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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634708/speaker-versus-listener-oriented-disfluency-a-re-examination-of-arguments-and-assumptions-from-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Paul E Engelhardt, Oliver Alfridijanta, Mhairi E G McMullon, Martin Corley
We re-evaluate conclusions about disfluency production in high-functioning forms of autism spectrum disorder (HFA). Previous studies examined individuals with HFA to address a theoretical question regarding speaker- and listener-oriented disfluencies. Individuals with HFA tend to be self-centric and have poor pragmatic language skills, and should be less likely to produce listener-oriented disfluency. However, previous studies did not account for individual differences variables that affect disfluency. We show that both matched and unmatched controls produce fewer repairs than individuals with HFA...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631329/inverting-suprastomal-granulomas
#2
Cláudia Schweiger, Catherine K Hart, Robin T Cotton, Michael J Rutter
Although suprastomal granulomas are a common complication of tracheotomy, they usually are an incidental finding and do not always require treatment. However, large granulomas may require removal, either to assist with speech production or to make the airway safer in the event of an accidental decannulation. Very large suprastomal granulomas extending up to or even through the vocal cords have been described. However, inverting suprastomal granulomas extending distally down the length of a tracheotomy tube have not been previously described...
June 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631005/phonological-working-memory-for-words-and-nonwords-in-cerebral-cortex
#3
Tyler K Perrachione, Satrajit S Ghosh, Irina Ostrovskaya, John D E Gabrieli, Ioulia Kovelman
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the brain bases of phonological working memory (the short-term maintenance of speech sounds) using behavioral tasks analogous to clinically sensitive assessments of nonword repetition. The secondary purpose of the study was to identify how individual differences in brain activation were related to participants' nonword repetition abilities. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neurophysiological response during a nonword discrimination task derived from standard clinical assessments of phonological working memory...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628785/looking-at-a-contrast-object-before-speaking-boosts-referential-informativeness-but-is-not-essential
#4
Catherine Davies, Helene Kreysa
Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object...
June 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628630/bird-sound-spectrogram-decomposition-through-non-negative-matrix-factorization-for-the-acoustic-classification-of-bird-species
#5
Jimmy Ludeña-Choez, Raisa Quispe-Soncco, Ascensión Gallardo-Antolín
Feature extraction for Acoustic Bird Species Classification (ABSC) tasks has traditionally been based on parametric representations that were specifically developed for speech signals, such as Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC). However, the discrimination capabilities of these features for ABSC could be enhanced by accounting for the vocal production mechanisms of birds, and, in particular, the spectro-temporal structure of bird sounds. In this paper, a new front-end for ABSC is proposed that incorporates this specific information through the non-negative decomposition of bird sound spectrograms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618815/convolutional-neural-network-based-automatic-classification-of-midsagittal-tongue-gestural-targets-using-b-mode-ultrasound-images
#6
Kele Xu, Pierre Roussel, Tamás Gábor Csapó, Bruce Denby
Tongue gestural target classification is of great interest to researchers in the speech production field. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have shown superiority to standard feature extraction techniques in a variety of domains. In this letter, both CNN-based speaker-dependent and speaker-independent tongue gestural target classification experiments are conducted to classify tongue gestures during natural speech production. The CNN-based method achieves state-of-the-art performance, even though no pre-training of the CNN (with the exception of a data augmentation preprocessing) was carried out...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614580/dynamic-assessment-for-3-and-4-year-old-children-who-use-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-evaluating-expressive-syntax
#7
Cathy Binger, Jennifer Kent-Walsh, Marika King
Purpose: The developmental readiness to produce early sentences with an iPad communication application was assessed with ten 3- and 4-year-old children with severe speech disorders using graduated prompting dynamic assessment (DA) techniques. The participants' changes in performance within the DA sessions were evaluated, and DA performance was compared with performance during a subsequent intervention. Method: Descriptive statistics were used to examine patterns of performance at various cueing levels and mean levels of cueing support...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614575/early-sentence-productions-of-3-and-4-year-old-children-who-use-augmentative-and-alternative-communication
