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Antibiotic resist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107719/occurrence-and-elimination-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-a-long-term-operation-integrated-surface-flow-constructed-wetland
#1
Hansun Fang, Qin Zhang, Xiangping Nie, Baowei Chen, Yuandong Xiao, Qiubai Zhou, Wei Liao, Ximei Liang
Wetland construction is a recommended domestic sewage treatment technique, owing to its simplicity and cost efficiency. Concentrations of 14 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in an integrated surface flow constructed wetland (ICW) steadily operated over 10 years were investigated in the winter and summer. Domestic sewage was observed to be the primary source of ARGs in the ICW, and 77.8% and 59.5% removal rates of total targeted ARGs in the ICW were achieved in the winter and summer, respectively. Concentrations of five ARGs (sul1, tetA, tetC, tetE, and qnrS) in the winter and of six ARGs (sul1, sul3, tetA, tetC, tetE, and qnrS) in the summer were increased throughout the treatment process...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107695/antibacterial-activity-computational-analysis-and-host-toxicity-study-of-thymol-sulfonamide-conjugates
#2
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) are notorious pathogenic multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in both hospital and community sectors, and today the first antibacterial drug sulfamethoxazole is ineffective. The monoterpene phenol, thymol was conjugated with seven sulfa drug derivatives individually, adopting the dye-azo synthesis protocol, and conjugates were characterized using spectral analysis techniques such as, UV, FTIR, MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and SEM...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107651/one-ring-to-fight-them-all-the-sulfazecin-story
#3
Daniel Braga, Gerald Lackner
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Li et al. (2017) report on the biosynthesis of the monobactam sulfazecin by Pseudomonas acidophila and hypothesize a novel mechanism of β-lactam ring formation. As monobactam antibiotics are unaffected by some emerging resistance mechanisms (particularly metallo-β-lactamases), this discovery opens prospects to engineer β-lactam antibiotics against multi-drug resistant pathogens.
January 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107434/anti-mrka-monoclonal-antibodies-reveal-distinct-structural-and-antigenic-features-of-mrka
#4
Qun Wang, Yan Chen, Romana Cvitkovic, Meghan E Pennini, Chew Shun Chang, Mark Pelletier, Jessica Bonnell, Adem C Koksal, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua, C Kendall Stover, Xiaodong Xiao
Antibody therapy against antibiotics resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections represents a promising strategy, the success of which depends critically on the ability to identify appropriate antibody targets. Using a target-agnostic strategy, we recently discovered MrkA as a potential antibody target and vaccine antigen. Interestingly, the anti-MrkA monoclonal antibodies isolated through phage display and hybridoma platforms all recognize an overlapping epitope, which opens up important questions including whether monoclonal antibodies targeting different MrkA epitopes can be generated and if they possess different protective profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107379/experimental-and-in-silico-investigation-of-anti-microbial-activity-of-1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane-derivatives-of-thiomorpholine-piperazine-and-morpholine
#5
Charles O Nwuche, Oguejiofo T Ujam, Akachukwu Ibezim, Ifeoma B Ujam
The Antibiogram properties of 1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane derivatives of thiomorpholine (CTC), piperazine (CPC) and morpholine (CMC) were evaluated by the approved agar well diffusion, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in silico techniques. A total of fourteen microbial cultures consisting of ten bacteria and four yeast strains were used in the biological study while affinity of the compounds for DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target, was investigated by docking method. Results indicate that both thiomorpholine and piperazine had zero activity against the Gram negative organisms tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107364/genetic-attributes-of-e-coli-isolates-from-chlorinated-drinking-water
#6
Michaela D J Blyton, David M Gordon
Escherichia coli, is intimately associated with both human health and water sanitation. E. coli isolates from water can either be (i) host associated commensals, indicating recent faecal contamination; (ii) diarrheal pathogens or (iii) extra-intestinal pathogens that pose a direct health risk; or (iv) free-living. In this study we genetically characterised 28 E. coli isolates obtained from treated drinking water in south eastern Australia to ascertain their likely source. We used full genome sequencing to assign the isolates to their phylogenetic group and multi-locus sequence type...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107301/implementation-of-a-pediatric-orthopaedic-bundle-to-reduce-surgical-site-infections
#7
Jan Schriefer, James Sanders, Julie Michels, Kori Wolcott, Connor Ruddy, Jenna Hanson
Surgical site infections (SSIs) cost an estimated $27,288 per case. An analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data at the University of Rochester Medical Center suggested that rates of SSIs could be lowered in comparison with both peers and baseline. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of SSIs to zero through the implementation of a "bundle" or a combination of practices. Meetings were held with the multidisciplinary care team that includes surgeons and staff from pediatric pharmacy, pediatric infectious diseases, anesthesia, and nursing to create a care bundle for all pediatric orthopaedic surgery patients...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107284/postsurgical-perforation-of-the-esophagus-can-be-treated-using-a-fully-covered-stent-in-children
#8
Chantal Chauvet, Arnaud Bonnard, Alexis Mosca, Marc Bellaïche, Pascale Philippe-Chomette, Jérôme Viala
OBJECTIVES: Surgery and conservative treatment of esophageal or gastric perforations are both often associated with poor results and carry a high morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of using fully covered self-expending metallic stents (SEMS) in children with upper digestive leaks. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed all children with esophageal or gastric perforation who were treated with placement of an SEMS from January 2011 to January 2015...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106859/burkholderia-cepacia-complex-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Sílvia A Sousa, Joana R Feliciano, Tiago Pita, Soraia I Guerreiro, Jorge H Leitão
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria emerged as opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Their eradication is very difficult due to the high level of intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Bcc bacteria have large and complex genomes, composed of two to four replicons, with variable numbers of insertion sequences. The complexity of Bcc genomes confers a high genomic plasticity to these bacteria, allowing their adaptation and survival to diverse habitats, including the human host...
