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Speech production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339405/speech-production-gains-following-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-in-children-with-hemiparesis
#1
Kristen M Allison, Teressa Garcia Reidy, Mary Boyle, Erin Naber, Joan Carney, Frank S Pidcock
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in speech skills of children who have hemiparesis and speech impairment after participation in a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) program. While case studies have reported collateral speech gains following CIMT, the effect of CIMT on speech production has not previously been directly investigated to the knowledge of these investigators. METHODS: Eighteen children with hemiparesis and co-occurring speech impairment participated in a 21-day clinical CIMT program...
2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335686/grammatical-gender-effects-in-noun-noun-compound-production-evidence-from-german
#2
Antje Lorenz, Andreas Mädebach, Jörg D Jescheniak
We examined how noun-noun compound nouns and their syntactic properties are lexically stored and processed in speech production. Using gender-marked determiner primes (dermasc, diefem, dasneut [the]) in a picture naming task, we tested for specific effects from determiners congruent with either the modifier or the head of the compound target (e.g., Teemasckannefem [teapot]) to examine whether the constituents are processed independently at the syntactic level. Experiment 1 assessed effects of auditory gender-marked determiner primes in bare noun picture naming, and Experiment 2 assessed effects of visual gender-marked determiner primes in determiner-noun picture naming...
March 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334401/vocal-tract-images-reveal-neural-representations-of-sensorimotor-transformation-during-speech-imitation
#3
Daniel Carey, Marc E Miquel, Bronwen G Evans, Patti Adank, Carolyn McGettigan
Imitating speech necessitates the transformation from sensory targets to vocal tract motor output, yet little is known about the representational basis of this process in the human brain. Here, we address this question by using real-time MR imaging (rtMRI) of the vocal tract and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain in a speech imitation paradigm. Participants trained on imitating a native vowel and a similar nonnative vowel that required lip rounding. Later, participants imitated these vowels and an untrained vowel pair during separate fMRI and rtMRI runs...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328639/the-effect-of-furlow-palatoplasty-timing-on-speech-outcomes-in-submucous-cleft-palate
#4
Jordan W Swanson, Brianne T Mitchell, Marilyn Cohen, Cynthia Solot, Oksana Jackson, David Low, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
BACKGROUND: Because some patients with submucous cleft palate (SMCP) are asymptomatic, surgical treatment is conventionally delayed until hypernasal resonance is identified during speech production. We aim to identify whether speech outcomes after repair of a SMCP is influenced by age of repair. METHODS: We retrospectively studied nonsyndromic children with SMCP. Speech results, before and after any surgical treatment or physical management of the palate were compared using the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Scoring system...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326986/the-role-of-predictability-in-intonational-variability
#5
Rory Turnbull
Predictability is known to affect many properties of speech production. In particular, it has been observed that highly predictable elements (words, syllables) are produced with less phonetic prominence (shorter duration, less peripheral vowels) than less predictable elements. This tendency has been proposed to be a general property of language. This paper examines whether predictability is correlated with fundamental frequency (F0) production, through analysis of experimental corpora of American English. Predictability was variously defined as discourse mention, utterance probability, and semantic focus...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321196/connected-speech-in-neurodegenerative-language-disorders-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Veronica Boschi, Eleonora Catricalà, Monica Consonni, Cristiano Chesi, Andrea Moro, Stefano F Cappa
Language assessment has a crucial role in the clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of extended speech production is a precious source of information encompassing the phonetic, phonological, lexico-semantic, morpho-syntactic, and pragmatic levels of language organization. The knowledge about the distinctive linguistic variables identifying language deficits associated to different neurodegenerative diseases has progressively improved in the last years. However, the heterogeneity of such variables and of the way they are measured and classified limits any generalization and makes the comparison among studies difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320669/regularized-speaker-adaptation-of-kl-hmm-for-dysarthric-speech-recognition
#7
Myungjong Kim, Younggwan Kim, Joohong Yoo, Jun Wang, Hoirin Kim
