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Speech production

April Jacobs, Melinda Fricke, Judith F Kroll
Three groups of native English speakers named words aloud in Spanish, their second language (L2). Intermediate proficiency learners in a classroom setting (Experiment 1) and in a domestic immersion program (Experiment 2) were compared to a group of highly proficient English-Spanish speakers. All three groups named cognate words more quickly and accurately than matched noncognates, indicating that all speakers experienced cross-language activation during speech planning. However, only the classroom learners exhibited effects of cross-language activation in their articulation: Cognate words were named with shorter overall durations, but longer (more English-like) voice onset times...
2016: Language Learning
Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Adrián García-Sierra, Patricia K Kuhl
This study tested the impact of child-directed language input on language development in Spanish-English bilingual infants (N = 25, 11- and 14-month-olds from the Seattle metropolitan area), across languages and independently for each language, controlling for socioeconomic status. Language input was characterized by social interaction variables, defined in terms of speech style ("parentese" vs. standard speech) and social context (one-on-one vs. group). Correlations between parentese one-on-one and productive vocabulary at 24 months (n = 18) were found across languages and in each language independently...
October 19, 2016: Child Development
Jennifer Mah, Heather Goad, Karsten Steinhauer
French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN) in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Christoph Ahlgrim, Oliver Maenner, Manfred W Baumstark
BACKGROUND: Speech recognition software might increase productivity in clinical documentation. However, low user satisfaction with speech recognition software has been observed. In this case study, an approach for implementing a speech recognition software package at a university-based outpatient department is presented. METHODS: Methods to create a specific dictionary for the context "sports medicine" and a shared vocabulary learning function are demonstrated. The approach is evaluated for user satisfaction (using a questionnaire before and 10 weeks after software implementation) and its impact on the time until the final medical document was saved into the system...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Julie Case, Maria I Grigos
Purpose: Articulatory control and speech production accuracy were examined in children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and typically developing (TD) controls within a novel word-learning task to better understand the influence of planning and programming deficits in the production of unfamiliar words. Method: Participants included 16 children between the ages of 5 and 6 years (8 CAS, 8 TD). Short- and long-term changes in lip and jaw movement, consonant and vowel accuracy, and token-to-token consistency were measured for 2 novel words that differed in articulatory complexity...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Adam J Chong, James Sneed German
This paper reports on a speech production experiment that explores whether the accentual phrase (AP) represents an abstract level of prosodic phrasing in Singapore English. Specifically, it tests whether the right edge of the AP is associated with phrase-final lengthening, the degree of which can be distinguished from lengthening associated with the intonational phrase (IP). Target words were produced in matched sentence contexts in 3 phrasal positions: AP-medial (wordfinal), AP-final, and IP-final. As predicted, target words in AP-final position were longer than those in AP-medial position and shorter than those in IP-final position...
October 17, 2016: Phonetica
Jessica C Hodgson, Rebecca J Hirst, John M Hudson
Commonly displayed functional asymmetries such as hand dominance and hemispheric speech lateralisation are well researched in adults. However there is debate about when such functions become lateralised in the typically developing brain. This study examined whether patterns of speech laterality and hand dominance were related and whether they varied with age in typically developing children. 148 children aged 3-10 years performed an electronic pegboard task to determine hand dominance; a subset of 38 of these children also underwent functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) imaging to derive a lateralisation index (LI) for hemispheric activation during speech production using an animation description paradigm...
September 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Christos Panayi, Nagui Antoun, Richard Sandford
A 44-year-old woman with a history of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, a rare inherited neoplasia syndrome, presented acutely to hospital with a productive cough, symptoms of respiratory tract infection and odynophagia (painful swallowing). A chest X-ray confirmed right-sided pneumonia. Investigation of the persistent odynophagia using barium swallow revealed aspiration of the contrast into the lungs and suggested a neurological cause for her chest infection. Clinical assessment and speech and language therapy confirmed a pseudobulbar palsy...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Mirjam Broersma, Diana Carter, Daniel J Acheson
This study investigates cross-language lexical competition in the bilingual mental lexicon. It provides evidence for the occurrence of inhibition as well as the commonly reported facilitation during the production of cognates (words with similar phonological form and meaning in two languages) in a mixed picture naming task by highly proficient Welsh-English bilinguals. Previous studies have typically found cognate facilitation. It has previously been proposed (with respect to non-cognates) that cross-language inhibition is limited to low-proficient bilinguals; therefore, we tested highly proficient, early bilinguals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthieu Dubois, Cécile Chenivesse, Mathieu Raux, Adrian Morales-Robles, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Gilles Garcia, Xavier Navarro-Sune, Mario Chavez, Jacques Martinerie, Thomas Similowski
: Spontaneous ventilation in mammals is driven by automatic brainstem networks that generate the respiratory rhythm and increase ventilation in the presence of increased carbon dioxide production. Hypocapnia decreases the drive to breathe and induces apnea. In humans, this occurs during sleep but not during wakefulness. We hypothesized that hypocapnic breathing would be associated with respiratory-related cortical activity similar to that observed during volitional breathing, inspiratory constraints, or in patients with defective automatic breathing (preinspiratory potentials)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
D K Dias, P D Fernando, R D Dissanayake
INTRODUCTION: Oro-facial clefts involving the palate is the commonest structural defect causing velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and poor intelli gibility of speech. Proper repair of the soft palateis a surgical challenge. Posterior-based buccinator myomucosal flap (BMF) is used to lengthen the soft palate of patients who undergo primary palatoplasty at Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya (THK). BMF is a good choice for the repair of medium sized mucosal defects in the oral cavity since it has appropriate thickness, contains mucous membrane with mucous glands and has a rich blood supply...