January 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106771/independent-effects-of-a-herbivore-s-bacterial-symbionts-on-its-performance-and-induced-plant-defences
#11
Heike Staudacher, Bernardus C J Schimmel, Mart M Lamers, Nicky Wybouw, Astrid T Groot, Merijn R Kant
It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant's response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant's defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106379/sustainable-release-of-vancomycin-from-silk-fibroin-nanoparticles-for-treating-severe-bone-infections-in-a-rat-tibia-osteomyelitis-model
#12
Negar Hassani Besheli, Fatemeh Mottaghitalab, Masoud Eslami, Mahdi Gholami, Subhas C Kundu, David L Kaplan, Mehdi Farokhi
The successful treatment of bone infections is a major challenge in the field of orthopedics. There are some common methods for treating bone infections, including systemic antibiotic administration, local non-degradable drug vehicles, and surgical debridement and each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, the antibiotic vancomycin (VANCO) was loaded in silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNPs) and the complexes were then entrapped in silk scaffolds to form sustained drug delivery systems...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106348/a-biosurfactant-inspired-heptapeptide-with-improved-specificity-to-kill-mrsa
#13
Yuan Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
The emergence and rapid spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to public health. New antibiotics and strategies are urgently needed to combat S. aureus associated infections. Bacaucin, a novel cyclic lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis CAU21, is reported. Bacaucin shows broad antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but is also hemolytic and cytotoxic. However, bacaucin-1, a bacaucin-inspired ring-opened heptapeptide, shows specific antibacterial activity against MRSA by a membrane-disruptive mechanism without detectable toxicity to mammalian cells or induction of bacterial resistance...
February 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105270/1-2-4-triazolidine-3-thiones-as-narrow-spectrum-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
William M Huggins, Bradley M Minrovic, Brendan W Corey, Anna C Jacobs, Roberta J Melander, Roger D Sommer, Daniel V Zurawski, Christian Melander
With only two new classes of antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, novel antibiotics are desperately needed to combat the growing problem of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug resistant bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacteria. Described in this letter is the synthesis and antibiotic activity of 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thiones as narrow spectrum antibiotics. Optimization of the 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thione scaffold identified a small molecule with potent antibiotic activity against multiple strains of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104656/draft-genome-sequences-of-pandrug-resistant-serratia-marcescens-clinical-isolates-harboring-blandm-1
#15
Yancheng Yao, Linda Falgenhauer, Volkhard A J Kempf, Michael Hogardt, Stephan Göttig, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty
The draft genome sequences of two clonal, pandrug-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolates were determined. The resistance phenotype was plasmid driven, as 14 of 17 resistance genes were present on large IncFIB(K), IncHI2, and IncA/C2 plasmids indicating a large pool of transmissible antibiotic resistance genes.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104653/draft-genome-sequence-of-microbacterium-sp-strain-alg239_v18-an-actinobacterium-retrieved-from-the-marine-sponge-spongia-sp
#16
Elham Karimi, Jorge M S Gonçalves, Margarida Reis, Rodrigo Costa
Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104524/the-role-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-clean-neurosurgery
#17
YiYao Cao, Ke Pu, Quodong Li, XueJiang Yan, Yue Ma, Kai Xue, ZhiMing Sun, QingGuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) and the risk factors for postoperative infections in clean neurosurgery. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on all patients who had undergone clean neurosurgical operation at our institution between January 2009 and December 2014.From January 2009 until October 2011, antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to every clean neurosurgical patient. From November 2011 to December 2014, no antibiotic prophylaxis (n-AP) was prescribed for all clean neurosurgical operations...
January 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104513/a-multi-center-study-of-bacterial-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-the-role-of-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease
#18
Prakash Satwani, Jason L Freedman, Sonali Chaudhury, Zhezhen Jin, Anya Levinson, Marc D Foca, Jennifer Krajewski, Indira Sahdev, Mala Kiran Talekar, Aliza Gardenswartz, Justin Silverman, Meghan Hayes, Christopher C Dvorak
Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by enteric organisms are associated with a particularly high mortality rate in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AlloHCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study aiming to analyze the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance and impact of BSI on transplant related mortality (TRM) in children following alloHCT. During the study period from 2004 to 2014, 395 children (mean age 9.4 years) with at least one BSI were included. The incidences of resistant gram-negative rods (GNR) were 20...
January 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104347/bacterial-resistance-to-antibodies-a-model-evolutionary-study
#19
Lawrence S Schulman
The tangled nature model of evolution (reviewed in the main text) is adapted for use in the study of antibody resistance acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Exchanges of DNA and the acquisition of resistant gene sequences are considered. For the parameters used, resistant strains rapidly proliferate and dominate, although initial intense antibiotic treatment can occasionally prevent this. Variation in genome distribution appears to be long tailed. If this is reflected in nature, the occurrence of resistant bacterial strains can be expected, as well as considerable variation in patient outcomes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104340/why-new-antibiotics-are-not-obviously-useful-now
#20
Grégory Dubourg, Cédric Abat, Didier Raoult
For several years, the threat of antibiotic resistance and its health cost has dramatically risen and various alarming figures have been proposed to illustrate the mortality due to antibiotic resistance. However, predictions concerning different living beings are doomed to failure, as theorised in Alice's 'living croquet' theory. Actors of antibiotic resistance are the doctors, the patient and the bacteria. Considering that animals and the environment are involved, future disasters are unpredictable. Here we evaluate in a rational manner the reliability of scientific sources showing increasing resistance to antibiotics or increasing mortality related to antibiotic resistance, and we finally consider antibiotic resources to face the situation...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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