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Huijun Wang, Mark Fowler, David Messenge, Leon A Terry, Xuelan Gu, Luxian Zhou, Ruimin Liu, Juan Su, Songshan Shi, Jos Eacute Ordaz-Ortiz, Guoping Lian, Mark Berry, Shunchun Wang
Foods of high carbohydrate content such as sucrose or starch increase postprandial blood glucose concentrations. The glucose absorption system in the intestine comprises two components: sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Here five sappanin-type (SAP) homoisoflavonoids were identified as novel potent GLUT2 inhibitors, with three of them isolated from the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. SAP homoisolflavonoids had a stronger inhibitory effect on 25 mM glucose transport (41...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Atefeh Bahmanzadegan, Vahid Rowshan, Faraneh Zareiyan, Ahmad Hatami
Lagoecia cuminoides L. belongs to the family of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae), and known also as common wild cumin. The aerial parts of L. cuminoides were collected at the flowering stage and dried, then the methanolic extract was analyzed for polyphenol compounds identified by HPLC-DAD and antioxidant activity (DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay). It was found that the predominant phenolic constituents were chlorogenic acid, hesperidin, rosmarinic acid, hesperetin and vanillin. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extract from L...
March 7, 2018: Natural Product Research
Xiaogang Liu, Cailing Lin, Xiaodi Ma, Yan Tan, Jiuzhao Wang, Ming Zeng
Fruits of sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ), a popular commercial Citrus species, contain high concentrations of flavonoids beneficial to human health. These fruits predominantly accumulate O -glycosylated flavonoids, in which the disaccharides [neohesperidose (rhamnosyl-α-1,2-glucose) or rutinose (rhamnosyl-α-1,6-glucose)] are linked to the flavonoid aglycones through the 3- or 7-hydroxyl sites. The biotransformation of the flavonoid aglycones into O -rutinosides or O -neohesperidosides in the Citrus plants usually consists of two glycosylation reactions involving a series of uridine diphosphate-sugar dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are stable posttranslational modifications of proteins formed by the spontaneous reaction with glucose and related metabolites. Important AGEs quantitatively are methylglyoxal (MG)-derived hydroimidazolone MG-H1, Nε -carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and glucosepane. They contribute to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cellular proteolysis of AGE-modified proteins forms AGE free adducts, glycated amino acids, which are cleared by the kidneys and excreted in urine...
February 22, 2018: Kidney International
Evelien Van Rymenant, Bouke Salden, Stefan Voorspoels, Griet Jacobs, Bart Noten, Judit Pitart, Sam Possemiers, Guy Smagghe, Charlotte Grootaert, John Van Camp
SCOPE: Bioavailability strongly determines polyphenol bioactivity, and is strongly influenced by food matrix, enzymatic and microbial degradation and gastro-intestinal absorption. To avoid human trials for pre-screening of polyphenol bioavailability, studies have focused on in vitro model development. Nevertheless, their predictive value for bioavailability can be questioned. METHOD AND RESULTS: We used the orange flavonoid hesperidin 2S to validate a model combining digestion in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME ® ) and Caco-2 cell transport, with a human intervention study...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Wen-Harn Pan, Nai-Hua Yeh, Ray-Yu Yang, Wei-Hsuan Lin, Wan-Chen Wu, Wen-Ting Yeh, Mi-Kyung Sung, Haeng-Shin Lee, Sue-Joan Chang, Ching-Jang Huang, Bi-Fong Lin, Meng-Tsan Chiang
Phytonutrients may play important roles in human health and yet only recently a few studies have described phytonutrient consumption patterns, using data obtained from daily consumption methods. We aimed to estimate the phytonutrient content in Taiwanese diets and analyzed main food sources of 10 major phytonutrients. In this study, food items and dietary data gathered with the 24-hour dietary recall from 2908 participants in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan were used to create a food phytonutrient database with 933 plant-based foods through integrating database, literature search, and chemical analysis and to appraise phytonutrient consumption status of participants...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Yasushi Aizawa, Shigeaki Sunada, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Akira Fujimori, Takamitsu A Kato, Mitsuru Uesaka