#8
Cathy Binger, Jennifer Kent-Walsh, Marika King, Lindsay Mansfield
Purpose: This study investigated the early rule-based sentence productions of 3- and 4-year-old children with severe speech disorders who used single-meaning graphic symbols to communicate. Method: Ten 3- and 4-year-olds requiring the use of augmentative and alternative communication, who had largely intact receptive language skills, received instruction in producing up to four different semantic-syntactic targets using an Apple iPad with a communication app. A single-case, multiple-probe, across-targets design was used to assess the progress of each participant and target...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607889/outcomes-of-newborn-hearing-screening-program-a-hospital-based-study
#9
Kavita Sachdeva, Tulsi Sao
Hearing loss is hidden disability and second most common congenital pathology. Prevention, early identification and early intervention of hearing loss can prevent further disability in development of speech, language, cognition and other developmental domains. The prevalence of congenital hearing loss has been estimated to be 1.2-5.7 per thousand in neonates. In these contexts, the aim of study was to determine outcomes of neonates hearing screening program in Hospital. It is a clinical cross-sectional study which was conducted in tertiary care centre from 8th July, 2015 to 31th May, 2016...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604578/long-term-outcomes-of-cochlear-implantation-in-children-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#10
Haruo Yoshida, Haruo Takahashi, Yukihiko Kanda, Kyoko Kitaoka, Minoru Hara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the developmental delay often observed in children with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on the improvement of language understanding after cochlear implantation (CI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS: Sixteen children with severe and/or profound hearing loss due to congenital CMV infection (CMV group) and 107 congenitally deaf children (168 ears) without CMV infection as the cause of deafness (non-CMV group)...
June 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602887/cross-modal-recruitment-of-auditory-and-orofacial-areas-during-sign-language-in-a-deaf-subject
#11
Juan Martino, Carlos Velasquez, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Enrique Marco de Lucas, Elsa Gomez
BACKGROUND: Modern signed languages of the deaf are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually.The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we describe an original case of a deaf-mute patient with a left temporo-insular low-grade glioma that was operated. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing for the first time in the literature, to directly study the cortical and subcortical organization of signed language...
June 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599574/speech-production-and-sensory-impairment-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Yu-Wen Chen, Peter J Watson
Little is known about speech-related sensory systems and the link to speech in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates auditory and somatosensory acuity and their association to speech in PD, using /s/ and /ʃ/ as speech targets. Ten adults with mild PD and ten age- and gender-matched healthy participants performed three tasks. In the auditory task, participants discriminated three aperiodic sounds acoustically modified from /s/ and /ʃ/ and differing in spectral shapes. In the tactile task, they judged the orientation of a dome-shaped grating probe gently touching their tongue tip...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599561/test-retest-repeatability-of-human-speech-biomarkers-from-static-and-real-time-dynamic-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Johannes Töger, Tanner Sorensen, Krishna Somandepalli, Asterios Toutios, Sajan Goud Lingala, Shrikanth Narayanan, Krishna Nayak
Static anatomical and real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) of the upper airway is a valuable method for studying speech production in research and clinical settings. The test-retest repeatability of quantitative imaging biomarkers is an important parameter, since it limits the effect sizes and intragroup differences that can be studied. Therefore, this study aims to present a framework for determining the test-retest repeatability of quantitative speech biomarkers from static MRI and RT-MRI, and apply the framework to healthy volunteers...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599542/vowel-space-density-as-an-indicator-of-speech-performance
#14
Brad H Story, Kate Bunton
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for visualizing and assessing the characteristics of vowel production by measuring the local density of normalized F1 and F2 formant frequencies. The result is a three-dimensional plot called the vowel space density (VSD) and indicates the regions in the vowel space most heavily used by a talker during speech production. The area of a convex hull enclosing the vowel space at specific threshold density values was proposed as a means of quantifying the VSD.
