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Medical reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668058/i-introduction-understanding-medicines-and-medical-interventions
#1
Kristi L Lockhart, Frank C Keil
We live in an increasingly pharmacological and medical world, where children and adults frequently encounter alleged treatments for an enormous range of illnesses. How do we come to understand what heals and why? Here, 15 studies explore how 1,414 children (ages 5-11) and 882 adults construe the efficacies of different kinds of cures. Developmental patterns in folk physics, psychology, and biology lead to predictions about which expectations about cures will remain relatively constant across development and which will change...
June 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668053/commentary-what-heals-and-why-children-s-understanding-of-medical-treatments
#2
Karl S Rosengren, Matthew J Jiang, Charles W Kalish, David Menendez, Iseli G Hernandez
Lockhart and Keil have written an interesting monograph focusing on the development of reasoning about medicine, a relatively underexplored area of research with potentially broad implications with respect to the design of more-effective medical interventions. In a set of 15 studies with well over 2,200 participants, they examine how children and adults combine aspects of biological and psychological reasoning to create working models of medicine. Lockhart and Keil explore developmental changes in reasoning about illness and its treatment using medicines in terms of dualism (e...
June 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667638/-the-forensic-medical-aspects-of-the-inappropriate-medical-care-in-the-modern-day-ukraine
#3
V V Franchuk
Despite the fact that the ever growing relevance of the problem of the inappropriate medical care was long ago brought to the worldwide attention, it has not been practically addressed in the Ukraine since the country gained independence in 1991. The objective of the present study was to consider the specific features of expert examination of the cases of inappropriate medical care as exemplified by the materials of the legal actions and lawsuits instituted against healthcare specialists violating their occupational duties...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667565/longitudinal-associations-between-different-dementia-diagnoses-and-medication-use-jointly-accounting-for-dropout
#4
George O Agogo, Christine M Ramsey, Danijela Gnjidic, Daniela C Moga, Heather Allore
ABSTRACTBackground:Longitudinal studies of older adults are characterized by high dropout rates, multimorbid conditions, and multiple medication use, especially proximal to death. We studied the association between multiple medication use and incident dementia diagnoses including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Lewy-body dementia (LBD), simultaneously accounting for dropout. METHODS: Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data with three years of follow-up, a set of covariate-adjusted models that ignore dropout was fit to complete-case data, and to the whole-cohort data...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667456/fertility-and-fertility-preservation-knowledge-awareness-and-attitudes-of-female-graduate-students
#5
Lisa C Hickman, Chelsea Fortin, Linnea Goodman, Xiaobo Liu, Rebecca Flyckt
PURPOSE: To evaluate the general knowledge of female graduate students on reproductive aging and fertility preservation options, as well as to investigate the perceptions, personal beliefs, and desires regarding fertility and preservation modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey study of female graduate students and medical trainees from academic institutions in Ohio was performed. Women were excluded if the online survey was incomplete or if they were >45 years...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666671/the-comparative-experimental-study-of-multilabel-classification-for-diagnosis-assistant-based-on-chinese-obstetric-emrs
#6
Kunli Zhang, Hongchao Ma, Yueshu Zhao, Hongying Zan, Lei Zhuang
Obstetric electronic medical records (EMRs) contain massive amounts of medical data and health information. The information extraction and diagnosis assistants of obstetric EMRs are of great significance in improving the fertility level of the population. The admitting diagnosis in the first course record of the EMR is reasoned from various sources, such as chief complaints, auxiliary examinations, and physical examinations. This paper treats the diagnosis assistant as a multilabel classification task based on the analyses of obstetric EMRs...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666169/impact-of-transitional-care-on-endocrine-and-anthropometric-parameters-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#7
Anne-Cécile Paepegaey, Muriel Coupaye, Asma Jaziri, Florence Menesguen, Béatrice Dubern, Michel Polak, Jean-Michel Oppert, Maithe Tauber, Graziella Pinto, Christine Poitou
CONTEXT: The transition of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) to adult life for medical care is challenging because of multiple comorbidities, including hormone deficiencies, obesity, and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To assess endocrine management, and metabolic and anthropometric parameters of PWS adults who received (n=31) or not (n=64) transitional care, defined as specialized pediatric care followed by a structured care pathway to a multidisciplinary adult team...