In this study, three novel flavonoid composite materials, created by combining an aglycone [quercetin (QUE), hesperetin (HES) or naringenin (NAR)] with monoglucosyl rutin (MGR), were designed to test for improved radioprotectivity compared with that provided by administration of MGR alone. Aglycone in the MGR-composite state was highly soluble in water, compared with aglycone alone dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide or distilled water. The antioxidant activity of the three flavonoid composites was as high as that of MGR only...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Xingming Sun, Zhanying Zhang, Chao Chen, Wei Wu, Nannan Ren, Conghui Jiang, Jianping Yu, Yan Zhao, Xiaoming Zheng, Qingwen Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Jinjie Li, Zichao Li
Floral organs in rice (Oryza sativa) can be purple, brown or red in color due to the accumulation of flavonoids. But the molecular mechanism underlying specific organ pigmentation is not clear. Here, we propose a C-S-A gene model for rice hull pigmentation and characterize through genetic, molecular and metabolomic approaches. Further we conduct phylogenetic studies to reveal the evolution of rice color. In this gene system, C1 encodes a R2R3-MYB transcription factor and acts as a color-producing gene and S1 encodes a bHLH protein that functions in a tissue-specific manner...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jungwhoi Lee, Jungsul Lee, Myungseung Kim, Jae Hoon Kim
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most dangerous cancers with high mortality rates. Despite continuous efforts, there has been limited improvement in its prognosis. In this study, we prepared fermented extract of Citrus unshiu peel (fCUP) from the by-product after juice processing and then examined the anticancer effects of fCUP on human pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment with fCUP inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells through induction of caspase-3 cleavage both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with fCUP also blocked the migration of human pancreatic cancer cells through activation of intracellular signaling pathways such as MKK3/6 and P38...
January 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Roney Vander Dos Santos, Fabian Villalta-Romero, Danijela Stanisic, Luiz Borro, Goran Neshich, Ljubica Tasic
Around 5.5 million people suffer from snakebites per year, with about 400,000 cases with some type of sequelae, such as amputation, and 20,000 to 125,000 cases with the fatal end. Usually, the victim outcome depends on correct, agile and many times in situ intervention based on the proper identification of the snake venom type and its potential effects, among other factors. Therefore, knowledge on the snake venom composition and a research on inhibitors of snake venom target components might ameliorate envenoming dangerous outcome...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Anjana Adhikari-Devkota, Sara Mustafa Idris Elbashir, Takashi Watanabe, Hari Prasad Devkota
Flowers of Citrus plants are used as mild sedatives and for the treatment of insomnia in traditional medicines. In Japan, tea made from the flowers of Satsuma mandarin is consumed as healthy drink. Hesperidin (1), hesperetin (2), rutin (3), quercetin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eriocitrin (6), narirutin (7), phenylethyl glucoside (8) and unshuoside A (9) were isolated from the MeOH extract of fresh flowers. Structure elucidation of these compounds was performed on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. Among them, rutin (3), quercetin (4) and eriocitrin (6) showed potent free radical scavenging activity, whereas hesperetin (2) and quercetin (4) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
Chao Han, Wenli Wang, Guimin Xue, Dingqiao Xu, Tianyu Zhu, Shanshan Wang, Pei Cai, Jianguang Luo, Lingyi Kong
Cu(II) ion was selected as an additive to improve the enantioseparation efficiency of three dihydroflavone enantiomers in high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) as the chiral selector. The influences of important parameters, including the metal ion, the concentrations of HP-β-CyD and the Cu(II) ion, and the sample size were investigated. Under optimal conditions, three dihydroflavone enantiomers, including (±)-hesperetin, (±)-naringenin, and (±)-farrerol, were successfully enantioseparated...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Valentina Spigoni, Pedro Mena, Federica Fantuzzi, Michele Tassotti, Furio Brighenti, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Daniele Del Rio, Alessandra Dei Cas
Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) play a key role in endothelial repairing processes and functionality but their activity may be impaired by the lipotoxic effects of some molecules like stearic acid (SA). Among the dietary components potentially able to modulate endothelial function in vivo, (poly)phenolic compounds represent serious candidates. Here, we apply a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to shed light on the prospects of Bergamot ( Citrus bergamia ), a citrus fruit rich in flavanones and other phenolic compounds, in the framework of lipotoxicity-induced MACs impairment...
