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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727493/sibilant-production-in-hebrew-speaking-adults-apical-versus-laminal
#1
Michal Icht, Boaz M Ben-David
The Hebrew IPA charts describe the sibilants /s, z/ as 'alveolar fricatives', where the place of articulation on the palate is the alveolar ridge. The point of constriction on the tongue is not defined - apical (tip) or laminal (blade). Usually, speech and language pathologists (SLPs) use the apical placement in Hebrew articulation therapy. Some researchers and SLPs suggested that acceptable /s, z/ could be also produced with the laminal placement (i.e. the tip of the tongue approximating the lower incisors)...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724588/automatic-measurement-of-prosody-in-behavioral-variant-ftd
#2
Naomi Nevler, Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, David J Irwin, Mark Liberman, Murray Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To help understand speech changes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), we developed and implemented automatic methods of speech analysis for quantification of prosody, and evaluated clinical and anatomical correlations. METHODS: We analyzed semi-structured, digitized speech samples from 32 patients with bvFTD (21 male, mean age 63 ± 8.5, mean disease duration 4 ± 3.1 years) and 17 matched healthy controls (HC). We automatically extracted fundamental frequency (f0, the physical property of sound most closely correlating with perceived pitch) and computed pitch range on a logarithmic scale (semitone) that controls for individual and sex differences...
July 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713256/baseline-performance-predicts-tdcs-mediated-improvements-in-language-symptoms-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#3
Eric M McConathey, Nicole C White, Felix Gervits, Sherry Ash, H Branch Coslett, Murray Grossman, Roy H Hamilton
Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by insidious irreversible loss of language abilities. Prior studies suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) directed toward language areas of the brain may help to ameliorate symptoms of PPA. In the present sham-controlled study, we examined whether tDCS could be used to enhance language abilities (e.g., picture naming) in individuals with PPA variants primarily characterized by difficulties with speech production (non-fluent and logopenic)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704379/fractionating-nonword-repetition-the-contributions-of-short-term-memory-and-oromotor-praxis-are-different
#4
Saloni Krishnan, Katherine J Alcock, Daniel Carey, Lina Bergström, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Frederic Dick
The ability to reproduce novel words is a sensitive marker of language impairment across a variety of developmental disorders. Nonword repetition tasks are thought to reflect phonological short-term memory skills. Yet, when children hear and then utter a word for the first time, they must transform a novel speech signal into a series of coordinated, precisely timed oral movements. Little is known about how children's oromotor speed, planning and co-ordination abilities might influence their ability to repeat novel nonwords, beyond the influence of higher-level cognitive and linguistic skills...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695375/rigor-of-non-dairy-galactose-restriction-in-early-childhood-measured-by-retrospective-survey-does-not-associate-with-severity-of-five-long-term-outcomes-quantified-in-231-children-and-adults-with-classic-galactosemia
#5
Allison B Frederick, David J Cutler, Judith L Fridovich-Keil
One of many vexing decisions faced by parents of an infant with classic galactosemia (CG) is how carefully to restrict non-dairy galactose from their growing child's diet. Until recently, many experts recommended vigorous lifelong dietary restriction of milk and all high-galactose dairy products as well as some non-dairy sources of galactose such as legumes and specific fruits and vegetables. Recently, experts have begun to relax their recommendations. The new recommendations, that restrict only high galactose dairy products, were made in the face of uncertainty, however, because no sufficiently powered study had been reported testing for possible association between rigor of non-dairy galactose restriction and severity of long-term outcomes in CG...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691607/a-blind-spot-in-correct-naming-latency-analyses
#6
Gary M Oppenheim
Speech errors and naming latencies provide two complementary sets of behavioural data for understanding language production processes. A recent analytical trend-applied to intact and impaired production alike-highlights a link between specific features of correct picture naming latency distributions and the retrieval processes thought to underlie them. Although chronometric approaches to language production typically consider correct response times in isolation, adequately accounting for their distributions in error-prone situations requires also considering the errors that sometimes censor them...
February 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691606/word-selection-deficits-and-multiword-speech
#7
Tatiana T Schnur
Through computational modelling of language behaviour in both healthy and brain-damaged individuals, Anders, Riès, van Maanen and Alario ( in press ) propose that to facilitate word selection when alternatives compete for production, the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) changes the threshold for word selection. Because selecting a word during multiword speech involves resolving competition from target-related competitors as well as words produced in the past and future, a word-selection deficit caused by damage to the left PFC may result in difficulties in producing multiword speech...
