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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679951/surgical-site-infection-rate-after-hemilaminectomy-and-laminectomy-in-dogs-without-perioperative-antibiotic-therapy
#1
Barbara A R Dyall, Hugo G Schmökel
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the surgical site infection (SSI) rate in dogs undergoing laminectomies without perioperative antibiotics, and compare those data with the expected infection rate for clean surgical wounds in dogs undergoing similar procedures. METHODS:  This was a retrospective single-centre study composed of dogs that underwent hemilaminectomies or laminectomies for thoracolumbar disc herniation or lumbosacral disease during a 2-year period (during 2015 and 2016)...
April 21, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679383/shortened-courses-of-antibiotics-for-bacterial-infections-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Alexandra M Hanretty, Jason C Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Commonly prescribed durations of therapy for many, if not most, bacterial infections are not evidence-based. Misunderstandings by clinicians and patients alike influence perspectives on antibiotic use, including duration of therapy and its role in antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that shorter durations of antibiotic therapy are as efficacious as longer durations for many infections. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English language articles using PubMed were identified for inclusion...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678979/observational-cross-sectional-study-of-nasal-staphylococcal-species-of-medical-students-of-diverse-geographical-origin-prior-to-healthcare-exposure-prevalence-of-scc-mec-fusc-fusb-and-the-arginine-catabolite-mobile-element-acme-in-the-absence-of-selective-antibiotic
#3
Paulo E Budri, Anna C Shore, David C Coleman, Peter M Kinnevey, Hilary Humpreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate co-located nasal Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis ), recovered from healthy medical students in their preclinical year, prior to exposure to the healthcare environment, for the carriage of genes and genetic elements common to both species and that may contribute to S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) evolution. DESIGN: Prospective observational cross-sectional study...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#4
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678480/gram-negative-anaerobe-susceptibility-testing-in-clinical-isolates-using-sensititre-and-etest-methods
#5
C Hughes, C Ashhurst-Smith, J K Ferguson
Gram negative anaerobic organisms are important pathogens in a range of clinical infections, and susceptibility testing is not commonly performed in the microbiology laboratory. We performed anaerobic susceptibility testing on 70 clinically relevant Gram negative anaerobes isolated from routine cultures in a busy diagnostic laboratory which were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The susceptibility testing was performed by two methods: Sensititre trays (ThermoFisher Scientific) against 15 different antibiotics, and Etests (bioMérieux) against five clinically relevant antibiotics (metronidazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, meropenem and clindamycin)...
April 17, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678468/the-s-layer-biogenesis-system-of-synechocystis-6803-role-of-sll1180-and-sll1181-e-coli-hlyb-and-hlyd-analogs-as-type-i-secretion-components-for-sll1951-export
#6
Rachna Agarwal, Julian P Whitelegge, Sanjay Saini, Amit Prakash Shrivastav
Multiple secretion pathways are known for export of protein(s) forming the S-layer in bacteria. The unicellular model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (hereafter S. 6803) also possesses a well-defined S-layer composed of Sll1951 protein. However, the mechanism of its secretion is not completely understood. In the present study, the putative T1SS (Type I secretion system) components, Sll1180 and Sll1181 [inner membrane ABC transporter and membrane fusion protein (MFP), respectively] were characterized for their role in Sll1951 secretion...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677922/implementing-an-antibiotic-stewardship-information-system-to-improve-hospital-infection-control-a-co-design-process
#7
Mélanie R Maia, Alexandra Simões, Luís V Lapão
HAITooL information system design and implementation was based on Design Science Research Methodology, ensuring full participation, in close collaboration, of researchers and a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. HAITooL enables effective monitoring of antibiotic resistance, antibiotic use and provides an antibiotic prescription decision-supporting system by clinicians, strengthening the patient safety procedures. The design, development and implementation process reveals benefits in organizational and behavior change with significant success...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677660/variation-in-bacterial-community-structure-of-aerobic-granular-and-suspended-activated-sludge-in-the-presence-of-the-antibiotic-sulfamethoxazole
#8
Abbass Jafari Kang, Alistair K Brown, Charles S Wong, Zhiyong Huang, Qiuyan Yuan
The treatment performance and bacterial community structure of conventional activated sludge and aerobic granules exposed to antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was studied. For three months, two sets of sequencing batch reactors inoculated with conventional and granular biomass were fed with a synthetic municipal wastewater containing 2 μg/L SMX. The presence of SMX had no significant impacts on treatment performance of the reactors as well as stability of the granules. Results confirmed different bacterial community structure of flocs and granules...
April 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677485/octapeptins-lipopeptide-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-superbugs
#9
Antoine Abou Fayad, Jennifer Herrmann, Rolf Müller
Antimicrobial resistance is increasing at an alarming rate. Polymyxin, one of the few antibiotics of last resort, is heavily affected. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Velkov et al. (2018) present a promising alternative: octapeptin lipopeptide antibiotics active against multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, which might help overcoming resistance toward polymyxins.
