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Conflict management

Olivier Barbier, Maelle Racle
Introduction: The current evolution of surgical practices is increasingly trending toward hyper-specialization. For military surgeons, their practice in France does not differ from their civilian counterparts. In contrast, in external operations, they have to deal with specific war injuries in austere conditions. They are also required to take care of local populations. Therefore, specific training is necessary, and the French Military Health Service Academy (Ecole du Val-de-Grâce) Paris has set up a specific training called Advanced Course for Deployment Surgery (ACDS) in 2007...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Marit Johansen, Gabriel Rada, Sarah Rosenbaum, Elizabeth Paulsen, Nkengafac Villyen Motaze, Newton Opiyo, Charles S Wiysonge, Yunpeng Ding, Fidele K Mukinda, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: A strategy for minimising the time and obstacles to accessing systematic reviews of health system evidence is to collect them in a freely available database and make them easy to find through a simple 'Google-style' search interface. PDQ-Evidence was developed in this way. The objective of this study was to compare PDQ-Evidence to six other databases, namely Cochrane Library, EVIPNet VHL, Google Scholar, Health Systems Evidence, PubMed and Trip. METHODS: We recruited healthcare policy-makers, managers and health researchers in low-, middle- and high-income countries...
March 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Kimberly L Savin, Emily R Hamburger, Alexandra D Monzon, Niral J Patel, Katia M Perez, Jadienne H Lord, Sarah S Jaser
Family conflict in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to worse disease management (i.e., glycemic control, adherence to treatment regimen) and reduced quality of life. We sought to examine parental risk factors associated with increased levels of diabetes-specific family conflict and to investigate the discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of conflict. Adolescents with T1D and their parents (N = 120 dyads) completed measures of diabetes-specific family conflict. Adolescents also reported on health-related quality of life, and parents reported on demographic information...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Olivia Farrer, Alison Yaxley, Karen Walton, Michelle Miller
AIM: The prevalence of diabetes in older adults in residential aged care (RAC) is twice that of community dwelling older adults. Older adults with diabetes have been highlighted as being at high risk of frailty and malnutrition, particularly when managed on a therapeutic diet. However, assumptions may be based on clinical presentation of our oldest old which may be at conflict with the clinical presentation of younger older adults. The aim of this retrospective audit was to identify the characteristics of aged care residents with diabetes, their comorbidities and malnutrition risk...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Erum Saleem Khan, Reeta Chander Parkash
Fibroid in pregnancy is common in clinical obstetric practice.There are conflicting reports in the literature on many so-called fibroid complications in pregnancy, and there are inadequate data on the optimum management strategy. We present a case of a pregnancy with large fibroid which was uneventful till delivery but ended in immediate postpartum complication of fibroid degenerating and prolapsing into vagina dealt with myomectomy at day 30 postnatal. Initially managed conservatively with intrauterine balloon tamponade and anaemia correction and discharged home...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Akhilesh S Pathipati, Christine K Cassel
Although they enter school with enthusiasm for a career in medicine, medical students in the United States subsequently report high levels of burnout and disillusionment. As medical school leaders consider how to address this problem, they can look to business schools as one source of inspiration. In this Commentary, the authors argue-based on their collective experience in both medical and business education-that medical schools can draw three lessons from business schools that can help reinvigorate students...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Michael R Kolber, Shelley Ross
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Canada, few family physicians (FPs) perform endoscopy. Conflicting evidence exists on the quality of endoscopy performed by Canadian FPs, which may be explained by differing skillsets of these endoscopists. The objective of this study was to perform the first exploration of the practice, skills, and knowledge of Canadian FP endoscopists. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, including direct knowledge test, was used. RESULTS: Twenty Canadian FP endoscopists completed the survey...
March 2018: Family Medicine
Pablo Iribarren Anacona, Josie Kinney, Marius Schaefer, Stephan Harrison, Ryan Wilson, Alexis Segovia, Bruno Mazzorana, Felipe Guerra, David Farías, John M Reynolds, Neil F Glasser
The environmental, socioeconomic and cultural significance of glaciers has motivated several countries to regulate activities on glaciers and glacierized surroundings. However, laws written to specifically protect mountain glaciers have only recently been considered within national political agendas. Glacier Protection Laws (GPLs) originate in countries where mining has damaged glaciers and have been adopted with the aim of protecting the cryosphere from harmful activities. Here, we analyze GPLs in Argentina (approved) and Chile (under discussion) to identify potential environmental conflicts arising from law restrictions and omissions...
March 13, 2018: Ambio
Patrizia Ciammella, Giorgia Timon, Alessio Bruni, Davide Franceschini, Paolo Borghetti, Nicolò Giaj-Levra, Carlo Greco, Vieri Scotti, Marco Trovo
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an important role in the management of SCLC both in curative and palliative setting, however, conflicting data from clinical trials incite debate over the appropriate use of radiation therapy regarding prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and/or thoracic consolidative in extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). This survey is conducted to evaluate the current pattern of care among Italian radiation oncologists. METHODS: In June 2016, all Italian radiation oncologists were invited to a web-based survey...
March 13, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Anne-Marie Reid, Jeremy M Brown, Julie M Smith, Alexandra C Cope, Susan Jamieson
CONTEXT: For medical education researchers, a key concern may be the practicalities of gaining ethical approval where this is a national or local requirement. However, in qualitative studies, where the dynamics of human interaction pervade, ethical considerations are an ongoing process which continues long after approval has been granted. Responding to ethical dilemmas arising 'in the moment' requires a reflexive approach whereby the researcher questions his/her own motivations, assumptions and interests...