February 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681609/cochlear-implantation-in-siblings-with-refsum-s-disease
#8
Kerstin Stähr, Alma Kuechler, Martin Gencik, Judith Arnolds, Meaghan Dendy, Stephan Lang, Diana Arweiler-Harbeck
OBJECTIVES: Whether the origin of severe hearing loss in Refsum's syndrome is caused by cochlear impairment or retrocochlear degeneration remains unclear. This case report aims to investigate hearing performance before and after cochlear implantation to shed light on this question. Also, identification of new mutations causing Refsum's syndrome would be helpful in generating additional means of diagnosis. METHODS: A family of 4 individuals was subjected to genetic testing...
August 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679275/an-investigation-of-the-systematic-use-of-spectral-information-in-the-determination-of-apparent-talker-height
#9
Santiago Barreda
The perception of apparent-talker height is mostly determined by the fundamental frequency (f0) and spectral characteristics of a voice. Although it is traditionally thought that spectral cues affect apparent-talker height by influencing apparent vocal-tract length, a recent experiment [Barreda (2016). J. Phon. 55, 1-18] suggests that apparent-talker height can vary significantly within-talker on the basis of phonemically-determined spectral variability. In this experiment, listeners were asked to estimate the height of 10 female talkers based on manipulated natural productions of bVd words containing one of /i æ ɑ u ɝ/...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678819/compensations-to-auditory-feedback-perturbations-in-congenitally-blind-and-sighted-speakers-acoustic-and-articulatory-data
#10
Pamela Trudeau-Fisette, Mark Tiede, Lucie Ménard
This study investigated the effects of visual deprivation on the relationship between speech perception and production by examining compensatory responses to real-time perturbations in auditory feedback. Specifically, acoustic and articulatory data were recorded while sighted and congenitally blind French speakers produced several repetitions of the vowel /ø/. At the acoustic level, blind speakers produced larger compensatory responses to altered vowels than their sighted peers. At the articulatory level, blind speakers also produced larger displacements of the upper lip, the tongue tip, and the tongue dorsum in compensatory responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676774/look-who-s-talking-now-parentese-speech-social-context-and-language-development-across-time
#11
Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Adrián García-Sierra, Patricia K Kuhl
In previous studies, we found that the social interactions infants experience in their everyday lives at 11- and 14-months of age affect language ability at 24 months of age. These studies investigated relationships between the speech style (i.e., parentese speech vs. standard speech) and social context [i.e., one-on-one (1:1) vs. group] of language input in infancy and later speech development (i.e., at 24 months of age), controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results showed that the amount of exposure to parentese speech-1:1 in infancy was related to productive vocabulary at 24 months...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672306/personal-sound-amplification-products-vs-a-conventional-hearing-aid-for-speech-understanding-in-noise
#12
Nicholas S Reed, Joshua Betz, Nicole Kendig, Margaret Korczak, Frank R Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671991/effects-of-stimulus-duration-and-vowel-quality-in-cross-linguistic-categorical-perception-of-pitch-directions
#13
Si Chen, Yiqing Zhu, Ratree Wayland
We investigated categorical perception of rising and falling pitch contours by tonal and non-tonal listeners. Specifically, we determined minimum durations needed to perceive both contours and compared to those of production, how stimuli duration affects their perception, whether there is an intrinsic F0 effect, and how first language background, duration, directions of pitch and vowel quality interact with each other. Continua of fundamental frequency on different vowels with 9 duration values were created for identification and discrimination tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670049/examining-the-relationship-between-comprehension-and-production-processes-in-code-switched-language
#14
Rosa E Guzzardo Tamargo, Jorge R Valdés Kroff, Paola E Dussias
We employ code-switching (the alternation of two languages in bilingual communication) to test the hypothesis, derived from experience-based models of processing (e.g., Boland, Tanenhaus, Carlson, & Garnsey, 1989; Gennari & MacDonald, 2009), that bilinguals are sensitive to the combinatorial distributional patterns derived from production and that they use this information to guide processing during the comprehension of code-switched sentences. An analysis of spontaneous bilingual speech confirmed the existence of production asymmetries involving two auxiliary + participle phrases in Spanish-English code-switches...