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598257/what-s-worth-talking-about-information-theory-reveals-how-children-balance-informativeness-and-ease-of-production
#15
Colin Bannard, Marla Rosner, Danielle Matthews
Of all the things a person could say in a given situation, what determines what is worth saying? Greenfield's principle of informativeness states that right from the onset of language, humans selectively comment on whatever they find unexpected. In this article, we quantify this tendency using information-theoretic measures and report on a study in which we tested the counterintuitive prediction that children will produce words that have a low frequency given the context, because these will be most informative...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595176/individual-talker-and-token-covariation-in-the-production-of-multiple-cues-to-stop-voicing
#16
Meghan Clayards
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous research found that individual talkers have consistent differences in the production of segments impacting the perception of their speech by others. Speakers also produce multiple acoustic-phonetic cues to phonological contrasts. Less is known about how multiple cues covary within a phonetic category and across talkers. We examined differences in individual talkers across cues and whether token-by-token variability is a result of intrinsic factors or speaking style by examining within-category correlations...
June 9, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590898/tinnitus-management-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-extended-wear-hearing-aids-conventional-hearing-aids-and-combination-instruments
#17
James A Henry, Garnett McMillan, Serena Dann, Keri Bennett, Susan Griest, Sarah Theodoroff, Shien Pei Silverman, Susan Whichard, Gabrielle Saunders
BACKGROUND: Whereas hearing aids have long been considered effective for providing relief from tinnitus, controlled clinical studies evaluating this premise have been very limited. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the relative efficacy of conventional receiver-in-the-canal hearing aids (HA), the same hearing aids with a sound generator (HA+SG), and extended-wear, deep fit hearing aids (EWHA), to provide relief from tinnitus through a randomized controlled trial...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585051/the-role-of-the-putamen-in-language-a-meta-analytic-connectivity-modeling-study
#18
Nestor Viñas-Guasch, Yan Jing Wu
The putamen is a subcortical structure that forms part of the dorsal striatum of basal ganglia, and has traditionally been associated with reinforcement learning and motor control, including speech articulation. However, recent studies have shown involvement of the left putamen in other language functions such as bilingual language processing (Abutalebi et al. 2012) and production, with some authors arguing for functional segregation of anterior and posterior putamen (Oberhuber et al. 2013). A further step in exploring the role of putamen in language would involve identifying the network of coactivations of not only the left, but also the right putamen, given the involvement of right hemisphere in high order language functions (Vigneau et al...
June 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584095/sensorimotor-integration-on-a-rapid-time-scale
#19
Jinhong Luo, Ninad B Kothari, Cynthia F Moss
Sensing is fundamental to the control of movement: From grasping objects to speech production, sensing guides action. So far, most of our knowledge about sensorimotor integration comes from visually guided reaching and oculomotor integration, in which the time course and trajectories of movements can be measured at a high temporal resolution. By contrast, production of vocalizations by humans and animals involves complex and variable actions, and each syllable often lasts a few hundreds of milliseconds, making it difficult to infer underlying neural processes...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582880/the-effect-of-botulinum-toxin-a-botox-injections-used-to-treat-limb-spasticity-on-speech-patterns-in-children-with-dysarthria-and-cerebral-palsy-a-report-of-two-cases
#20
Marilyn Seif Workinger, Raymond D Kent, Jill R Meilahn
Botulinum toxin A (Btx-A) injections are used to treat limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) resulting in improved gross and fine motor control. This treatment has also been reported to have additional functional effects, but the effect of treatment on speech has not been reported. This report presents results of longitudinal speech evaluation of two children with CP given injections of Btx-A for treatment of limb spasticity. Speech evaluations were accomplished at baseline (date of injections) and 4- and 10-weeks post-injections...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
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