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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337598/likelihood-ratio-formulae-for-disputed-parentage-when-the-product-of-conception-is-trisomic
#1
Duncan A Taylor, Oliva Handt, Damien Abarno, John Buckleton
We present here the derivation of paternity index formulae that covers situations of a disputed paternity trio with a trisomic product of conception. We consider six possible mechanisms for trisomy to occur: dispermy, dieggy, paternal meiosis I or II, and maternal meiosis I or II in the calculation. We also provide a biological explanation for how each of the mechanisms could give rise to a trisomy. The paper is set out in a general manner so that the tables presented can be used on any instance of trisomic offspring...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337546/robotic-thyroidectomy-versus-conventional-open-thyroidectomy-for-thyroid-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Jing-Hua Pan, Hong Zhou, Xiao-Xu Zhao, Hui Ding, Li Wei, Li Qin, Yun-Long Pan
BACKGROUND: Despite the new technical alternative offered by the robotic surgery for minimally invasive thyroid surgery, the role of the robotic thyroidectomy (RT) in thyroid cancer has been highly disputed. This paper gives a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to compare RT and open thyroidectomy (OT) based on the surgical outcomes and oncologic results. METHODS: Relevant literature was searched from various databases up to July 2016, including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of science and Clinical Trials...
March 23, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336797/privacy-is-an-essentially-contested-concept-a-multi-dimensional-analytic-for-mapping-privacy
#3
Deirdre K Mulligan, Colin Koopman, Nick Doty
The meaning of privacy has been much disputed throughout its history in response to wave after wave of new technological capabilities and social configurations. The current round of disputes over privacy fuelled by data science has been a cause of despair for many commentators and a death knell for privacy itself for others. We argue that privacy's disputes are neither an accidental feature of the concept nor a lamentable condition of its applicability. Privacy is essentially contested. Because it is, privacy is transformable according to changing technological and social conditions...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336521/defending-strong-tobacco-packaging-and-labelling-regulations-in-uruguay-transnational-tobacco-control-network-versus-philip-morris-international
#4
Eric Crosbie, Particia Sosa, Stanton A Glantz
OBJECTIVE: Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. METHODS: Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. RESULTS: In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand...
March 23, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336422/nomenclatural-stability-does-not-justify-recognition-of-paraphyletic-taxa-a-response-to-scherz-et-al-2016
#5
Pedro L V Peloso, Christopher J Raxworthy, Ward C Wheeler, Darrel R Frost
Peloso et al. (2015: PELOSO) published a comprehensive phylogenetic study of the frog family Microhylidae, which resulted in the discovery that several taxa were not monophyletic. To remedy this, a series of nomenclatural changes were proposed (several generic synonymies and two new subfamilies named). A recent study published in this journal by Scherz et al. (2016: SCHERZ), provided a novel phylogeny for the Malagasy subfamily Cophylinae. SCHERZ dispute the analyses and taxonomic conclusions of PELOSO. Their study is, however, based on substantial reduction of data from the PELOSO study, limited addition of new data, and different analytical methods...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334426/joint-modeling-of-longitudinal-recurrent-events-and-failure-time-data-for-survivor-s-population
#6
Qing Cai, Mei-Cheng Wang, Kwun Chuen Gary Chan
Recurrent events together with longitudinal measurements are commonly observed in follow-up studies where the observation is terminated by censoring or a primary failure event. In this article, we developed a joint model where the dependence of longitudinal measurements, recurrent event process and time to failure event is modeled through rescaling the time index. The general idea is that the trajectories of all biology processes of subjects in the survivors' population are elongated or shortened by the rate identified from a model for the failure event...
