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Julian Schenten, Martin Führ
The purpose of the REACH Regulation is to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment as well as the free circulation of substances on the internal market while enhancing competitiveness and innovation. To this end, REACH introduces, among other instruments, the authorisation regime for substances of very high concern (SVHC) that are listed on Annex XIV of the regulation. After expiration of the transitional period for each Annex XIV-SVHC, articles, such as most products of daily use, produced in the European Economic Area (EEA) may not contain such substances unless an authorisation was granted for the specific use or this use falls within the scope of an exemption from the authorisation requirement...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Brian M Ilfeld
A continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) consists of a percutaneously inserted catheter with its tip adjacent to a target nerve/plexus through which local anesthetic may be administered, providing a prolonged block that may be titrated to the desired effect. In the decades after its first report in 1946, a plethora of data relating to CPNB was published, much of which was examined in a 2011 Anesthesia & Analgesia article. The current update is an evidence-based review of the CPNB literature published in the interim...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Zi-Shan Zhang, Mei-Jun Liu, Renate Scheibe, Jennifer Selinski, Li-Tao Zhang, Cheng Yang, Xiang-Long Meng, Hui-Yuan Gao
The mechanism by which the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway contributes to PSII photoprotection is in dispute. The current consensus is that the AOX pathway protects photosystems by dissipating excess reducing equivalents that are exported from chloroplasts through the malate/oxaloacetate (Mal/OAA) shuttle, preventing the over-reduction of chloroplasts. Here, using the aox1a Arabidopsis mutant and nine other C3 and C4 species, an additional model of the AOX pathway in PSII photoprotection is proposed...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Plant
Scott M Grundy
An ongoing dispute in the nutrition field is whether dietary cholesterol contributes significantly to elevated serum cholesterol and to atherosclerotic disease. Carefully controlled metabolic studies have shown that high-cholesterol intakes cause moderate increases in serum cholesterol levels. It is been difficult to verify this in population studies because of confounding factors. Nonetheless, meta-analysis of controlled studies documents a cholesterol-raising action of dietary cholesterol. Most of this effect occurs in low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), but the cholesterol content of other lipoproteins can be increased as well...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Artur Niedzielski, Kornela Partycka-Pietrzyk, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Beata Walczyna, Grażyna Mielnik-Niedzielska
Myxoma is a slow growing, benign neoplasm, which pathogenesis still remains disputed. The lesion has well-defined borders but a true capsule is absent. Because of that myxoma can be locally invasive causing bone destruction. A change is mainly observed among persons between 20-30 years of age and is very uncommon in the pediatric population. Most myxomas are observed in myocardium, but rarely may also manifest in the head and neck region. In the paper we describe an unusual case of myxoma of maxillary sinus in a female infant...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Katherine Hirono, Deborah Gleeson, Becky Freeman
In November 2015, negotiations of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement came to a close with the release of the final text. It included an optional carve-out (exclusion) for tobacco control measures from the TPP's investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Despite the apparent 'win' for the field of tobacco control, the limited scope of the carve-out provides only partial protection for public health regulatory measures.
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Youn Ju Rhee, Sung Joon Han, Yoo Young Chong, Min-Woong Kang, Shin Kwang Kang, Jae-Hyeon Yu
With advancements in complex repairs in neonates with complicated congenital heart diseases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been increasingly used as cardiac support. ECMO has also been increasingly used for low birth weight (LBW) or very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. However, since prematurity and LBW are risk factors for ECMO, the appropriate indications for neonates with LBW, especially VLBW, are under dispute. We report a case of ECMO performed in a 1,360-g premature infant with VLBW due to cardiopulmonary bypass weaning failure after repairing infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous return...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Chris R Brewin
Although clinical theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) claim that in this condition trauma memories tend to be disorganized and fragmented, this has been disputed by some autobiographical memory researchers, such as Rubin, Berntsen, and their colleagues (e.g., Rubin et al., 2016). In this article I review the evidence for and against the fragmentation hypothesis and identify important sources of methodological variability between the studies. This analysis suggests that fragmentation and disorganization are associated with differences in the type of narrative (specifically, with detailed rather than general narratives) and in the focus of the analysis (specifically, with a local focus on sections of text concerned with the worst moments of the trauma rather than with a global focus on the text as a whole)...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Neeraj Nagpal
Physicians and Internists in India have tended to brush under the carpet legal issues affecting their profession. Of concern to all Physicians is the judgment in a recent case where the NCDRC has stated that if MD Medicine Physicians write Physician & Cardiologist on their letterhead it is Quackery. What is MD Medicine degree holder in India qualified and trained to treat ? These are issues which need debate and that can only be initiated once we recognize that there is a problem. Either an MD Medicine is a cardiologist or he is not...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shengyuan Luo, Wenhao Xia, Cong Chen, Eric A Robinson, Jun Tao
The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a group of cells that play important roles in angiogenesis and the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity, has led to considerable improvements in our understanding of the circulatory system and the regulatory mechanisms of vascular homoeostasis. Despite lingering disputes over where EPCs actually originate and how they facilitate angiogenesis, extensive research in the past decade has brought about significant advancements in this field of research, establishing EPCs as an essential element in the pathogenesis of various diseases...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Min-Zhu Zhao, Yong-Guo Li, Peng Zhang, Jin-Cheng Xiong, Shi-Sheng Zhu, Xuan Xiao, Jian-Bo Li
In forensic medicine, the diagnosis of death due to neurogenic shock is considered to be an aporia, as lacking objective indicators and presenting atypical symptoms in autopsy. Medico-legal disputes and complaints occasionally result from this ambiguity. To explore potential objective indicators of neurogenic shock, we set up a model of neurogenic shock by applying an external mechanical force on the carotid sinus baroreceptor in rabbits. The serum atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the control group (n = 8), survival group (n = 15) and death group (n = 5) both before and after the insult...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jathin Bandari, Robert M Turner, Bruce L Jacobs, Benjamin J Davies
INTRODUCTION: Payments to practitioners from drug and device manufacturers or group purchasing organizations are reported in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) databases as a part of the Sunshine Act. Characterizing these payments is a necessary step to identifying conflicts of interest and the influence of payments on practice patterns, if any. Payments have never been analyzed in detail amongst Urologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the most recent CMS Open Payments database for the full year 2014, released on June 30, 2015...
