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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454283/investigating-antibiotics-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-microbial-contaminants-in-groundwater-in-relation-to-the-proximity-of-urban-areas
#1
Edina Szekeres, Cecilia Maria Chiriac, Andreea Baricz, Tiberiu Szőke-Nagy, Ildiko Lung, Maria-Loredana Soran, Knut Rudi, Nicolae Dragos, Cristian Coman
Groundwater is an essential public and drinking water supply and its protection is a goal for global policies. Here, we investigated the presence and prevalence of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and microbial contamination in groundwater environments at various distances from urban areas. Antibiotic concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 917 ng/L, being trimethoprim, macrolide, and sulfonamide the most abundant antibiotic classes. A total of eleven ARGs (aminoglycoside, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B - MLSB, sulfonamide, and tetracycline), one antiseptic resistance gene, and two MGEs were detected by qPCR with relative abundances ranging from 6...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454228/obturator-internus-muscle-abscess-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-adult-a-case-report
#2
Akinori Maeda, Isaku Saku, Shotaro Kanda, Kazuo Saita, Toru Akiyama
INTRODUCTION: Obturator internus muscle (OIM) abscess is a rare condition, usually affecting children after trauma or muscular effort. Blood cultures always yield positive findings, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common culprit. There are few reports in adults. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of OIM abscess in an adult. A 24-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of right hip pain and fever. He was diagnosed with OIM abscess, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected on bacterial examination...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454207/repeated-treatments-of-ciprofloxacin-and-kresoxim-methyl-alter-their-dissipation-rates-biological-function-and-increase-antibiotic-resistance-in-manured-soil
#3
Hua Fang, Lingxi Han, Houpu Zhang, Yanfei Deng, Qiqing Ge, Jiajia Mei, Zhengnan Long, Yunlong Yu
The dissipation of ciprofloxacin (CIP, 1.0 and 10.0mg/kg) and kresoxim-methyl (KM, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) in manure-amended soil, the variations in soil enzyme activities and microbial functional diversities, and CIP-induced bacterial community tolerances were studied using a chromatographic analysis, enzyme colorimetric and titration analyses, and the BIOLOG EcoPlate method. Three successive treatments of individual and combined samples of CIP and KM at low and high concentrations were performed at 60d intervals...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454108/detection-of-b-fragilis-group-and-diversity-of-bft-enterotoxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-markers-cepa-cfia-and-nim-among-intestinal-bacteroides-fragilis-strains-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Marjan Rashidan, Masoumeh Azimirad, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mehdi Ghobakhlou, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to detect minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin, imipenem, and metronidazole, and carriage of related resistance genes cepA, cfi, and nim. B. fragilis group was detected in 38% of IBD (UC: 36/89; CD:1/11) and 25% (5/20) of non-IBD patients. While B. vulgatus (UC: 20/36, CD: 1/2, control: 1/6); B. fragilis (UC: 18/36, CD: 1/2, control: 5/6); B...
February 14, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454049/emergence-of-vancomycin-intermediate-and-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-isolated-from-clinical-specimens-in-the-northwest-of-iran
#5
Maryam Ghahremani, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Yaeghob Sharifi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, the, phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin- resistant, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), from clinical specimens at three university teaching hospitals in Urmia-North West of Iran (2012- 2015). METHODS: After identification of the isolates, the antibiotic, susceptibility, the presence of mecA, vanA, pvl genes and staphylococcal, cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453908/effective-anti-adhesives-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Rosana Ribić, Tomislav Meštrović, Marijana Neuberg, Goran Kozina
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Due to their frequent occurrence in the community and nosocomial settings, as well as the development of resistance to the commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, an enormous financial burden is placed on healthcare systems around the world. Therefore, novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of UTIs are needed. Although UPEC may harbour a plethora of virulence factors, type I fimbriae and P pili are two of the most studied adhesive organelles, since the attachment to host cells in the urinary tract is a crucial step towards infection...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453715/the-influence-of-heavy-metals-polyaromatic-hydrocarbons-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pollution-on-the-development-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-soils
#7
Andrey Vladimirovich Gorovtsov, Ivan Sergeevich Sazykin, Marina Alexandrovna Sazykina
The minireview is devoted to the analysis of the influence of soil pollution with heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the distribution of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in soil microbiomes. It is shown that the best understanding of ARGs distribution process requires studying the influence of pollutants on this process in natural microbiocenoses. Heavy metals promote co-selection of genes determining resistance to them together with ARGs in the same mobile elements of a bacterial genome, but the majority of studies focus on agricultural soils enriched with ARGs originating from manure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453690/the-effectiveness-of-targeted-relative-to-empiric-prophylaxis-on-infectious-complications-after-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Susan Scott, Patrick N Harris, Deborah A Williamson, Michael A Liss, Suhail A R Doi, Matthew J Roberts
PURPOSE: Rectal culture screening for fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate (TRUSPB) biopsy and targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (TAP) may decrease post-TRUSPB infection rates compared to empiric (EAP) regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of targeted relative to empiric prophylaxis regimens on rates of infectious complications after TRUSPB and to determine the baseline prevalence of FQ resistance based on prior rectal swabs...