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing the speech uttered by patients with dysarthria, which is a motor speech disorder impeding the physical production of speech. Patients with dysarthria have articulatory limitation, and therefore, they often have trouble in pronouncing certain sounds, resulting in undesirable phonetic variation. Modern automatic speech recognition systems designed for regular speakers are ineffective for dysarthric sufferers due to the phonetic variation. To capture the phonetic variation, Kullback-Leibler divergence based hidden Markov model (KL-HMM) is adopted, where the emission probability of state is parametrized by a categorical distribution using phoneme posterior probabilities obtained from a deep neural network-based acoustic model...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306754/factors-influencing-consonant-acquisition-in-brazilian-portuguese-speaking-children
#8
Marizete Ilha Ceron, Marileda Barichello Gubiani, Camila Rosa de Oliveira, Márcia Keske-Soares
Purpose: We sought to provide valid and reliable data on the acquisition of consonant sounds in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Method: The sample comprised 733 typically developing monolingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (ages 3;0-8;11 [years;months]). The presence of surface speech error patterns, the revised percentage consonants correct, and the age of sound acquisition were evaluated using phonological assessment software. The normative values for these variables were reported using means and standard deviations...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301854/pre-low-raising-in-japanese-pitch-accent
#9
Albert Lee, Santitham Prom-On, Yi Xu
Japanese has been observed to have 2 versions of the H tone, the higher of which is associated with an accented mora. However, the distinction of these 2 versions only surfaces in context but not in isolation, leading to a long-standing debate over whether there is 1 H tone or 2. This article reports evidence that the higher version may result from a pre-low raising mechanism rather than being inherently higher. The evidence is based on an analysis of F0 of words that varied in length, accent condition and syllable structure, produced by native speakers of Japanese at 2 speech rates...
March 17, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300955/prototype-app-for-voice-therapy-a-peer-review
#10
Paula Lavaissiéri, Paulo Eduardo Damasceno Melo
Purpose: Voice speech therapy promotes changes in patients' voice-related habits and rehabilitation. Speech-language therapists use a host of materials ranging from pictures to electronic resources and computer tools as aids in this process. Mobile technology is attractive, interactive and a nearly constant feature in the daily routine of a large part of the population and has a growing application in healthcare. To develop a prototype application for voice therapy, submit it to peer assessment, and to improve the initial prototype based on these assessments...
March 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296969/the-traits-of-the-great-calls-in-the-juvenile-and-adolescent-gibbon-males-nomascus-gabriellae
#11
Michal Hradec, Pavel Linhart, Luděk Bartoš, Petra Bolechová
Knowledge about vocal ontogeny and vocal plasticity during ontogeny in primate species is central to understanding the evolution of human speech. Vocalizations in gibbons (Hominoidea) are very interesting and contain complex species- and sex-specific patterns. However, ontogeny of gibbon songs is little studied. Here, we document regular production and ontogenetic changes of female-specific "great call" in 4 immature (2 juvenile-c.a. 3 years old; and 2 adolescent-c.a. 5 years old) males of southern yellow-cheeked gibbon (N...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293201/accessibility-of-referent-information-influences-sentence-planning-an-eye-tracking-study
#12
Lesya Y Ganushchak, Agnieszka E Konopka, Yiya Chen
This study investigated the time-course of online sentence formulation (i.e., incrementality in sentence planning) as a function of the preceding discourse context. In two eye-tracking experiments, participants described pictures of transitive events (e.g., a frog catching a fly). The accessibility of the agent (Experiment 1) and patient (Experiment 2) was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where the agent or patient was mentioned explicitly (fly, frog)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284736/contributions-of-sensory-tuning-to-auditory-vocal-interactions-in-marmoset-auditory-cortex
#13
Steven J Eliades, Xiaoqin Wang
During speech, humans continuously listen to their own vocal output to ensure accurate communication. Such self-monitoring is thought to require the integration of information about the feedback of vocal acoustics with internal motor control signals. The neural mechanism of this auditory-vocal interaction remains largely unknown at the cellular level. Previous studies in naturally vocalizing marmosets have demonstrated diverse neural activities in auditory cortex during vocalization, dominated by a vocalization-induced suppression of neural firing...
