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Helen T Ding, Ying Taur, John T Walkup
There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members of the Clostridium and Sutterella genus. Evidence from animal models suggest that certain microbial shifts in the gut may produce changes consistent with the clinical picture of autism, with proposed mechanisms including toxin production, aberrations in fermentation processes/products, and immunological and metabolic abnormalities...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Amitai Abramovitch, Lauren S Hallion, Hannah E Reese, Douglas W Woods, Alan Peterson, John T Walkup, John Piacentini, Lawrence Scahill, Thilo Deckersbach, Sabine Wilhelm
Tourette's disorder (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by involuntary vocal and motor tics. Consequently, TS/CTD have been conceptualized as disorders of cognitive and motor inhibitory control. However, most neurocognitive studies have found comparable or superior inhibitory capacity among individuals with TS/CTD relative to healthy controls. These findings have led to the hypothesis that individuals with TS/CTD develop increased inhibitory control due to the constant need to inhibit tics...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Mary F Cwik, Lauren Tingey, Alexandra Maschino, Novalene Goklish, Francene Larzelere-Hinton, John Walkup, Allison Barlow
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of a comprehensive, multitiered youth suicide prevention program among the White Mountain Apache of Arizona since its implementation in 2006. METHODS: Using data from the tribally mandated Celebrating Life surveillance system, we compared the rates, numbers, and characteristics of suicide deaths and attempts from 2007 to 2012 with those from 2001 to 2006. RESULTS: The overall Apache suicide death rates dropped from 40...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Laura L Walkup, Robert P Thomen, Teckla G Akinyi, Erin Watters, Kai Ruppert, John P Clancy, Jason C Woods, Zackary I Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Hyperpolarized (129)Xe is a promising contrast agent for MRI of pediatric lung function, but its safety and tolerability in children have not been rigorously assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas as an inhaled contrast agent for pediatric pulmonary MRI in healthy control subjects and in children with cystic fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 6-15 years, 11 boys) and 11 children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8-16 years, 4 boys) underwent (129)Xe MRI, receiving up to three doses of (129)Xe gas prepared by either a commercially available or a homebuilt (129)Xe polarizer...
November 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Robert P Thomen, Laura L Walkup, David J Roach, Zackary I Cleveland, John P Clancy, Jason C Woods
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease which carries high morbidity and mortality from lung-function decline. Monitoring disease progression and treatment response in young patients is desirable, but serial imaging via CT is often considered prohibitive, and detailed functional information cannot be obtained using conventional imaging techniques. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict and quantify regional ventilation, but has not been investigated in pediatrics...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
David H Rubin, Eileen T Crehan, Robert R Althoff, David C Rettew, Erica Krist, Valerie Harder, John T Walkup, James J Hudziak
Withdrawn/depressed behavior (WD) as defined by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) relates to various outcomes in developmental psychopathology such as depression, pervasive developmental disorders, and suicide. We sought to examine the temperamental characteristics of children who concurrently endorse symptoms of WD. Junior Temperament and Characteristic Inventory (JTCI) and CBCL data were collected from 397 children's parents in a family study in the northeastern United States. Linear mixed models were used to test the relations between WD and temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence) on the JTCI, while controlling for age, sex, item overlap, and co-occurring aggression and attention problems...
July 25, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Michelle Rozenman, Olivia E Johnson, Susanna W Chang, Douglas W Woods, John T Walkup, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan Peterson, Lawrence Scahill, John Piacentini
Tourette's Disorder and other chronic tic disorders are common neurodevelopmental conditions. One characteristic of tic disorders is the premonitory urge, an aversive or unpleasant sensory phenomenon that may precede tics. Initial examination of premonitory urge in pediatric tic disorders suggests that awareness and experience of sensations preceding tics may be related to anxiety and OCD. However, it may be possible that specific anxiety-related symptoms, such as anxious physiologic arousal, are particularly relevant to the experience of premonitory urge...
July 1, 2015: Children's Health Care: Journal of the Association for the Care of Children's Health
Shannon M Bennett, John T Walkup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Krishnapriya Ramanujam, Michael B Himle, Loran P Hayes, Douglas W Woods, Lawrence Scahill, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Sabine Wilhelm, Thilo Deckersbach, Alan L Peterson, Matt Specht, John T Walkup, Susanna Chang, John Piacentini
Although tics are the defining feature of chronic tic disorders (CTD), many children experience comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems that contribute to impairment across several domains, including family functioning. The current study examined clinical correlates and predictors of caregiver strain in parents of children with CTD. Participants were 123 children and adolescents diagnosed with a CTD who participated in a randomized-controlled trial of behavior therapy for reducing tics. Results showed that a combination of disruptive behavior, inattention/hyperactivity, and tic intensity best explained objective strain and a combination of inattention/hyperactivity and tic intensity were the best predictors of subjective caregiver strain...
2015: Children's Health Care: Journal of the Association for the Care of Children's Health
Alan L Peterson, Joseph F McGuire, Sabine Wilhelm, John Piacentini, Douglas W Woods, John T Walkup, John P Hatch, Robert Villarreal, Lawrence Scahill
Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy...
January 2016: Behavior Therapy
Alexandra L Hoff, Philip C Kendall, Audra Langley, Golda Ginsburg, Courtney Keeton, Scott Compton, Joel Sherrill, John Walkup, Boris Birmaher, Anne Marie Albano, Cynthia Suveg, John Piacentini
Social phobia (SoP) in youth may manifest differently across development as parent involvement in their social lives changes and social and academic expectations increase. This cross-sectional study investigated whether self-reported and parent-reported functioning in youth with SoP changes with age in social, academic, and home/family domains. Baseline anxiety impairment data from 488 treatment-seeking anxiety-disordered youth (ages 7-17, N = 400 with a SoP diagnosis) and their parents were gathered using the Child Anxiety Impact Scale and were analyzed using generalized estimating equations...
