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Antibiotic resist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241300/prevalence-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-rectal-flora-in-patients-undergoing-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-needle-biopsy-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#1
Ho Seok Chung, Eu Chang Hwang, Ho Song Yu, Seung Il Jung, Sun Ju Lee, Dong Hoon Lim, Won Jin Cho, Hyun Sop Choe, Seung-Ju Lee, Sung Woon Park
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy and to identify the high-risk groups. METHODS: From January 2015 to March 2016, rectal swabs of 557 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy were obtained from five institutions. Clinical variables, including demographics, rectal swab culture results and infectious complications, were evaluated...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241213/antibiotics-induced-obesity-a-mitochondrial-perspective
#2
Melisa J Andrade, Chinchu Jayaprakash, Smitha Bhat, Nikolaos Evangelatos, Angela Brand, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against infections and have contributed immensely to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, extensive use of antibiotics has led to alterations of the gut microbiome, predisposition to various diseases and most importantly, increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a major threat to global public health. Another major issue faced worldwide due to unregulated use of antibiotics in children as well as in adults is the influence of metabolism and body weight homeostasis, leading to obesity...
December 15, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241121/nanotitania-crystals-induced-efficient-photocatalytic-color-degradation-antimicrobial-and-larvicidal-activity
#3
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240786/time-trend-analysis-2009-2016-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolated-in-italy-following-the-introduction-of-the-combined-antimicrobial-therapy
#4
Paola Stefanelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Maria Paola Landini, Ivano Dal Conte, Alberto Matteelli, Antonio Cristaudo, Marina Gaino, Marco Cusini, Anna Maria Barbui, Antonella Mencacci, Rosella De Nittis, Valeria Ghisetti, Elena Stroppiana, Anna Carannante
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) antimicrobial susceptibility trends to azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone were analyzed, from 2009 to 2016, to monitor changing antimicrobial susceptibility concomitant with the change in prescribing practice in 2012 from cefixime, or ceftriaxone, to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Patient characteristics predictive to be infected by antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae were estimated. Finally, the protocol for the treatment of gonorrhoea, in comparison with the international guidelines, was also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240717/a-novel-antibiotic-mechanism-of-l-cyclopropylalanine-blocking-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-essential-amino-acid-l-leucine
#5
Bingji Ma, Jinwen Shen, Wandee Yindeeyoungyeon, Yuan Ruan
The unusual amino acid l-cyclopropylalanine was isolated from the mushroom Amanita virgineoides after detection in an anti-fungal screening test. l-Cyclopropylalanine was found to exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition against fungi and bacteria. The anti-fungal activity was found to be abolished in the presence of the amino acid l-leucine, but not any other amino acids, indicating that l-cyclopropylalanine may block the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid l-leucine, thereby inhibiting fungal and bacteria growth...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240687/decreasing-inappropriate-use-of-antibiotics-in-primary-care-in-four-countries-in-south-america-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Inés Urbiztondo, Lars Bjerrum, Lidia Caballero, Miguel Angel Suarez, Monica Olinisky, Gloria Córdoba
High antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance in patients attending primary care have been reported in South America. Very few interventions targeting general practitioners (GPs) to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing have been investigated in this region. This study assessed the effectiveness of online feedback on reducing antibiotic prescribing in patients with suspected respiratory tract infections (RTIs) attending primary care. The aim was to reduce antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute bronchitis and acute otitis media...
December 14, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240638/antibiotic-prophylaxis-after-immediate-breast-reconstruction-the-reality-of-its-efficacy
#7
Kavitha Ranganathan, Erika D Sears, Lin Zhong, Ting-Ting Chung, Kevin C Chung, Jeffrey H Kozlow, Adeyiza O Momoh, Jennifer F Waljee
PURPOSE: Numerous techniques are used to prevent infection after immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) is commonly prescribed to decrease the risk of reconstructive failure, despite conflicting evidence regarding its effectiveness. We sought to determine whether PAP decreases the risk of infection-related explantation in the setting of immediate prosthesis-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: Using Truven MarketScan databases, we identified all patients who underwent immediate implant reconstruction between 1/2010-6/2014 with at least 6 months of follow-up...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240296/bacteriophage-effectively-kills-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#8
Guimin Zhang, Yin Zhao, Sathish Paramasivan, Katharina Richter, Sandra Morales, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
BACKGROUND: Bacteriophage (phage) therapy has been proposed as an alternative to antibiotics. Phages have been shown to kill antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains; however, it is unknown whether stress-induced antibiotic tolerance affects S. aureus susceptibility to phages. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of 2 phages currently in clinical development, against antibiotic-resistant and induced antibiotic-tolerant clinical S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Antibiotic tolerant S...