2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
Tim Bressmann, Gillian de Boer, Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino, Eliana Maria Gradim Fabron, Larissa Cristina Berti
The present study evaluated global aspects of lingual movement during sentence production with backward and forward voice focus. Nine female participants read a sentence with a variety of consonants in a normal condition and with backward and forward voice focus. Midsagittal tongue movement was recorded with ultrasound. Tongue height over time at an anterior, a central, and a posterior measurement angle was measured. The outcome measures were speech rate, cumulative distance travelled, and average movement speed of the tongue...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Nancy J Scherer, Shauna Baker, Ann Kaiser, Jennifer R Frey
OBJECTIVE:   This study compares the early speech and language development of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with children born in the United States. DESIGN:   Prospective longitudinal description of early speech and language development between 18 and 36 months of age. PARTICIPANTS:   This study compares four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were born in the United States, matched for age, gender, and cleft type across three time points over 10 to 12 months...
October 10, 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
J R Duffy
Acquired psychogenic or functional speech disorders are a subtype of functional neurologic disorders. They can mimic organic speech disorders and, although any aspect of speech production can be affected, they manifest most often as dysphonia, stuttering, or prosodic abnormalities. This chapter reviews the prevalence of functional speech disorders, the spectrum of their primary clinical characteristics, and the clues that help distinguish them from organic neurologic diseases affecting the sensorimotor networks involved in speech production...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ann W Kummer
Children with craniofacial anomalies often demonstrate disorders of speech and/or resonance. Anomalies that affect speech and resonance are most commonly caused by clefts of the primary palate and secondary palate. This article discusses how speech-language pathologists evaluate the effects of dental and occlusal anomalies on speech production and the effects of velopharyngeal insufficiency on speech sound production and resonance. How to estimate the size of a velopharyngeal opening based on speech characteristics is illustrated...
November 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Anja Kuschmann, Nick Miller, Anja Lowit, Lindsay Pennington
PURPOSE: This paper examined the production of intonation patterns in children with developmental dysarthria associated with cerebral palsy (CP) prior to and after speech intervention focussing on respiration and phonation. The study further sought to establish whether intonation performance might be related to changes in speech intelligibility. METHOD: Intonation patterns were examined using connected speech samples of 15 older children with moderate to severe developmental dysarthria due to CP (9 females; age range: 11-18)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Cyril Atkinson-Clement, Audrey Maillet, Didier LeBars, Franck Lavenne, Jérôme Redouté, Alexandre Krainik, Pierre Pollak, Stéphane Thobois, Serge Pinto
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) represents one of the most efficacious treatments for Parkinson's disease, along with L-dopa therapy. The objective of the present work was to identify the cerebral networks associated with hand movement and speech production tasks performed alone and simultaneously, as well as the effects of STN-DBS on these profiles. Clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging (oxygen 15-labeled water and Positron Emission Tomography) investigations were used to study single and combined performances of unilateral hand movements and speech production in 11 unmedicated individuals with PD, both off and on STN-DBS...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Edwin Maas
Understanding of the behavioural, cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech production is of interest theoretically, and is important for understanding disorders of speech production and how to assess and treat such disorders in the clinic. This paper addresses two claims about the neuromotor control of speech production: (1) speech is subserved by a distinct, specialised motor control system and (2) speech is holistic and cannot be decomposed into smaller primitives. Both claims have gained traction in recent literature, and are central to a task-dependent model of speech motor control...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Judith A Gierut
Research on phonological disorders in children has conventionally emphasized the speech sound in search of causes, diagnoses, treatments, and prevention of the disorder. This article aims to shift the research focus to the word instead. The motivation comes from advances in psycholinguistics that demonstrate the word is central to the perception, production, and acquisition of phonological information. Three strands of potential study are outlined in evaluation of how words might initiate and boost, but perhaps also, interrupt learning for children with phonological disorders...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
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