March 23, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315460/classification-and-characterization-of-periventricular-and-deep-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-a-study-in-older-adults
#7
REVIEW
Ludovica Griffanti, Mark Jenkinson, Sana Suri, X X, Abda Mahmood, Nicola Filippini, Claire E Sexton, Anya Topiwala, Charlotte Allan, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are frequently divided into periventricular (PWMH) and deep (DWMH), and the two classes have been associated with different cognitive, microstructural, and clinical correlates. However, although this distinction is widely used in visual ratings scales, how to best anatomically define the two classes is still disputed. In fact, the methods used to define PWMH and DWMH vary significantly between studies, making results difficult to compare. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to compare four current criteria used to define PWMH and DWMH in a cohort of healthy older adults (mean age: 69...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315050/forensic-use-of-y-chromosome-dna-a-general-overview
#8
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
The male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes composed of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are used to characterise paternal lineages of unknown male trace donors, especially suitable when males and females have contributed to the same trace, such as in sexual assault cases...
March 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314238/paternity-testing-and-other-inference-about-relationships-from-dna-mixtures
#9
Peter J Green, Julia Mortera
We present methods for inference about relationships between contributors to a DNA mixture and other individuals of known genotype: a basic example would be testing whether a contributor to a mixture is the father of a child of known genotype. The evidence for such a relationship is evaluated as the likelihood ratio for the specified relationship versus the alternative that there is no relationship. We analyse real casework examples from a criminal case and a disputed paternity case; in both examples part of the evidence was from a DNA mixture...
February 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299711/pathological-findings-in-myasthenia-gravis-patients-with-thymic-hyperplasia-and-thymoma
#10
Ping Chen, Ying-Peng Wang, Dan-Lei Mou, Zheng-Yi Li, Qiu-Min Qu, Hong-Yan Wang, Yuan Deng, Xiao-Feng Li, Ting Wang, Xian-Hao Xu, Gang Zhao
Thymectomy is routinely carried out in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and thymomas. However, there is still a dispute as to whether MG patients with thymic hyperplasia should undergo thymectomy. We aimed to investigate the pathological findings in the thymus in patients with co-existing MG and thymic hyperplasia or thymomas treated with thymectomy, as well as effects of immunosuppression. Thirty-three patients with MG were selected and grouped accordingly: patients with no thymic abnormalities, patients with thymic hyperplasia, and patients with thymomas...
March 15, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297896/shear-viscosity-of-a-two-dimensional-emulsion-of-drops-using-a-multiple-relaxation-time-step-lattice-boltzmann-method
#11
I Halliday, X Xu, K Burgin
An extended Benzi-Dellar lattice Boltzmann equation scheme [R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Europhys. Lett. 13, 727 (1990)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/13/8/010; R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Phys. Rep. 222, 145 (1992)PRPLCM0370-157310.1016/0370-1573(92)90090-M; P. J. Dellar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036309 (2002)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.65.036309] is developed and applied to the problem of confirming, at low Re and drop fluid concentration, c, the variation of effective shear viscosity, η_{eff}=η_{1}[1+f(η_{1},η_{2})c], with respect to c for a sheared, two-dimensional, initially crystalline emulsion [here η_{1} (η_{2}) is the fluid (drop fluid) shear viscosity]...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296881/transcriptomic-responses-to-environmental-temperature-by-turtles-with-temperature-dependent-and-genotypic-sex-determination-assessed-by-rnaseq-inform-the-genetic-architecture-of-embryonic-gonadal-development
#12
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Jennifer Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela
Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual's genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera-GSD), to test whether TSD's and GSD's transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296032/right-ventricular-remodelling-after-transcatheter-pulmonary-valve-implantation
#13
Efstathios D Pagourelias, Ana M Daraban, Razvan O Mada, Jürgen Duchenne, Oana Mirea, Bjorn Cools, Ruth Heying, Derize Boshoff, Jan Bogaert, Werner Budts, Marc Gewillig, Jens-Uwe Voigt
OBJECTIVES: To define the optimal timing for percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) in patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) after Fallot's Tetralogy (ToF) correction. BACKGROUND: PPVI among the aforementioned patients is mainly driven by symptoms or by severe right ventricular (RV) dilatation/dysfunction. The optimal timing for PPVI is still disputed. METHODS: Twenty patients [age 13.9 ± 9.2 years, (range 4.3-44...
