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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#1
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095079/the-use-of-ultrasound-in-the-study-of-articulatory-properties-of-vowels-in-clear-speech
#2
Jae Yung Song
Although the acoustic properties of clear speech have been extensively studied, its underlying articulatory details have not been well understood. The purpose of the present study is twofold: To examine the specific articulatory processes of clear speech using ultrasound and to investigate whether and how the type of listener (hard of hearing, normal hearing) and the lexical property of words (frequency) interact in the production of clear speech. To this end, we examined productions of /ɑ/, /æ/ and /u/ from 16 speakers of US English...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095012/how-our-own-speech-rate-influences-our-perception-of-others
#3
Hans Rutger Bosker
In conversation, our own speech and that of others follow each other in rapid succession. Effects of the surrounding context on speech perception are well documented but, despite the ubiquity of the sound of our own voice, it is unknown whether our own speech also influences our perception of other talkers. This study investigated context effects induced by our own speech through 6 experiments, specifically targeting rate normalization (i.e., perceiving phonetic segments relative to surrounding speech rate)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093574/an-acoustically-driven-vocal-tract-model-for-stop-consonant-production
#4
Brad H Story, Kate Bunton
The purpose of this study was to further develop a multi-tier model of the vocal tract area function in which the modulations of shape to produce speech are generated by the product of a vowel substrate and a consonant superposition function. The new approach consists of specifying input parameters for a target consonant as a set of directional changes in the resonance frequencies of the vowel substrate. Using calculations of acoustic sensitivity functions, these "resonance deflection patterns" are transformed into time-varying deformations of the vocal tract shape without any direct specification of location or extent of the consonant constriction along the vocal tract...
March 2017: Speech Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091761/on-the-origins-of-endogenous-thoughts
#5
Alexandros Tillas
Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
January 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080121/hand-matters-left-hand-gestures-enhance-metaphor-explanation
#7
Paraskevi Argyriou, Christine Mohr, Sotaro Kita
Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the "(right/left) hand-specificity" hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes involving the hemisphere contralateral to the gesturing hand. Specifically, we tested whether left-hand gestures enhance metaphor explanation, which involves right-hemispheric processing...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#8
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078598/an-interaction-between-the-effects-of-bilingualism-and-cross-linguistic-similarity-in-balanced-and-unbalanced-bilingual-adults-l2-mandarin-word-reading-production
#9
Hsiu-Ling Hsu
We conducted three experiments investigating in more detail the interaction between the two effects of bilingualism and L1-L2 similarity in the speech performance of balanced and unbalanced bilinguals. In Experiment 1, L1 Mandarin monolinguals and two groups of Hakka and Minnan balanced bilinguals (Hakka: more similar to Mandarin) performed a non-contextual single-character reading task in Mandarin, which required more inhibitory control. The two bilingual groups outperformed the monolinguals, regardless of their L1 background...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074675/the-emergence-of-an-abstract-grammatical-category-in-children-s-early-speech
#10
Stephan C Meylan, Michael C Frank, Brandon C Roy, Roger Levy
How do children begin to use language to say things they have never heard before? The origins of linguistic productivity have been a subject of heated debate: Whereas generativist accounts posit that children's early language reflects the presence of syntactic abstractions, constructivist approaches instead emphasize gradual generalization derived from frequently heard forms. In the present research, we developed a Bayesian statistical model that measures the degree of abstraction implicit in children's early use of the determiners "a" and "the...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074148/apraxia-of-speech-and-cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-a-case-report
#11
E De Witte, I Wilssens, D De Surgeloose, G Dua, M Moens, J Verhoeven, M Manto, P Mariën
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) or posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) consists of a constellation of neuropsychiatric, neuropsychological and neurogenic speech and language deficits. It is most commonly observed in children after posterior fossa tumor surgery. The most prominent feature of CMS is mutism, which generally starts after a few days after the operation, has a limited duration and is typically followed by motor speech deficits. However, the core speech disorder subserving CMS is still unclear...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069925/cerebellar-tdcs-modulates-neural-circuits-during-semantic-prediction-a-combined-tdcs-fmri-study
#12
Anila M D'Mello, Peter E Turkeltaub, Catherine J Stoodley
: It has been proposed that the cerebellum acquires internal models of mental processes that enable prediction, allowing for the optimization of behavior. In language, semantic prediction speeds speech production and comprehension. Right cerebellar lobules VI and VII (including Crus I/II) are engaged during a variety of language processes and are functionally connected with cerebral cortical language networks. Further, right posterolateral cerebellar neuromodulation modifies behavior during predictive language processing...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059462/the-infant-s-developmental-path-in-phonological-acquisition
#13
Daniel Swingley