December 2, 2015: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
John T Walkup, Karen Dineen Wagner, Leslie Miller, Gayane Yenokyan, Joan L Luby, Paramjit T Joshi, David A Axelson, Adelaide Robb, Jay A Salpekar, Dwight Wolf, Abanti Sanyal, Boris Birmaher, Benedetto Vitiello, Mark A Riddle
OBJECTIVE: The Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study evaluated lithium, risperidone, and divalproex sodium (divalproex) in children with bipolar I disorder who were naive to antimanic medication, or were partial or nonresponders to 1 of 3 study medications. This report evaluates the benefit of either an add-on or a switch of antimanic medications for an 8-week trial period in partial responders and nonresponders, respectively. METHOD: TEAM is a randomized, controlled trial of individuals (N = 379) aged 6 to 15 years (mean ± SD = 10...
December 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jay A Salpekar, Paramjit T Joshi, David A Axelson, Shauna P Reinblatt, Gayane Yenokyan, Abanti Sanyal, John T Walkup, Benedetto Vitiello, Joan L Luby, Karen Dineen Wagner, Nasima Nusrat, Mark A Riddle
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of mood-stabilizing medications for depression and suicidality in pediatric bipolar disorder. METHOD: The Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, masked comparison of divalproex sodium (VAL), lithium carbonate (LI), and risperidone (RISP) in an 8-week parallel clinical trial. A total of 279 children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of bipolar I disorder, mixed or manic, aged 6 to 15 years were enrolled...
December 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Malik Nassan, Paul E Croarkin, Joan L Luby, Marin Veldic, Paramjit T Joshi, Susan L McElroy, Robert M Post, John T Walkup, Kelly Cercy, Jennifer R Geske, Karen D Wagner, Alfredo B Cuellar-Barboza, Leah Casuto, Catharina Lavebratt, Martin Schalling, Peter S Jensen, Joanna M Biernacka, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. METHODS: DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset if the first manic or depressive episode occurred at age ≤19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age >19 years)...
September 2015: Bipolar Disorders
Nicole E Caporino, Kendra L Read, Nina Shiffrin, Cara Settipani, Philip C Kendall, Scott N Compton, Joel Sherrill, John Piacentini, John Walkup, Golda Ginsburg, Courtney Keeton, Boris Birmaher, Dara Sakolsky, Elizabeth Gosch, Anne M Albano
This study examined (a) demographic and clinical characteristics associated with sleep-related problems (SRPs) among youth with anxiety disorders, and (b) the impact of anxiety treatment: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, and pill placebo on SRPs. Youth (N = 488, ages 7-17, 50% female, 79% White) with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, or social phobia participated. SRPs were reported by parents and youth...
October 14, 2015: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Philip C Kendall, Colleen M Cummings, Marianne A Villabø, Martina K Narayanan, Kimberli Treadwell, Boris Birmaher, Scott Compton, John Piacentini, Joel Sherrill, John Walkup, Elizabeth Gosch, Courtney Keeton, Golda Ginsburg, Cindy Suveg, Anne Marie Albano
OBJECTIVE: Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). METHOD: Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder...
January 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Gregory S Basarab, Gunther H Kern, John McNulty, John P Mueller, Kenneth Lawrence, Karthick Vishwanathan, Richard A Alm, Kevin Barvian, Peter Doig, Vincent Galullo, Humphrey Gardner, Madhusudhan Gowravaram, Michael Huband, Amy Kimzey, Marshall Morningstar, Amy Kutschke, Sushmita D Lahiri, Manos Perros, Renu Singh, Virna J A Schuck, Ruben Tommasi, Grant Walkup, Joseph V Newman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Scientific Reports
Susan Friedland, John T Walkup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Emily J Ricketts, Donald L Gilbert, Samuel H Zinner, Jonathan W Mink, Tara D Lipps, Geoffrey A Wiegand, Amy E Vierhile, Laura J Ely, John Piacentini, John T Walkup, Douglas W Woods
Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is an efficacious treatment with limited regional availability. As neurology and pediatric clinics are often the first point of therapeutic contact for individuals with tics, the present study assessed preliminary treatment response, acceptability, and feasibility of an abbreviated version, modified for child neurology and developmental pediatrics clinics. Fourteen youth (9-17) with Tourette disorder across 2 child neurology clinics and one developmental pediatrics clinic participated in a small case series...
March 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Kendra L Read, Cara A Settipani, Jeremy Peterman, Philip C Kendall, Scott Compton, John Piacentini, James McCracken, Lindsey Bergman, John Walkup, Dara Sakolsky, Boris Birmaher, Anne Marie Albano, Moira Rynn, Golda Ginsburg, Courtney Keeton, Elizabeth Gosch, Cynthia Suveg, Joel Sherrill, John March
The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely used parent-report of child and adolescent behavior. We examined the ability of the CBCL-A scale, a previously published subset of CBCL items, to predict the presence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), and social phobia (SoP), as well as anxiety severity, among 488 youth randomized in the Child Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). We predicted that the CBCL-A's unique inclusion of items related to somatic symptoms would better identify anxiety disorder and severity than other CBCL scales, given that somatic complaints are often key features of anxiety among youth...
March 1, 2015: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
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