December 6, 2017: Nutrients
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing globally. There is also increasing associated complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and vascular complications of diabetes. There is currently no licensed treatment for NAFLD and no recent treatments for diabetic complications. New approaches are required, particularly those addressing mechanism-based risk factors for health decline and disease progression. Recent Advances: Dicarbonyl stress is the abnormal accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl metabolites such as methylglyoxal (MG) leading to cell and tissue dysfunction...
January 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
E Van Rymenant, C Grootaert, K Beerens, P W Needs, P A Kroon, A Kerimi, G Williamson, R García-Villalba, A González-Sarrías, F Tomas-Barberan, J Van Camp, J Van de Voorde
Polyphenols are beneficial for health, but are metabolised after consumption. We compared the vasorelaxant capacity of twenty-one physiologically relevant polyphenol metabolites in isolated mouse arteries. Hesperetin, urolithins and ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate - not their glucuronidated forms or ferulic acid - caused vasorelaxation. Therefore, we advise the use of relevant conjugates in future mechanistic research.
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
Elham Kheradmand, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Zare
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. There is evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress during the course of the disease. Hesperetin (Hst) is a natural flavonoid, which has been reported to exert various biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on neurobehavioral activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) and catalase (CAT) enzymes activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampal area of rats in an experimental model of AD...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chunying Meng, Zeheng Guo, Dagang Li, Hanwei Li, Jianbin He, Dingguo Wen, Bin Luo
Hesperetin is the main pharmacological ingredient of fruit of the citrus family, rutaceae. It is a flavanone, which has potent antioxidation and anti‑inflammatory activities. The present study investigated the preventive effect of hesperidin in the modulation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)‑induced inflammatory responses and antioxidant status in a mouse model. The levels of creatine kinase‑MB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‑1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM‑1), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase‑3/9 were measured using ELISA kits...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Revathy Jayaraman, Srinivasan Subramani, Shahul Hameed Sheik Abdullah, Muruganathan Udaiyar
Diabetes is the major health problem in modern civilization which occurs due to inadequate metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid could cause tremendous changes in the metabolic activities of liver. In this study, we investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of hesperetin, a citrus flavonoid against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental rats. To stimulate diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with STZ intraperitoneally at a single dose of 45mg/kg. STZ induced rats showed marked increase in the level of plasma glucose and significant reduction in the level of plasma insulin...
October 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hong-Wei Wang, Lei Shi, Yan-Ping Xu, Xing-Ya Qin, Qi-Zhi Wang
Hesperetin (HES) is a flavonoid that has been reported to exert protective effects against cardiac remodeling, lung fibrosis and hepatic fibrosis. However, reports on the effects and potential mechanisms of HES in renal fibrosis are limited. In the present study, a unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) mouse model and a transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-activated normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E cell model were established. HES was subsequently administered to these models to evaluate its anti-fibrotic effects and potential underlying mechanisms of action...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Raphael J Eberle, Liege A Kawai, Fabio R de Moraes, Ljubica Tasic, Raghuvir K Arni, Monika A Coronado
Glutaredoxin A1 from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was shown to be a mycoredoxin protein. In this study, we established a process to overexpress and purify glutaredoxin A1. The aim of this study was the investigation of the Glutaredoxin A1 from C. pseudotuberculosis behavior under different redox environments and the identification of lead molecules, which can be used for specific inhibitor development for this protein family. A quantitative assay was performed measuring the rate of insulin reduction spectrophotometrically at 640nm through turbidity formation from the precipitation of the free insulin...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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