April 17, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665780/writing-a-discussion-section-how-to-integrate-substantive-and-statistical-expertise
#8
REVIEW
Michael Höfler, John Venz, Sebastian Trautmann, Robert Miller
BACKGROUND: When discussing results medical research articles often tear substantive and statistical (methodical) contributions apart, just as if both were independent. Consequently, reasoning on bias tends to be vague, unclear and superficial. This can lead to over-generalized, too narrow and misleading conclusions, especially for causal research questions. MAIN BODY: To get the best possible conclusion, substantive and statistical expertise have to be integrated on the basis of reasonable assumptions...
April 17, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665720/community-pharmacist-preferences-in-transition-of-care-communications
#9
Mackenzie A Dolan, Chelsea P Renfro, Stefanie P Ferreri, Betsy B Shilliday, Timothy J Ives, Jamie J Cavanaugh
OBJECTIVE: To determine community pharmacist preferences in transition of care (TOC) communications. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered via electronic survey of community pharmacists regarding their preferences for TOC communications. The survey was distributed via email by the North Carolina Board of Pharmacy. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Survey responses were received from 343 community pharmacists (response rate = 6...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664960/long-term-outcomes-of-patients-evacuated-from-hospitals-near-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake
#10
Yutaka Igarashi, Takashi Tagami, Jun Hagiwara, Takahiro Kanaya, Norihiro Kido, Mariko Omura, Ryoichi Tosa, Hiroyuki Yokota
INTRODUCTION: After the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, the Japanese government issued a mandatory evacuation order for people living within a 20 km radius of the nuclear power plant. The aim of the current study was to investigate long-term outcomes of these patients and identify factors related to mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who were evacuated from hospitals near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to the Aizu Chuo Hospital from 15 to 26 March, 2011 were included in this study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664866/long-term-hearing-outcome-of-canaloplasty-with-partial-ossicular-replacement-in-congenital-aural-atresia
#11
Jungmin Ahn, Gwanghui Ryu, Minwoong Kang, Yang-Sun Cho
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the postoperative hearing outcomes with regard to the length of prosthesis of the partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) in patients with congenital aural atresia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records. SETTING, PATIENTS, INTERVENTION, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The medical records of 131 patients (132 ears) who underwent canaloplasty with PORP by a single surgeon from 2011 to 2016 were reviewed for demographic data, Jahrsdoerfer score, grade of microtia, length of prosthesis, and audiometric outcomes...
April 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664841/three-year-recurrence-free-survival-in-patients-with-a-very-low-risk-of-endometrial-cancer-who-did-not-undergo-lymph-node-dissection-tree-retro-a-korean-multicenter-study
#12
Miseon Kim, ChelHun Choi, Kidong Kim, Myong Cheol Lim, Jeong-Yeol Park, Jin Hwa Hong, Maria Lee, Jiheum Paek, Jungyeob Seoung, Seungho Lee, Taek Sang Lee
OBJECTIVE: Randomized studies have not demonstrated a survival benefit of routine lymph node dissection in early-stage endometrial cancer. Many surgeons nevertheless perform lymph node dissection in all patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. This study aimed to ascertain the survival outcomes of very low-risk endometrial cancer patients (by the Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group [KGOG] criteria) who did not undergo lymph node dissection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 156 consecutive patients who underwent surgical staging without lymph node dissection were collected from 10 institutions...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664823/incidence-of-cellulitis-in-lower-extremity-burns-6-year-analysis
#13
Joseph N Batac, Roger L Simpson, Catherine J Sinnott, Michael P Catanzaro, Laurence T Glickman
INTRODUCTION: Patients with burn wounds of the lower extremities are at increased risk of developing cellulitis. The probability of developing burn-associated cellulitis is presumed to be correlated with a medical history of diabetes, the etiology of the burn, delay in hospitalization of the patient during their initial presentation, and depth of the burn itself. This study aims to identify factors that place patients at increased risk for developing lower extremity burn wound cellulitis...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664506/continuous-venovenous-hemofiltration-in-neonates-with-hyperammonemia-a-case-series
#14