Research on how language acquisition begins has been fragmented both in terms of scientific communities and in terms of the phenomena that are taken to characterize developmental progress. In her article, Marilyn Vihman argues for an integrative approach that takes the child's efforts at speech production as primary, and notes that infants' knowledge of how words sound may accrue over a protracted period developmentally. Here, I briefly discuss how reconceptualization of the process can help integrate perspectives previously at odds...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059457/the-many-facets-of-speech-production-and-its-complex-effects-on-phonological-processing
#14
Tania S Zamuner, H Henny Yeung, Myriam Ducos
In our commentary, we discuss two additional points about developmental speech production. First, we suggest that more precision is needed to accurately describe 'speech production' processes, and we suggest that hierarchical constructs from the adult literatures on articulatory phonology and speech motor control may be applicable to infants as well. Second, we discuss the implications from data that indicate that the effects of production are subject to task-, attentional-, linguistic-, and experience-related demands...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059032/when-sufficiently-processed-semantically-related-distractor-pictures-hamper-picture-naming
#15
Asya Matushanskaya, Andreas Mädebach, Matthias M Müller, Jörg D Jescheniak
Prominent speech production models view lexical access as a competitive process. According to these models, a semantically related distractor picture should interfere with target picture naming more strongly than an unrelated one. However, several studies failed to obtain such an effect. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference is obtained, when the distractor picture is sufficiently processed. Participants named one of two pictures presented in close temporal succession, with color cueing the target...
November 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056148/the-interaction-of-lexical-characteristics-and-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Yi-Fang Chiu, Karen Forrest
Purpose: This study sought to investigate the interaction of speech movement execution with higher order lexical parameters. The authors examined how lexical characteristics affect speech output in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy control (HC) speakers. Method: Twenty speakers with PD and 12 healthy speakers read sentences with target words that varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. The formant transitions (F2 slopes) of the diphthongs in the target words were compared across lexical categories between PD and HC groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056137/a-lag-in-speech-motor-coordination-during-sentence-production-is-associated-with-stuttering-persistence-in-young-children
#17
Evan Usler, Anne Smith, Christine Weber
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if indices of speech motor coordination during the production of sentences varying in sentence length and syntactic complexity were associated with stuttering persistence versus recovery in 5- to 7-year-old children. Methods: We compared children with persistent stuttering (CWS-Per) with children who had recovered (CWS-Rec), and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A kinematic measure of articulatory coordination, lip aperture variability (LAVar), and overall movement duration were computed for perceptually fluent sentence productions varying in length and syntactic complexity...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049390/assessment-practices-of-irish-speech-and-language-therapists-in-the-evaluation-of-voice-disorders
#18
Ciarán Kenny
It is commonly accepted that the evaluation of voice disorders ought to include extensive perceptual, psychometric, and instrumental measurements. This serves to encapsulate the wide-reaching effects of such a disorder, from the physical impairment in voice production to the psycho-social impact of having a dysphonic voice. In spite of this, no international gold standard exists by which voice disorders should be evaluated, and so speech and language therapists (SLTs) are often tasked with developing an assessment battery for use in their own clinics...
April 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042974/-didn-t-i-just-say-that-comparing-parent-report-and-spontaneous-speech-as-indicators-of-grammatical-development
#19
Manya Jyotishi, Deborah A Fein, Letitia R Naigles
BACKGROUND: The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales use parental report to examine communication and social skills in children with typical and atypical development, and exhibit high reliability when compared against overall direct testing. However, findings are mixed comparing Vineland communication/language scores with experimenter-administered tests of language. METHODS: The current study breaks new ground in comparing Vineland reports with direct observation of children's speech by (a) individual items and (b) level of child functioning, focusing on usage of wh-questions, verb tenses, negation, pronouns and noun-verb combinations...
December 30, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041786/statistical-evidence-that-a-child-can-create-a-combinatorial-linguistic-system-without-external-linguistic-input-implications-for-language-evolution
#20
REVIEW
Susan Goldin-Meadow, Charles Yang
Can a child who is not exposed to a model for language nevertheless construct a communication system characterized by combinatorial structure? We know that deaf children whose hearing losses prevent them from acquiring spoken language, and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language, use gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. In this study, we call upon a new formal analysis that characterizes the statistical profile of grammatical rules and, when applied to child language data, finds that young children's language is consistent with a productive grammar rather than rote memorization of specific word combinations in caregiver speech...
December 29, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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