-articulatory-placement-in-the-treatment-of-a-posterior-nasal-fricative-a-preliminary-mri-study-on-a-single-subject
#1
Kazlin N Mason, Eshan Pua, Jamie L Perry
BACKGROUND: Posterior nasal fricatives are a learned compensatory articulation error and commonly substituted for oral fricatives. Treatment of such articulation errors requires the modification or teaching of skilled movements. A motor-based approach is designed to teach the complex motor skill movement sequences required in the production of sounds. Although motor learning research is well established, little has been done to determine how the approach changes the underlying physiology of articulatory movements...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779940/encoding-of-articulatory-kinematic-trajectories-in-human-speech-sensorimotor-cortex
#2
Josh Chartier, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
When speaking, we dynamically coordinate movements of our jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying articulation, we used direct cortical recordings from human sensorimotor cortex while participants spoke natural sentences that included sounds spanning the entire English phonetic inventory. We used deep neural networks to infer speakers' articulator movements from produced speech acoustics. Individual electrodes encoded a diversity of articulatory kinematic trajectories (AKTs), each revealing coordinated articulator movements toward specific vocal tract shapes...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774624/what-does-it-take-to-stress-a-word-digital-manipulation-of-stress-markers-in-ataxic-dysarthria
#3
Anja Lowit, Tolulope Ijitona, Anja Kuschmann, Stephen Corson, John Soraghan
BACKGROUND: Stress production is important for effective communication, but this skill is frequently impaired in people with motor speech disorders. The literature reports successful treatment of these deficits in this population, thus highlighting the therapeutic potential of this area. However, no specific guidance is currently available to clinicians about whether any of the stress markers are more effective than others, to what degree they have to be manipulated, and whether strategies need to differ according to the underlying symptoms...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774499/factors-influencing-l2-self-repair-behavior-the-role-of-l2-proficiency-attentional-control-and-l1-self-repair-behavior
#4
Michael Zuniga, Daphnée Simard
Self-repairs, that is revisions of speech that speakers themselves initiate and complete (Salonen and Laakso in J Child Lang 36:859, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0305000908009240 ), are frequently used to observe the cognitive and linguistic processes underlying second language (L2) speech production. Previous research has shown that factors such as L2 proficiency, attentional control and native language (L1) self-repair behavior interact with L2 self-repair behavior. To our knowledge, however, no research has examined how these three factors interact within a cohort of L2 speakers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768731/cochlear-implant-performance-in-children-deafened-by-congenital-cytomegalovirus-a-systematic-review
#5
V J C Kraaijenga, F Van Houwelingen, S F Van der Horst, J Visscher, J M L Huisman, E J Hollman, I Stegeman, A L Smit
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The objective of this systematic review was to compare performance in pediatric cochlear implant users with SNHL caused by cCMV compared to non-cCMV implantees. TYPE OF REVIEW: Systematic review. SEARCH STRATEGY: Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases were searched from inception up to May 15th 2017 for children, cochlear implant, performance and their synonyms...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765635/poor-neuro-motor-tuning-of-the-human-larynx-a-comparison-of-sung-and-whistled-pitch-imitation
#6
Michel Belyk, Joseph F Johnson, Sonja A Kotz
Vocal imitation is a hallmark of human communication that underlies the capacity to learn to speak and sing. Even so, poor vocal imitation abilities are surprisingly common in the general population and even expert vocalists cannot match the precision of a musical instrument. Although humans have evolved a greater degree of control over the laryngeal muscles that govern voice production, this ability may be underdeveloped compared with control over the articulatory muscles, such as the tongue and lips, volitional control of which emerged earlier in primate evolution...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760465/neural-encoding-and-production-of-functional-morphemes-in-the-posterior-temporal-lobe
#7
Daniel K Lee, Evelina Fedorenko, Mirela V Simon, William T Curry, Brian V Nahed, Dan P Cahill, Ziv M Williams
Morphemes are the smallest meaning-carrying units in human language, and are among the most basic building blocks through which humans express specific ideas and concepts. By using time-resolved cortical stimulations, neural recordings, and focal lesion evaluations, we show that inhibition of a small cortical area within the left dominant posterior-superior temporal lobe selectively impairs the ability to produce appropriate functional morphemes but does not distinctly affect semantic and lexical retrieval, comprehension, or articulation...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760059/nouns-slow-down-speech-across-structurally-and-culturally-diverse-languages
#8
Frank Seifart, Jan Strunk, Swintha Danielsen, Iren Hartmann, Brigitte Pakendorf, Søren Wichmann, Alena Witzlack-Makarevich, Nivja H de Jong, Balthasar Bickel
By force of nature, every bit of spoken language is produced at a particular speed. However, this speed is not constant-speakers regularly speed up and slow down. Variation in speech rate is influenced by a complex combination of factors, including the frequency and predictability of words, their information status, and their position within an utterance. Here, we use speech rate as an index of word-planning effort and focus on the time window during which speakers prepare the production of words from the two major lexical classes, nouns and verbs...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756528/stuttering-frequency-speech-rate-speech-naturalness-and-speech-effort-during-the-production-of-voluntary-stuttering
#9
Jason H Davidow, Heather L Grossman, Robin L Edge
PURPOSE: Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. METHOD: In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated...