Felipe Cavagnaro Santa María, Jorge Roque Espinosa, Pamela Guerra Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal hyperammonemia secondary due to inborn errors of metabolism is a rare condition with a high rate of neurological sequelae and mortality. Initial medical management is often insufficient to stop the progressive increase of ammonia, with the consequent deterioration of the patient. For this reason, depurative techniques have been implemented, including peritoneal dialysis, intermittent hemodialysis and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with continuous extracorporeal dialysis in severely ill neonates with hyperammonemia...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663923/selenium-and-iron-oxide-nanocomposites-for-magnetically-targeted-anti-cancer-applications
#15
Halla Laufey Hauksdóttir, Thomas J Webster
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are already well-established in the medical field due to their ability to improve contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for their external magnetic control in the body. Moreover, selenium has been shown to kill numerous cancer cells at lower concentrations that IONP (e.g., 1 μg/ml). Selenium is a trace mineral of growing interest in cancer treatment since it is an essential nutrient in the human body and can interfere with thiolcontaining proteins necessary for cancer cells to function...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662957/new-york-physicians-perspectives-and-knowledge-of-the-state-medical-marijuana-program
#16
Alexandra Sideris, Fahad Khan, Alina Boltunova, Germaine Cuff, Christopher Gharibo, Lisa V Doan
Introduction: In 2014, New York (NY) became the 23rd state to legalize medical marijuana (MMJ). The purpose of this survey was to collect data about practicing NY physicians' comfort level, opinions, and experience in recommending or supporting patient use of MMJ. Materials and Methods: An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to medical societies and to academic departments in medical schools within NY. Results: A total of 164 responses were analyzed. Physician participants were primarily located in New York City and surrounding areas...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661939/sexual-orientation-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#17
Jeremy W Luk, Stephen E Gilman, Denise L Haynie, Bruce G Simons-Morton
OBJECTIVES: Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. METHODS: Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661734/pathology-resident-perspectives-about-early-autopsy-experiences
#18
REVIEW
Richard A Prayson
The performance of autopsies remains an integral part of residency training in Anatomic Pathology. A number of medical schools no longer require an autopsy experience; therefore, a subset of pathology residents has never seen an autopsy performed prior to commencement of residency training. Although much as been written regarding student's perspectives on their medical school anatomy experiences, practically nothing has been written about resident perspectives on the autopsy experience. Surveys were sent to all Pathology resident trainees (n = 27) in a training program exploring resident perspectives on their early autopsy experiences...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661022/low-rates-of-vaccination-for-herpes-zoster-in-older-people-living-with-hiv
#19
Kristine M Erlandson, Amber Streifel, Alexander Novin, Kellie Hawkins, Clayton Foster, Jacob Langness, Mary Bessesen, Julian Falutz, Abeer Moanna, David Looney, Scott Johns, Joseph Nguyen, Michael Oxman, Myron Levin
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs at a higher age-specific rate in people living with HIV (PLWH) than in the general population. We implemented a quality improvement study to assess herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) usage among PLWH, assess HZV usage after additional reminders/prompts, and identify barriers to HZV among older PLWH. METHODS: HZV rates in PLWH were determined in six institutions with varying payment structures. For the intervention, Part 1, PLWH eligible for HZV at the University of Colorado were identified, and providers were notified of patient eligibility...
April 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660917/medical-compression-stockings-reduce-hypertension-of-nailfold-capillaries-at-the-toe-of-patients-with-chronic-venous-insufficiency1
#20
Anja Oelert, Manuela Kittel, Martin Hahn, Hermann Haase, Michael Jünger
In five patients who suffered from chronic venous insufficiency clinical stage C4 (n = 3) and C6 (n = 2) the capillary blood pressure was measured twice by means of invasive direct cannulation of nailfold capillaries of the toe. During one measurement course the patients wore below knee medical compression stockings (40 mmHg) during the other they did not have compression therapy. With the patient in supine position, the CP was investigated by the servo-nulling technique under resting conditions and under dynamic conditions: the calf-muscle/ankle joint venous pump was simulated by means of inflating a blood pressure cuff, which surrounded the mid lower leg, to 60 mmHg for 60 s...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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