March 13, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Tianyi Xia, Sang Zhu, Yan Wen, Shouhong Gao, Mingming Li, Xia Tao, Feng Zhang, Wansheng Chen
Background: Nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is the major concern for long-term allograft survival despite its predominant role in current immunosuppressive regime after renal transplantation. CNI nephrotoxicity is multifactorial with demographic, environmental, and pharmacogenetic flexibility, whereas studies indicating risk factors for CNI nephrotoxicity obtained incomplete or conflicting results. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for CNI nephrotoxicity was performed on all retrieved studies through a comprehensive research of network database...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Kevin McGarry, Duncan Redmill, Mark Edwards, Aoife Byrne, Aaron Brady, Mark Taylor
Northern Ireland (NI) has been in a post-conflict state for over twenty years. However, injuries sustained during paramilitary Punishment Attacks (PA) remain a common hospital presentation. The aim of this study was to compare the current province-wide frequency and cost with data collected from the same unit in 1994, the end of the so called, "Troubles". A ten month retrospective emergency chart analysis from all assault and gunshot wound (GSW) attendances to the Emergency Department, Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast (RVH) in 2012 was carried out...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
Marisa E Hilliard, Sahar S Eshtehardi, Charles G Minard, Rana Saber, Debbe Thompson, Lefkothea P Karaviti, Yuliana Rojas, Barbara J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Supportive parent involvement for adolescents' type 1 diabetes (T1D) self-management promotes optimal diabetes outcomes. However, family conflict is common and can interfere with collaborative family teamwork. Few interventions have used explicitly strengths-based approaches to help reinforce desired management behaviors and promote positive family interactions around diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this protocol was to describe the development of a new, strengths-based behavioral intervention for parents of adolescents with T1D delivered via a mobile-friendly Web app called Type 1 Doing Well...
March 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Emee Vida Estacio, Lavinia Nathan, Joanne Protheroe
Parents play a vital role in promoting children's health. The parental health literacy skills are important since the decisions they make can have an impact on other family members' health and well-being. Using an assets-based approach, this project aimed to explore the skills parents use to communicate health messages with their children and how they manage their family's health. Six adult parents of children aged 0-16 years old took part in this photovoice study. The thematic analysis suggests that tapping into the creativity of parents through the gamification of health messages and encouraging children's independence are effective ways to promote healthy behaviors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Hossein Zanjanian, Hamid Abdolabadi, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, Amin Sarang
Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Catherine M Kuza, Monica S Vavilala, Rebecca M Speck, Richard P Dutton, Maureen McCunn
BACKGROUND: Few trauma guidelines evaluate and recommend anesthesiology practices and there are no trauma anesthesia-specific guidelines. There is no information on how anesthesiologists perceive clinical practice patterns. Our objective was to understand the perceptions of anesthesiologists regarding trauma anesthesia practices. METHODS: A survey assessing anesthesia management of trauma patients was distributed to 21,491 anesthesiologists. A subset of 10 of these questions was subsequently reviewed by a trauma anesthesiology focus group through a 3-round web-based Delphi process...
March 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Anna Chiumento, Laura Machin, Atif Rahman, Lucy Frith
PURPOSE: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. METHOD: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Kyle A Artelle, John D Reynolds, Adrian Treves, Jessica C Walsh, Paul C Paquet, Chris T Darimont
Resource management agencies commonly defend controversial policy by claiming adherence to science-based approaches. For example, proponents and practitioners of the "North American Model of Wildlife Conservation," which guides hunting policy across much of the United States and Canada, assert that science plays a central role in shaping policy. However, what that means is rarely defined. We propose a framework that identifies four fundamental hallmarks of science relevant to natural resource management (measurable objectives, evidence, transparency, and independent review) and test for their presence in hunt management plans created by 62 U...
March 2018: Science Advances
Rahul Aggarwal, Jackson Steinkamp, Nicholas Chiu, Benjamin Petrie, Haares Mirzan
Optimal blood pressure (BP) targets for different populations, especially diabetics, remain uncertain after conflicting data on intensive management. We assessed whether a <120 mm Hg systolic target is beneficial and whether certain patient populations differ in response. Individual patient data of 14 094 patients from 2 randomized control trials was pooled. Seven thousand forty patients were assigned to an intensive target of <120 mm Hg and 7054 patients to a standard target of <140 mm Hg in an intention-to-treat analysis...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension
Sonia Altizer, Daniel J Becker, Jonathan H Epstein, Kristian M Forbes, Thomas R Gillespie, Richard J Hall, Dana M Hawley, Sonia M Hernandez, Lynn B Martin, Raina K Plowright, Dara A Satterfield, Daniel G Streicker
Human-provided resource subsidies for wildlife are diverse, common and have profound consequences for wildlife-pathogen interactions, as demonstrated by papers in this themed issue spanning empirical, theoretical and management perspectives from a range of study systems. Contributions cut across scales of organization, from the within-host dynamics of immune function, to population-level impacts on parasite transmission, to landscape- and regional-scale patterns of infection. In this concluding paper, we identify common threads and key findings from author contributions, including the consequences of resource subsidies for (i) host immunity; (ii) animal aggregation and contact rates; (iii) host movement and landscape-level infection patterns; and (iv) interspecific contacts and cross-species transmission...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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