December 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239831/factors-associated-with-in-hospital-mortality-among-critically-ill-surgical-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#9
Andrew S Jarrell, Rachel M Kruer, Loredana Diana Berescu, Peter J Pronovost, Julie B Trivedi
PURPOSE: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infection increases risk of mortality, other complications, and costs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality among critically ill surgical patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study included critically ill surgical patients from 2011 to 2014 who had a carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), MDR P. aeruginosa, or MDR Acinetobacter spp...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239493/mortality-in-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia-at-low-risk-of-drug-resistant-pathogens-impact-of-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-macrolide-combination-therapy
#10
Junya Okumura, Yuichiro Shindo, Kunihiko Takahashi, Masahiro Sano, Yasuteru Sugino, Tetsuya Yagi, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Hideo Saka, Shigeyuki Matsui, Yoshinori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-resistant pathogen (DRP) risk stratification is important for choosing a treatment strategy for community-onset pneumonia. Evidence for benefits of non-antipseudomonal β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy (BLM) on mortality is limited in patients at low DRP risk. Risk factors for mortality remain to be clarified. METHODS: Post hoc analysis using a prospective multicentre study cohort of community-onset pneumonia was performed to assess 30-day differences in mortality between non-antipseudomonal β-lactam monotherapy (BL) and BLM groups...
December 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239248/use-of-and-microbial-resistance-to-antibiotics-in-china-a-path-to-reducing-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Dan Cui, Xinliang Liu, Peter Hawkey, Hao Li, Quan Wang, Zongfu Mao, Jing Sun
We analyzed China's current use of and microbial resistance to antibiotics, and possible means of reducing antimicrobial resistance. Interventions like executive orders within clinical settings and educational approach with vertical approaches rather than an integrated strategy to curb the use of antimicrobials remain limited. An underlying problem is the system of incentives that has resulted in the intensification of inappropriate use by health professionals and patients. There is an urgent need to explore the relationship between financial and non-financial incentives for providers and patients, to eliminate inappropriate incentives...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238934/treatment-outcome-of-non-carbapenemase-producing-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infections-a-multicenter-study-in-taiwan
#12
Chin-Fang Su, Chien Chuang, Yi-Tsung Lin, Yu-Jiun Chan, Jung-Chung Lin, Po-Liang Lu, Ching-Tai Huang, Jann-Tay Wang, Yin-Ching Chuang, L Kristopher Siu, Chang-Phone Fung
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections are associated with high mortality, and experiences with its treatment are usually based on carbapenemase-producing strains. Non-carbapenemase-producing CRKP is of clinical significance, but relevant studies are lacking. This nationwide study aimed to evaluate the outcome of antimicrobial therapy in patients with non-carbapenemase-producing CRKP infections. Patients with non-carbapenemase-producing CRKP infections were enrolled from 16 hospitals during January 2013 to December 2014 in Taiwan...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238932/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-induced-bloodstream-infections
#13
Jiayang Li, Jianan Ren, Weiping Wang, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Xiuwen Wu, Ying Wang, Mei Huang, Jieshou Li
The prevalence of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) is high in China, but clinical characteristics and outcomes of hvKP induced bloodstream infections (BSIs) are not clear. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors and clinical outcomes of hvKP-BSIs in populations admitted in a teaching hospital of Nanjing, China. The genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns of the hvKP strains were further analyzed. A retrospective study was conducted in 143 patients with K...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238856/anti-endotoxin-mechanism-of-the-kw4-peptide-in-inflammation-in-raw-264-7-cells-induced-by-lta-and-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-1630
#14
Jong-Kook Lee, Yoonkyung Park
Drug-resistant microorganism infections cause serious disease and can lead to mortality and morbidity. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus induces pyrogenic and toxigenic infections, and drug-resistance occurs rapidly. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, can also cause immunodeficiency and immune deficiency syndrome from lipoteichoic acid. However, antimicrobial peptides, such as KW4, have strong antimicrobial activity, low cytotoxicity, and high neutralization activity against endotoxin substances from Gram-negative bacteria...