February 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453676/properties-of-bacterial-communities-attached-to-artificial-substrates-in-a-hypereutrophic-urban-river
#9
Xianlei Cai, Ling Yao, Qiyue Sheng, Luyao Jiang, Randy A Dahlgren, Ting Wang
Bacterial communities of biofilms growing on artificial substrates were examined at two time periods (7 and 14 days) and two locations (lentic and lotic areas) in a hypereutrophic urban river of eastern China. Previous studies in this river network indicated that variations of microbial communities were the major factor affecting the distribution of antibiotic resistant genes highlighting the importance of understanding controls of microbial communities. Bacterial communities associated with biofilms were determined using epifluorescence microscopy and high-throughput sequencing...
February 16, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453178/seasonal-dynamics-of-tetracycline-resistance-gene-transport-in-the-sumas-river-agricultural-watershed-of-british-columbia-canada
#10
Patricia L Keen, Charles W Knapp, Kenneth J Hall, David W Graham
Environmental transport of contaminants that can influence the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an important concern in the management of ecological and human health risks. Agricultural regions are locales where practices linked to food crop and livestock production can introduce contaminants that could alter the selective pressures for the development of antibiotic resistance in microbiota. This is important in regions where the use of animal manure or municipal biosolids as waste and/or fertilizer could influence selection for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacterial species...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453174/antibiotic-resistance-along-an-urban-river-impacted-by-treated-wastewaters
#11
Lorenzo Proia, Adriana Anzil, Jessica Subirats, Carles Borrego, Marinella Farrè, Marta Llorca, Jose Luis Balcázar, Pierre Servais
Urban rivers are impacted ecosystems which may play an important role as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria. The main objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of antibiotic resistance along a sewage-polluted urban river. Seven sites along the Zenne River (Belgium) were selected to study the prevalence of AR Escherichia coli and freshwater bacteria over a 1-year period. Culture-dependent methods were used to estimate E. coli and heterotrophic bacteria resistant to amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and tetracycline...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452993/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-tedizolid-implications-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#12
Pierre Delpech, Muna ALeryan, Brian Jones, Curtis Gemmell, Sue Lang
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are among the most commonly occurring infections and evidence suggests that these are increasing world-wide. The aetiology is diverse, but Staphylococcus aureus predominate and these are often resistant to antimicrobials that were previously effective. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone-class antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with SSTI caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of tedizolid in comparison to other clinically used antibacterials against antibiotic sensitive- and resistant-staphylococci, grown in planktonic cultures and as biofilms reflecting the growth of the microorganism during episodes of SSTI...
January 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452960/traditionally-practiced-medicinal-plant-extracts-inhibit-the-ergosterol-biosynthesis-of-clinically-isolated-dermatophytic-pathogens
#13
M Chellappandian, M Saravanan, P Pandikumar, P Harikrishnan, K Thirugnanasambantham, S Subramanian, V I Hairul-Islam, S Ignacimuthu
OBJECTIVE: Dermatophytes are resistant to some available antibiotics. Development of new plant drugs to control drug resistant microbes is urgently needed. This study evaluates the antidermatophytic potential of 18 selected medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Theni and Virudhunagar Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected plant parts were collected, shade dried and powdered. Plant powders were extracted with ethanol and their antifungal potency was investigated against and clinical dermatophytes...
