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Lei Miao, Qiong Zhang, Shuying Wang, Baikun Li, Zhong Wang, Sujian Zhang, Man Zhang, Yongzhen Peng
The biofilm system is beneficial for Anammox process designed to treat landfill leachate. In this study, the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the microbial community in an Anammox biofilm system were analyzed to determine the functions driving the biofilm's ability to treat landfill leachate. The results demonstrated that increasing influent carbon oxygen demand (COD) could stimulate EPS production. EPS helped enrich Anammox bacteria and supplied them with nutrients and enzymes, facilitating effective nitrogen removal (approximately 95%)...
September 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhiying Han, Shixia Chen, Xiaochang Lin, Hongjun Yu, Li'an Duan, Zhangying Ye, Yanbo Jia, Songming Zhu, Dezhao Liu
To identify the performance of step-fed submerged membrane sequencing batch reactor (SMSBR) treating swine biogas digestion slurry and to explore the correlation between microbial metabolites and membrane fouling within this novel reactor, a lab-scale step-fed SMSBR was operated under nitrogen loading rate of 0.026, 0.052 and 0.062 g NH4(+)-N (gVSS·d)(-1). Results show that the total removal efficiencies for NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand in the reactor (>94%, >89% and >97%, respectively) were high during the whole experiment...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Lei Guo, Jin Jin, Chunyi Liu, Feng Liu, Stuart Crozier
Magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MR-EPT) has significant potential for the estimation of the electrical properties (EPs) of tissue, which are essential for the calculation of specific absorption rates (SAR), a critical safety factor requiring monitoring and controlling in applications of ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, a novel, efficient method based on integral equations is proposed for the calculation of the EPs and the RF-coil induced field. An inverse problem framework is first constructed to include the forward problem operator, while the EPs are reconstructed by using a non-linear conjugate gradient method (NLCG)...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Yangyang Yang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Yanhui Ao, Xun Wang, Bowen Lv, Guoxiang You, Zhilin Liu, Yongxu Shao
The behaviors of nanoparticles rely on the aqueous condition such as natural organic matter (NOM). Therefore the presence of NOM would influence the interaction of nanoparticles with other substances possibly. Here, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) adsorption on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) was studied in an aqueous solution with different types of NOM, including extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from cyanobacteria and alginic acid sodium salt (AASS) from brown algae. Results revealed that EPS played an important role in stabilizing IONPs and in the toxin adsorption efficiency...
October 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chuan-Shu He, Pan-Pan He, Hou-Yun Yang, Ling-Li Li, Yue Lin, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
The study aimed at evaluating the influence of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) on the activity of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) from both macroscopic and microcosmic aspects using different methodologies. The tolerance response of AGS to nZVI was firstly investigated using short-term and long-term experiments, and also compared with anaerobic flocs. The Fe fate and distribution, the change of contents/structure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and the variation of microbial community in the AGS after exposure to nZVI were further explored...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
Irina Rosca, Anca Roxana Petrovici, Dragos Peptanariu, Alina Nicolescu, Gianina Dodi, Mihaela Avadanei, Iuliu Cristian Ivanov, Andra Cristina Bostanaru, Mihai Mares, Diana Ciolacu
The aim of this study was to monitor the influence of the fermentation conditions on the exopolysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis. For this, different culture media compositions were tested on an isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain, identified by 16S rDNA sequence as being Weissella confusa. It was proved that this bacterial strain culture in MRS medium supplemented with 80g/L sucrose and dissolved in UHT milk produced up to 25.2g/L of freeze-dried EPS, in static conditions, after 48hours of fermentative process...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Muth M Varenganayil, Alan W Decho, Tuomas Waltimo, Olivier Braissant
Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium...
2017: PloS One
Afak Durur Karakaya, Mehmet Seker, İrmak Durur-Subaşı
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) findings of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and introduce the "ring of restriction" sign by discussing possible causes. METHODS: Between January 2014 and January 2017, patients with EP and examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3-T scanner were retrospectively evaluated. MRI and DWI findings were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were diagnosed with EP at our university hospital, eight of whom (20%) were evaluated by MRI and DWI...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Pahala G Jayathilake, Saikat Jana, Steve Rushton, David Swailes, Ben Bridgens, Tom Curtis, Jinju Chen
The production of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is important for the survival of biofilms. However, EPS production is costly for bacteria and the bacterial strains that produce EPS (EPS+) grow in the same environment as non-producers (EPS-) leading to competition between these strains for nutrients and space. The outcome of this competition is likely to be dependent on factors such as initial attachment, EPS production rate, ambient nutrient levels and quorum sensing. We use an Individual-based Model (IbM) to study the competition between EPS+ and EPS- strains by varying the nature of initial colonizers which can either be in the form of single cells or multicellular aggregates...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Makoto Urai, Tomoko Aizawa, Katsutoshi Imamura, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
We screened innate immunostimulant-producing bacteria using a silkworm muscle contraction assay, and isolated Rhizobium sp. strain M2 from soil. We purified the innate immunostimulant from strain M2, and characterized the chemical structure by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical analyses. The innate immunostimulant (M2 EPS) comprised glucose, galactose, pyruvic acid, and succinic acid with a molar ratio of 6.8:1.0:0.9:0.4, and had a succinoglycan-like high molecular-weight heteropolysaccharide structure...