May 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753107/the-neural-basis-of-free-language-choice-in-bilingual-speakers-disentangling-language-choice-and-language-execution
#10
Carlo Reverberi, Anna K Kuhlen, Shima Seyed-Allaei, R Stefan Greulich, Albert Costa, Jubin Abutalebi, John-Dylan Haynes
For everyday communication bilingual speakers need to face the complex task of rapidly choosing the most appropriate language given the context, maintaining this choice over the current communicative act, and shielding lexical selection from competing alternatives from non-target languages. Yet, speech production of bilinguals is typically flawless and fluent. Most of the studies available to date constrain speakers' language choice by cueing the target language and conflate language choice with language use...
May 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747963/the-possible-effect-of-human-menopausal-gonadotropin-on-the-audio-vestibular-system
#11
Montaser Abdel-Salam, Osama G Abdel-Naby Awad, Mohamed El-Badry, Ahmed Ibrahim, Mahmoud Hosny Ibrahiem
OBJECTIVE: Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) is one of the commonest drugs used for ovarian stimulation with no reports on the audio-vestibular system. This study aims to examine HMG on the hearing profile of patients planning intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from June 2016 to June 2017 in a tertiary referral hospital. The audio-vestibular system of a total of 30 patients was evaluated using pure tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs in the form of a DP-gram) and Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) immediately before therapy and at the day 10 after therapy...
May 7, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746594/the-interplay-between-selective-and-nonselective-inhibition-during-single-word-production
#12
Ruben D Vromans, Suzanne R Jongman
The present study investigated the interplay between selective inhibition (the ability to suppress specific competing responses) and nonselective inhibition (the ability to suppress any inappropriate response) during single word production. To this end, we combined two well-established research paradigms: the picture-word interference task and the stop-signal task. Selective inhibition was assessed by instructing participants to name target pictures (e.g., dog) in the presence of semantically related (e.g., cat) or unrelated (e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745880/the-role-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-and-otoacoustic-emissions-in-early-detection-of-hearing-abnormalities-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-patients-a-case-control-study
#13
Doa W Nada, Radwa M El Khouly, Souzan E Gadow, Shymaa A Hablas, Marwa A Aboelhawa, Doaa S Al Ashkar, Amal M El Barbary, Manal S Hussein, Elsayed Rageh, Alaa M Elsalawy, Mohamed H Abo-Zaid, Samah Elshweikh, Amani M El Gharib
OBJECTIVES: To determine the types and to assess the role of auditory evoked potentials and otoacoustic emissions in early detection of hearing abnormalities in Behçet's disease (BD) patients. Their correlations with disease activity were also considered. METHODS: Thirty patients with BD and thirty apparently sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were included in this study. Auditory evaluation included pure tone audiometry (PTA), otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs, DPOAE), auditory brainstem response test (ABR) and cortical auditory evoked potentials (tone and speech CAEPs) for all patients and control...