April 19, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677440/phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-with-deep-learning-video-microscopy
#10
Hui Yu, Wenwen Jing, Rafael Iriya, Yunze Yang, Karan Syal, Manni Mo, Thomas E Grys, Shelley E Haydel, Shaopeng Wang, Nongjian Tao
Timely determination of antimicrobial susceptibility for a bacterial infection enables precision prescription, shortens treatment time and helps minimize the spread of antibiotic resistant infections. Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods often take several days and thus impede these clinical and health benefits. Here, we present an AST method by imaging freely moving bacterial cells in urine in real time and analyzing the videos with a deep learning algorithm. The deep learning algorithm determines if an antibiotic inhibits a bacterial cell by learning multiple phenotypic features of the cell without the need for defining and quantifying each feature...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677137/phages-make-for-jolly-good-stories
#11
Thomas Häusler
Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study of the history of phage therapy provides valuable input into the present development of the field. Science journalists uncovered much of this history and played an important role in the communication of phage therapy after the fall of the Soviet Union, when it came to the attention of Western researchers and doctors...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676868/-how-i-treat-%C3%A2-an-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#12
V Heinrichs, J Frère
Acute otitis media (AOM) is very common in early childhood (inferior to 2 years). As a spontaneous recovery occurs in superior to 80 % of cases, antibiotics use should not be systematic. The aim of this review is to discuss AOM diagnostic criteria based on the latest recommendations, aiming a wiser use of antibiotics. Antibiotics use in a child with AOM should take into account the age, the severity of the disease, uni- or bilateral otitis, the presence or absence of otorrhea, and the presence of possible risk factors...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676754/carbon-nanotubes-as-antimicrobial-agents-for-water-disinfection-and-pathogen-control
#13
Dan Liu, Yiqin Mao, Lijun Ding
Waterborne diseases significantly affect human health and are responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Antibiotics have been known for decades for treatment of bacterial strains and their overuse and irrational applications are causing increasing bacteria resistance. Therefore, there is a strong need to find alternative ways for efficient water disinfection and microbial control. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties due to their remarkable structure. This paper reviews the antimicrobial properties of CNTs, discusses diverse mechanisms of action against microorganisms as well as their applicability for water disinfection and microbial control...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676738/a-survey-of-crop-derived-transgenes-in-activated-and-digester-sludges-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-the-united-states
#14
Courtney M Gardner, Carley A Gwin, Claudia K Gunsch
The use of transgenic crops has become increasingly common in the United States over the last several decades. Increasing evidence suggests that DNA may be protected from enzymatic digestion and acid hydrolysis in the digestive tract, suggesting that crop-derived transgenes may enter into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) intact. Given the historical use of antibiotic resistance genes as selection markers in transgenic crop development, it is important to consider the fate of these transgenes. Herein we detected and quantified crop-derived transgenes in WWTPs...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676483/molecular-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-determinants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-derived-from-clinical-infection-and-food
#15
Kui Luo, Fuye Shao, Kadijatu N Kamara, Shuaiyin Chen, Rongguang Zhang, Guangcai Duan, Haiyan Yang
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human etiologic agent. An investigation of the characteristics of common genotypes of S. aureus relating to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance may provide a foundation to prevent infection. METHODS: This study collected 275 S. aureus isolates from Zhengzhou city in China, including 148 isolates from patient samples and 127 isolates from ready-to-eat food samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth dilution method...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676472/the-first-taxus-rhizosphere-microbiome-revealed-by-shotgun-metagenomic-sequencing
#16
Da-Cheng Hao, Cai-Rong Zhang, Pei-Gen Xiao
In the present study, the shotgun high throughput metagenomic sequencing was implemented to globally capture the features of Taxus rhizosphere microbiome. Total reads could be assigned to 6925 species belonging to 113 bacteria phyla and 301 species of nine fungi phyla. For archaea and virus, 263 and 134 species were for the first time identified, respectively. More than 720,000 Unigenes were identified by clean reads assembly. The top five assigned phyla were Actinobacteria (363,941 Unigenes), Proteobacteria (182,053), Acidobacteria (44,527), Ascomycota (fungi; 18,267), and Chloroflexi (15,539)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676247/resistance-to-metals-used-in-agricultural-production
#17
Christopher Rensing, Arshnee Moodley, Lina M Cavaco, Sylvia Franke McDevitt
Metals and metalloids have been used alongside antibiotics in livestock production for a long time. The potential and acute negative impact on the environment and human health of these livestock feed supplements has prompted lawmakers to ban or discourage the use of some or all of these supplements. This article provides an overview of current use in the European Union and the United States, detected metal resistance determinants, and the proteins and mechanisms responsible for conferring copper and zinc resistance in bacteria...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676244/resistance-of-bacteria-to-biocides
#18
Jean-Yves Maillard
Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675924/new-sts-in-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-harboring-%C3%AE-lactamases-encoding-genes-isolated-from-brazilian-soils
#19
João Pedro Rueda Furlan, André Pitondo-Silva, Eliana Guedes Stehling
AIMS: We investigated the resistance profile, presence of β-lactamases encoding genes and the clonal relationships in Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from Brazilian soils. METHODS AND RESULTS: Soil isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. Different β-lactamases encoding genes were screened by PCR and the molecular typing of these isolates was performed through the multilocus sequence typing...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675919/therapy-and-outcome-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-of-intracorporeal-ventricular-assist-devices
#20
Miquel B Ekkelenkamp, Mats T Vervoorn, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Ad C Fluit, Barry J Benaissa-Trouw, Faiz Z Ramjankhan
Infection of the driveline or pump pocket is a common complication in patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs) and Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen causing such infections. Limited evidence is currently available to guide the choice of antibiotic therapy and the duration of treatment in these patients. Patients at the University Medical Center Utrecht who developed a VAD-related S. aureus infection between 2007 and 2016 were retrospectively assessed. Blood culture isolates were typed by whole genome sequencing to differentiate between relapses and reinfections, and to determine whether antibiotic therapy had led to acquisition of resistance mutations...
April 19, 2018: Artificial Organs
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