March 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294387/ownership-dilemmas-the-case-of-finders-versus-landowners
#14
Peter DeScioli, Rachel Karpoff, Julian De Freitas
People sometimes disagree about who owns which objects, and these ownership dilemmas can lead to costly disputes. We investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying people's judgments about finder versus landowner cases, in which a person finds an object on someone else's land. We test psychological hypotheses motivated directly by three major principles that govern these cases in the law. The results show that people are more likely to favor the finder when the object is in a public space compared to a private space...
March 14, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294176/salvage-liver-transplantation-leads-to-poorer-outcome-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-compared-with-primary-liver-transplantation
#15
Yuhua Shan, Lifeng Huang, Qiang Xia
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common liver malignancy. Salvage liver transplantation (SLT) is viewed as a feasible cure for recurrence of HCC after resectomy, but the effect is under dispute. A retrospective study examined data at Renji Hospital for 239 transplants from January 2006 to December 2015, including 211 who received primary liver transplantation (PLT) and 28 who underwent SLT. A multivariable cox regression model was employed to pick out relative factors to overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS)...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289773/temporal-variation-in-size-assortative-mating-and-male-mate-choice-in-a-spider-with-amphisexual-care
#16
Rafael R Moura, Marcelo O Gonzaga
Males should be more selective when they have a high investment in reproduction, especially in species with biparental or paternal care. In this context, male mate choice can promote size-assortative mating (SAM) when (1) large males win intrasexual disputes, (2) large females are more fecund, and (3) males prefer larger females to smaller ones. In the spider Manogea porracea, males exhibit high reproductive investment by building their webs above those of females and exhibiting extended care of offspring in the absence of females...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280466/embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons-grown-on-multi-electrode-arrays-as-a-novel-in-vitro-bioassay-for-the-detection-of-clostridium-botulinum-neurotoxins
#17
Stephen P Jenkinson, Denis Grandgirard, Martina Heidemann, Anne Tscherter, Marc-André Avondet, Stephen L Leib
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous naturally occurring protein toxins known to mankind and are the causative agents of the severe and potentially life-threatening disease botulism. They are also known for their application as cosmetics and as unique bio-pharmaceuticals to treat an increasing number of neurological and non-neurological disorders. Currently, the potency of biologically active BoNT for therapeutic use is mainly monitored by the murine LD50-assay, an ethically disputable test causing suffering and death of a considerable number of mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275020/intellectual-disability-complicated-by-sexual-addiction-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-condition
#18
Nicholas Tze Ping Pang, Ruziana Masiran
A young man presented with high libido for 3 years, associated with preoccupation with sexual thoughts combined with his pursuit of pornographic materials. He had strong psychological cravings for and had spent large amount of money on sex, resulting in a dispute with his family. There were no mood or psychotic symptoms. Medical history revealed recent diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis. Cognitive assessment showed subtle deficiencies in reasoning and executive functions. There was occasional use of alcohol...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274461/optimization-of-culturing-conditions-of-recombined-escherichia-coli-to-produce-umami-octopeptide-containing-protein
#19
Yin Zhang, Xiong Wei, Zhou Lu, Zhongli Pan, Xinhua Gou, Chandrasekar Venkitasamy, Siya Guo, Liming Zhao
Using synthesized peptides to verify the taste of natural peptides was probably the leading cause for tasting disputes regarding umami peptides. A novel method was developed to prepare the natural peptide which could be used to verify the taste of umami peptide. A controversial octopeptide was selected and gene engineering was used to structure its Escherichia coli. expressing vector. A response surface method was adopted to optimize the expression conditions of the recombinant protein. The results of SDS-PAGE for the recombinant protein indicated that the recombinant expression system was successfully structured...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274348/understanding-the-role-of-propionibacterium-acnes-in-acne-vulgaris-the-critical-importance-of-skin-sampling-methodologies
#20
Hélène Omer, Andrew McDowell, Oleg A Alexeyev
Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition classified by the Global Burden of Disease Study as the eighth most prevalent disease worldwide. The pathophysiology of the condition has been extensively studied, with an increase in sebum production, abnormal keratinization of the pilosebaceous follicle, and an inflammatory immune response all implicated in its etiology. One of the most disputed points, however, is the role of the gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in the development of acne, particularly when this organism is also found in normal sebaceous follicles of healthy skin...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
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