December 13, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238752/colonic-butyrate-producing-communities-in-humans-an-overview-using-omics-data
#15
Marius Vital, André Karch, Dietmar H Pieper
Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238713/sodium-mercaptoethane-sulfonate-reduces-collagenolytic-degradation-and-synergistically-enhances-antimicrobial-durability-in-an-antibiotic-loaded-biopolymer-film-for-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections
#16
Joel Rosenblatt, Ruth A Reitzel, George M Viola, Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Jesse Selber, Issam Raad
Implant-associated surgical-site infections can have significant clinical consequences. Previously we reported a method for prophylactically disinfecting implant surfaces in surgical pockets, where an antibiotic solution containing minocycline (M) and rifampin (R) was applied as a solid film in a crosslinked biopolymer matrix that partially liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Here we studied the effect of adding sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MeSNA) on durability of prophylaxis in an in vitro model of implant-associated surgical-site infection...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238663/prevention-identification-and-management-of-post-operative-penile-implant-complications-of-infection-hematoma-and-device-malfunction
#17
REVIEW
Timothy K O'Rourke, Alexander Erbella, Yu Zhang, Matthew S Wosnitzer
Penile prosthesis implant surgery is an effective management approach for a number of urological conditions, including medication refractory erectile dysfunction (ED). Complications encountered post-operatively include infection, bleeding/hematoma, and device malfunction. Since the 1970s, modifications to these devices have reduced complication rates through improvement in antisepsis and design using antibiotic coatings, kink-resistant tubing, lock-out valves to prevent autoinflation, and modified reservoir shapes...
November 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238587/bacterial-infections-in-acute-variceal-hemorrhage-despite-antibiotics-a-multicenter-study-of-predictors-and-clinical-impact
#18
Stephen Lee, Lynora Saxinger, Mang Ma, Verónica Prado, Joaquin Fernández, Deepali Kumar, Juan Gonzalez-Abraldes, Adam Keough, Ravin Bastiampillai, Michelle Carbonneau, Javier Fernandez, Puneeta Tandon
Background and aims: Current guidelines recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in all patients presenting with cirrhosis and acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We aimed to evaluate the characteristics and clinical impact of "early" infections (developing within 14 days) of AVH in a real-world setting. Methods: We analyzed retrospective data from a cohort of 371 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH all of whom had received antibiotic prophylaxis (74% men; mean age 56 years), admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and Barcelona, Spain...
December 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238455/in-vitro-activity-of-recombinant-lysostaphin-in-combination-with-linezolid-vancomycin-and-oxacillin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Nagalakshmi Narasimhaswamy, Indira Bairy, Gautham Shenoy, Laxminarayana Bairy
Background and Objectives: The antimicrobial combination with synergistic mechanism is recommended to provide broad-spectrum coverage, and prevent the emergence of resistant mutants. In the present study, the synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, oxacillin and vancomycin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates was determined. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three MRSA isolates collected from clinical specimens were tested, for in vitro synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, vancomycin and oxacillin, by checkerboard assay...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238454/phenotypic-and-genotypic-features-of-first-biofilm-forming-nasopharyngeal-colonized-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#20
Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Bahman Mirzaei, Bahareh Shaghaghi, Pantea Jalali, Tahereh Setayesh, Seyed Hamid Moosavi
Background and Objectives: Designing control and therapeutic policies for antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an important causative agent of several invasive and noninvasive infectious diseases and its carriage rates, has been described as the main target in World Health Organization (WHO). The present study was conducted to determine antibiotic resistance pattern, evaluate biofilm forming ability in S. pneumoniae isolates, and find the genetic relationship between cultured strains...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
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