May 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731380/a-perceptual-method-to-rate-dysphonic-voices
#14
Jorge A Gurlekian, Humberto M Torres, Melissa Rincón Cediel
OBJECTIVE: To present and test a production-matching method with external references, looking at the improvement of inter-rater variability of expert evaluations. METHOD: It consists of adjusting quality attribute levels of a synthetic vowel for a simultaneous matching with the natural patient vowel (NPV) attributes. In an initial experiment, seven speech-language pathology (SLP) experts performed this task with the new method and evaluated the same NPV with the standard method...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724130/elucidating-inconsistencies-in-dysphagia-diagnostics-redefining-normal
#15
Emily K Plowman, Ianessa A Humbert
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are the primary healthcare providers responsible for the evaluation and treatment of dysphagia. Fundamental to this role is the ability to make accurate clinical judgements to distinguish between normal versus disordered swallowing for subsequent treatment planning. In this review, we highlight recent data collected from practising clinicians in the USA that reveal low levels of agreement across clinicians and poor to moderate levels of accuracy for making binary diagnostic ratings (normal vs...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723069/prosodic-and-segmental-aspects-of-nonword-repetition-in-4-to-6-year-old-children-who-are-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-compared-to-controls-with-normal-hearing
#16
Simon Sundström, Ulrika Löfkvist, Björn Lyxell, Christina Samuelsson
Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) are at an increased risk of speech and language deficits. Nonword repetition (NWR) is a potential predictor of problems with phonology, grammar and lexicon in DHH children. The aim of the present study was to examine repetition of prosodic features and segments in nonwords by DHH children compared to children with normal hearing (NH) and to relate NWR performance to measures of language ability and background variables. In this cross-sectional study, 14 Swedish-speaking children with mild-profound sensorineural hearing loss, aged 4-6 years, and 29 age-matched controls with NH and typical language development participated...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719402/compounding-medications-in-a-rural-setting-an-interprofessional-perspective
#17
Selina Taylor, Catherine Hays, Beverley Glass
Background: Interprofessional learning (IPL) which focuses on the pharmacist's role in specialty practices as part of a multidisciplinary health care team has not been explored. This study aimed to determine health care students' understanding of the role of the pharmacist in compounding medications to optimize health outcomes for patients in rural and remote health care services. Methods: Four workshops followed by focus group interviews were conducted with undergraduate pharmacy, medical, nursing, physiotherapy, dentistry, Aboriginal public health, and speech pathology students (n=15)...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718280/early-communication-development-of-children-with-auditory-brainstem-implants
#18
Laurie S Eisenberg, Dianne Hammes Ganguly, Amy S Martinez, Laurel M Fisher, Margaret E Winter, Jamie L Glater, Debra K Schrader, Janice Loggins, Eric P Wilkinson
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is an auditory sensory device that is surgically placed on the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem for individuals who are deaf but unable to benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) due to anatomical abnormalities of the cochlea and/or eighth nerve, specific disease processes, or temporal bone fractures. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has authorized a Phase I clinical trial to determine safety and feasibility of the ABI in up to 10 eligible young children who are deaf and either derived no benefit from the CI or were anatomically unable to receive a CI...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718131/retraining-speech-production-and-fluency-in-non-fluent-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#19
Maya L Henry, H Isabel Hubbard, Stephanie M Grasso, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Stephen M Wilson, Mithra T Sathishkumar, Julius Fridriksson, Wylin Daigle, Adam L Boxer, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
The non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) presents with a gradual decline in grammar and motor speech resulting from selective degeneration of speech-language regions in the brain. There has been considerable progress in identifying treatment approaches to remediate language deficits in other primary progressive aphasia variants; however, interventions for the core deficits in nfvPPA have yet to be systematically investigated. Further, the neural mechanisms that support behavioural restitution in the context of neurodegeneration are not well understood...
April 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716459/spoken-word-production-in-korean-a-non-word-masked-priming-and-phonological-stroop-task-investigation
#20
Jeong-Im Han, Rinus G Verdonschot
Speech production studies have shown that phonological unit initially used to fill the metrical frame during phonological encoding is language specific, that is, a phoneme for English and Dutch, an atonal syllable for Mandarin Chinese, and a mora for Japanese. However, only a few studies chronometrically investigated speech production in Korean, and they obtained mixed results. Korean is particularly interesting as there might be both phonemic and syllabic influences during phonological encoding. The purpose of this study is to further examine the initial phonological preparation unit in Korean, employing a masked priming task (Experiment 1) and a phonological Stroop task (Experiment 2)...
April 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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