October 11, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Geelsu Hwang, Bernard Koltisko, Xiaoming Jin, Hyun Koo
Surface-grown bacteria and production of an extracellular polymeric matrix modulate the assembly of highly cohesive and firmly attached biofilms, making them difficult to remove from solid surfaces. Inhibition of cell growth and inactivation of matrix-producing bacteria can impair biofilm formation and facilitate removal. Here, we developed a novel non-leachable antibacterial composite with potent antibiofilm activity by directly incorporating polymerizable imidazolium-containing resin (Anti Bacterial Resin with Carbonate linkage; ABR-C) into a methacrylate-based scaffold (ABR Modified Composite; ABR-MC) using an efficient yet simplified chemistry...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zonglian She, Lan Wu, Qun Wang, Mengchun Gao, Chunji Jin, Yangguo Zhao, Linting Zhao, Liang Guo
The effect of increasing salinity on nitrogen removal via simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, microbial activities and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were investigated in a hybrid sequencing batch biofilm reactor filled with soft combination carriers. In the influent salinity range from 1.0 to 2.0%, average COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies were higher than 97.1, 97.8 and 86.4% at the steady state. When salinity was increased to 2.5 and 3.0%, ammonium oxidation was obviously inhibited in the reactor...
October 9, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
André L M Oliveira, Odair J A P Santos, Paulo R F Marcelino, Karina M L Milani, Mónica Y A Zuluaga, Claudemir Zucareli, Leandro S A Gonçalves
Although Azospirillum strains used in commercial inoculant formulations presents diazotrophic activity, it has been reported that their ability to produce phytohormones plays a pivotal role in plant growth-promotion, leading to a general recommendation of its use in association with regular N-fertilizer doses. In addition, a high variability in the effectiveness of Azospirillum inoculants is still reported under field conditions, contributing to the adoption of the inoculation technology as an additional management practice rather than its use as an alternative practice to the use of chemical inputs in agriculture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Judy Hope, David Castle, Nicholas A Keks
OBJECTIVES: Brexpiprazole is a new dopamine partial agonist antipsychotic in the same class as aripiprazole. This paper will briefly review brexpiprazole and compare it with aripiprazole. CONCLUSIONS: Brexpiprazole and aripiprazole are both partial agonists at dopamine D2, and serotonin 5-HT1A and antagonists at serotonin 5-HT2A and noradrenergic α1B receptors. However, the two drugs are significantly different in potencies at various receptors; neurochemical profiles predict that brexpiprazole may be comparable with aripiprazole in its antipsychotic efficacy but may cause less akathisia, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and activation...
October 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Zhuqing Xing, Weitao Geng, Chao Li, Ye Sun, Yanping Wang
It is important for probiotics that are currently utilized in the dairy industry to have clear genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genetic characteristics of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 were studied by undertaking a comparative genomics study, and key genes for adaptation to different environments were investigated and validated in vitro. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer resulting in strong self-defense mechanisms was detected in the ZW3 genome. We identified a series of genes relevant for dairy environments and the intestinal tract, particularly for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hanife Sari Erkan, Guleda Onkal Engin
The paper mill industry produces high amounts of wastewater and, for this reason, stringent discharge limits are applied for sustainable reclamation and reuse of paper mill industry wastewater in many countries. Submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) systems can create new opportunities to eliminate dissolved substances present in paper mill wastewater including. In this study, a sMBR was operated for the treatment of paper mill industry wastewater at 35 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 40 d of sludge retention time (SRT)...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jérôme Morelle, Mathilde Schapira, Pascal Claquin
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) play an important role in the carbon flux and may be directly linked to phytoplankton and microphytobenthos production, most notably in estuarine systems. However the temporal and spatial dynamics of estuarine EPS are still not well understood, nor how primary productivity triggers this variability at these different scales. The aim of this study was to investigate the primary productivity of phytoplankton and EPS dynamics in the Seine estuary over a tidal cycle in three different haline zones over two contrasted seasons...
September 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Chieko Hamada, Hirotaka Nakamoto, Yusuke Suzuki
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been an attractive treatment for end-stage kidney disease. Long-term exposure to the PD solution creates functional and morphological alterations, and these alterations diminish the efficacy of PD. It is important to establish an evaluation of the changes in PD patients and strategies for the prevention of PD damage and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). We determined the relationship between clinical findings and macroscopic morphological findings by laparoscopy in patients receiving PD...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Wenhao Chen, Nicholas M Holden
The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production...
October 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Berrin Tansel
Conditions that lead to marine snow formation and aggregates that constitute the marine snow have similarities with the soft bioflocs that form during wastewater treatment by activated sludge process. Analysis of the conditions and similarities of the soft bioflocs in these two aquatic environments provide insight for the processes that lead to formation and growth of hydrated aggregates consisting of both living and nonliving particles, their chemical and biolocial composition, settling/suspension behavior, and contributing factors for their structure and morphology...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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