March 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282570/paradoxical-vocal-changes-in-a-trained-singer-by-focally-cooling-the-right-superior-temporal-gyrus
#14
Kalman A Katlowitz, Hiroyuki Oya, Matthew A Howard, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Michael A Long
The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality...
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280675/radical-dissection-of-greater-palatine-artery-and-dynamic-reconstruction-of-cleft-palate
#15
Ghulam Qadir Fayyaz, Nauman Ahmad Gill, Ayesha Chaudry, Irfan Ishaq, Muhammad Aslam, Romaisa Shamim, Mirza Muhammad Kafeel, Muhammad Aazam, Hermann Sailer, Muhammad Ashraf Ganatra
BACKGROUND: Restoration of proper anatomy and physiology is an integral part of cleft palate repair. The senior author has devised a new technique of radical release of greater palatine vessels, which helps in achieving tension-free closure of palatal cleft. In addition, release and transposition of palatal muscles is performed without the use of operative microscope, resulting in improved palatal function. This technique is applicable to all types of clefts of the palate and can be performed on adult patients as well...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280567/early-development-of-abstract-language-knowledge-evidence-from-perception-production-transfer-of-birth-language-memory
#16
Jiyoun Choi, Anne Cutler, Mirjam Broersma
Children adopted early in life into another linguistic community typically forget their birth language but retain, unaware, relevant linguistic knowledge that may facilitate (re)learning of birth-language patterns. Understanding the nature of this knowledge can shed light on how language is acquired. Here, international adoptees from Korea with Dutch as their current language, and matched Dutch-native controls, provided speech production data on a Korean consonantal distinction unlike any Dutch distinctions, at the outset and end of an intensive perceptual training...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271541/observation-study-identifies-that-a-lack-of-canonical-babbling-can-indicate-future-speech-and-language-problems
#17
A Lohmander, K Holm, S Eriksson, M Lieberman
AIM: We investigated how accurate observations of canonical babbling were and explored predictive babbling measures in children with and without medical diagnoses of conditions that can lead to speech and language problems. METHODS: From 2012-2014 this Stockholm-based study recruited 38 children aged 9-21 months with medical diagnoses and 30 children aged 10 months without diagnoses and included 21 previously studied 12-month-old children without medical diagnoses...
March 8, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270782/temporal-preparation-for-speaking-in-question-answer-sequences
#18
Lilla Magyari, Jan P De Ruiter, Stephen C Levinson
In every-day conversations, the gap between turns of conversational partners is most frequently between 0 and 200 ms. We were interested how speakers achieve such fast transitions. We designed an experiment in which participants listened to pre-recorded questions about images presented on a screen and were asked to answer these questions. We tested whether speakers already prepare their answers while they listen to questions and whether they can prepare for the time of articulation by anticipating when questions end...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268618/decoding-speech-using-the-timing-of-neural-signal-modulation
#19
Werner Jiang, Tejaswy Pailla, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have great potential for applications that restore and assist communication for paralyzed individuals. Recently, BMIs decoding speech have gained considerable attention due to their potential for high information transfer rates. In this study, we propose a novel decoding approach based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) that uses the timing of neural signal changes to decode speech. We tested the decoder's performance by predicting vowels from electrocorticographic (ECoG) data of three human subjects...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268466/an-initial-investigation-into-the-real-time-conversion-of-facial-surface-emg-signals-to-audible-speech
#20
Lorenz Diener, Christian Herff, Matthias Janke, Tanja Schultz
This paper presents early-stage results of our investigations into the direct conversion of facial surface electromyographic (EMG) signals into audible speech in a real-time setting, enabling novel avenues for research and system improvement through real-time feedback. The system uses a pipeline approach to enable online acquisition of EMG data, extraction of EMG features, mapping of EMG features to audio features, synthesis of audio waveforms from audio features and output of the audio waveforms via speakers or headphones...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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