September 2016: Urology Practice
Ramesh Omranipour, Ali Kazemian, Sadaf Alipour, Masoume Najafi, Mansour Alidoosti, Mitra Navid, Afsaneh Alikhassi, Nasrin Ahmadinejad, Khojasteh Bagheri, Shahrzad Izadi
BACKGROUND: Benefits and harms of screening mammography have been disputed in recent years. This fact, along with the limitations of mammography as well as its unavailability in all our medical centers, tempted us to evaluate the accuracy of thermography in detecting breast abnormalities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who were candidates for breast biopsy were examined by both mammography and thermography before tissue sampling in a referral center between January 2013 and January 2014...
August 2016: Breast Care
Jane de Verges, Volker Nehring
Social insects have received attention for their extreme lifespan variation and reversal of the fecundity/longevity trade-off. However, proximate causes of senescence in general are disputed, and social insects often fail to meet the predictions of prevailing models. We present evidence for and against the long-held free radical theory of aging in social insects, and consider the application of the competing hyperfunction theory. Current results present problems for both theories, and a more complex picture of the biological processes involved emerges...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Xinchun Ye, Delian Kong, Jun Wang, Tauheed Ishrat, Hongjuan Shi, Xiaohui Ding, Guiyun Cui, Fang Hua
Myeloid differentiation primary-response protein-88 (MyD88) is one of adaptor proteins mediating Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. Activation of MyD88 results in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the increase of inflammatory responses. Evidences have demonstrated that TLRs signaling contributes to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of MyD88 in this mechanism of action is disputed and needs to be clarified. In the present study, in a mouse model of cerebral I/R, we examined the activities of NFκB and interferon factor-3 (IRF3), and the inflammatory responses in ischemic brain tissue using ELISA, Western blots, and real-time PCR...
October 4, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alexander Roosen, Cagatay Dogan, H Nguyen, Markus Heiland, D Longwitz, Burkhard Ubrig
Purpose Diuretic renography (DRG) is commonly used to diagnose ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and to evaluate the success of surgical repair (pyeloplasty). Duration, frequency and interpretation of renographic follow-ups are still under dispute. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 94 consecutive patients diagnosed with UPJO who underwent a minimally invasive, robotically assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty at our institution between 01/2009 and 09/2015. DRG was carried out preoperatively and again routinely 4-6 weeks postoperatively the day after stent removal (early DRG)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Carla Cruz-Paredes, Álvaro López-García, Gitte H Rubæk, Mads F Hovmand, Peter Sørensen, Rasmus Kjøller
Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P in biomass ashes in a barley crop grown on soil with adequate P status. Two contrasting doses of three different types of ashes were applied to an agricultural field with spring barley and compared to similar doses of triple-superphosphate fertilizer...
October 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ulf Liebe, Cordula Hundeshagen, Heiko Beyer, Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel
In stated preference studies it is assumed that individuals' answers reflect true preferences and are stable over time. We test these two assumptions of validity and reliability using as an example a choice experiment study on ethical consumption that measures preferences for a Peace Product jointly produced by Israeli and Palestinian producers as well as for organic products. In a web survey conducted in Germany, we investigate the validity assumption by manipulating the question context and presenting one group of respondents with questions on anti-Semitic and anti-Arabic attitudes before the choice tasks, and presenting another group with these questions after the choice tasks...
November 2016: Social Science Research
M Weise, E Wolff-Holz
Although biosimilars approved in the European Union have proved to be safe and efficacious, their licensing requirements continue to be disputed by medical professionals. In particular, extrapolation to indications of the originator without one's own clinical data of the biosimilar is controversial. Conceptually, the development of biosimilars is derived from that of generics. However, due to their complexity and inherent variability, considerably more data are necessary for biosimilars to demonstrate comparability with the originator (the reference product) than for the usually low-molecular generics...
October 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Ariana Singh, Kamran Ahmed, Abdullatif Aydin, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Fournier's gangrene is a rare, necrotising fasciitis of the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. The disease has a higher incidence in males and risk factors for development include diabetes, HIV, alcoholism and other immune-compromised states. The aggressive disease process is associated with a high mortality rate of 20-30%. In addition, the increasing age and prevalence of diabetes in the population, begs the need for increased clinical awareness of Fournier's gangrene with emphasis on early diagnosis and management...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
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