February 13, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452952/phasevarions-of-bacterial-pathogens-methylomics-sheds-new-light-on-old-enemies
#14
REVIEW
John M Atack, Aimee Tan, Lauren O Bakaletz, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
A wide variety of bacterial pathogens express phase-variable DNA methyltransferases that control expression of multiple genes via epigenetic mechanisms. These randomly switching regulons - phasevarions - regulate genes involved in pathogenesis, host adaptation, and antibiotic resistance. Individual phase-variable genes can be identified in silico as they contain easily recognized features such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or inverted repeats (IRs) that mediate the random switching of expression. Conversely, phasevarion-controlled genes do not contain any easily identifiable features...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452941/surgical-site-infection-after-gastrointestinal-surgery-in-high-income-middle-income-and-low-income-countries-a-prospective-international-multicentre-cohort-study
#15
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common infections associated with health care, but its importance as a global health priority is not fully understood. We quantified the burden of SSI after gastrointestinal surgery in countries in all parts of the world. METHODS: This international, prospective, multicentre cohort study included consecutive patients undergoing elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection within 2-week time periods at any health-care facility in any country...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452927/toward-prediction-and-control-of-antibiotic-resistance-evolution
#16
REVIEW
Chikara Furusawa, Takaaki Horinouchi, Tomoya Maeda
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a serious public concern. To deal with this problem, recent advances in technology and the use of laboratory evolution experiments have provided valuable information on the phenotypic and genotypic changes that occur during the evolution of resistance. These studies have demonstrated the existence of evolutionary constraints on the development of drug-resistance, which suggests predictability in its evolution. In this review, we focus on the possibility to predict and control the evolution of antibiotic resistance, based on quantitative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic changes observed in bacterial laboratory evolution...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452847/primary-antibiotic-resistance-and-its-relationship-with-caga-and-vaca-genes-in-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-algerian-patients
#17
Meryem Bachir, Rachida Allem, Abedelkarim Tifrit, Meriem Medjekane, Amine El-Mokhtar Drici, Mustafa Diaf, Kara Turki Douidi
The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics is poorly documented in Africa and especially in Algeria. The aim of our study was to determine the antibiotic resistance rates, as well as its possible relationship with VacA and CagA virulence markers of isolates from Algerian patients. One hundred and fifty one H. pylori isolate were obtained between 2012 and 2015 from 200 patients with upper abdominal pain. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline...
February 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452629/continuous-betadine-bacitracin-irrigation-for-vascular-graft-infections-a-case-series
#18
David V Strider, Catherine R Ratliff, Kenneth J Cherry, Gilbert R Upchurch
The aim of the study was to conduct a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent betadine/bacitracin continuous irrigation (BBCI) for vascular graft infections (VGIs) to review its use as a treatment option. A retrospective chart review from 2013 to 2017 was conducted of patients with VGIs that were treated with BBCI postremoval of the infected graft. The BBCI is a continuous infusion of 0.25% betadine in normal saline at 0.3 mL/kg/h for 48 hours then followed by bacitracin infusion with a concentration of 50,000 units bacitracin/per liter normal saline at 0...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452620/pathogen-specific-bacterial-imaging-in-nuclear-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Alvaro A Ordonez, Sanjay K Jain
When serious infections are suspected, patients are often treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics while awaiting results that provide information on the bacterial class and species causing the infection, as well as drug susceptibilities. For deep-seated infections, these traditional diagnostic techniques often rely on tissue biopsies to obtain clinical samples which can be expensive, dangerous, and has the potential of sampling bias. Moreover, these procedures and results can take several days and may not always provide reliable information...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452598/7-versus-14-days-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-critically-ill-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Nick Daneman, Asgar H Rishu, Ruxandra Pinto, Pierre Aslanian, Sean M Bagshaw, Alex Carignan, Emmanuel Charbonney, Bryan Coburn, Deborah J Cook, Michael E Detsky, Peter Dodek, Richard Hall, Anand Kumar, Francois Lamontagne, Francois Lauzier, John C Marshall, Claudio M Martin, Lauralyn McIntyre, John Muscedere, Steven Reynolds, Wendy Sligl, Henry T Stelfox, M Elizabeth Wilcox, Robert A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Shorter-duration antibiotic treatment is sufficient for a range of bacterial infections, but has not been adequately studied for bloodstream infections. Our systematic review, survey, and observational study indicated equipoise for a trial of 7 versus 14 days of antibiotic treatment for bloodstream infections; a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) was a necessary next step to assess feasibility of a larger trial. METHODS: We conducted an open, pilot RCT of antibiotic treatment duration among critically ill patients with bloodstream infection across 11 intensive care units (ICUs)...
February 17, 2018: Trials
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