August 2016: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663771/experience-with-code-switching-modulates-the-use-of-grammatical-gender-during-sentence-processing
#15
Jorge R Valdés Kroff, Paola E Dussias, Chip Gerfen, Lauren Perrotti, M Teresa Bajo
Using code-switching as a tool to illustrate how language experience modulates comprehension, the visual world paradigm was employed to examine the extent to which gender-marked Spanish determiners facilitate upcoming target nouns in a group of Spanish-English bilingual code-switchers. The first experiment tested target Spanish nouns embedded in a carrier phrase (Experiment 1b) and included a control Spanish monolingual group (Experiment 1a). The second set of experiments included critical trials in which participants heard code-switches from Spanish determiners into English nouns (e...
February 4, 2017: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662419/perceptual-statistical-learning-over-one-week-in-child-speech-production
#16
Peter T Richtsmeier, Lisa Goffman
What cognitive mechanisms account for the trajectory of speech sound development, in particular, gradually increasing accuracy during childhood? An intriguing potential contributor is statistical learning, a type of learning that has been studied frequently in infant perception but less often in child speech production. To assess the relevance of statistical learning to developing speech accuracy, we carried out a statistical learning experiment with four- and five-year-olds in which statistical learning was examined over one week...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659776/cholinergic-potentiation-and-audiovisual-repetition-imitation-therapy-improve-speech-production-and-communication-deficits-in-a-person-with-crossed-aphasia-by-inducing-structural-plasticity-in-white-matter-tracts
#17
Marcelo L Berthier, Irene De-Torres, José Paredes-Pacheco, Núria Roé-Vellvé, Karl Thurnhofer-Hemsi, María J Torres-Prioris, Francisco Alfaro, Ignacio Moreno-Torres, Diana López-Barroso, Guadalupe Dávila
Donepezil (DP), a cognitive-enhancing drug targeting the cholinergic system, combined with massed sentence repetition training augmented and speeded up recovery of speech production deficits in patients with chronic conduction aphasia and extensive left hemisphere infarctions (Berthier et al., 2014). Nevertheless, a still unsettled question is whether such improvements correlate with restorative structural changes in gray matter and white matter pathways mediating speech production. In the present study, we used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to study treatment-induced brain changes in gray matter and white matter tracts in a right-handed male with chronic conduction aphasia and a right subcortical lesion (crossed aphasia)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655631/varieties-of-semantic-cognition-revealed-through-simultaneous-decomposition-of-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-and-behaviour
#18
Deniz Vatansever, Danilo Bzdok, Hao-Ting Wang, Giovanna Mollo, Mladen Sormaz, Charlotte Murphy, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Contemporary theories assume that semantic cognition emerges from a neural architecture in which different component processes are combined to produce aspects of conceptual thought and behaviour. In addition to the state-level, momentary variation in brain connectivity, individuals may also differ in their propensity to generate particular configurations of such components, and these trait-level differences may relate to individual differences in semantic cognition. We tested this view by exploring how variation in intrinsic brain functional connectivity between semantic nodes in fMRI was related to performance on a battery of semantic tasks in 154 healthy participants...
June 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655064/range-and-precision-of-formant-movement-in-pediatric-dysarthria
#19
Kristen M Allison, Lucas Annear, Marisa Policcicio, Katherine C Hustad
Purpose: This study aimed to improve understanding of speech characteristics associated with dysarthria in children with cerebral palsy by analyzing segmental and global formant measures in single-word and sentence contexts. Method: Ten 5-year-old children with cerebral palsy and dysarthria and 10 age-matched, typically developing children participated in this study. Vowel space area and second formant interquartile range were measured from children's elicited productions of single words and sentences...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655050/enhancing-intervention-for-residual-rhotic-errors-via-app-delivered-biofeedback-a-case-study
#20
Tara McAllister Byun, Heather Campbell, Helen Carey, Wendy Liang, Tae Hong Park, Mario Svirsky
Purpose: Recent research suggests that visual-acoustic biofeedback can be an effective treatment for residual speech errors, but adoption remains limited due to barriers including high cost and lack of familiarity with the technology. This case study reports results from the first participant to complete a course of visual-acoustic biofeedback using a not-for-profit iOS app, Speech Therapist's App for /r/ Treatment. Method: App-based biofeedback treatment for rhotic misarticulation was provided in weekly 30-min sessions for 20 weeks...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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