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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099547/treating-pediatric-anxiety-initial-use-of-ssris-and-other-antianxiety-prescription-medications
#1
Greta A Bushnell, Scott N Compton, Stacie B Dusetzina, Bradley N Gaynes, M Alan Brookhart, John T Walkup, Moira A Rynn, Til Stürmer
OBJECTIVE: Multiple pharmacotherapies for treating anxiety disorders exist, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the recommended first-line pharmacotherapy for pediatric anxiety. We sought to describe initial antianxiety medication use in children and estimate how long antianxiety medications were continued. METHODS: In a large commercial claims database, we identified children (3-17 years) initiating prescription antianxiety medication from 2004 to 2014 with a recent anxiety diagnosis (ICD-9-CM = 293...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029679/investigating-habituation-to-premonitory-urges-in-behavior-therapy-for-tic-disorders
#2
David C Houghton, Matthew R Capriotti, Lawrence D Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, John T Walkup, John Piacentini, Douglas W Woods
Behavior therapy is effective for Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs), but behavioral processes facilitating tic reduction are not well understood. One process, habituation, is thought to create tic reduction through decreases in premonitory urge severity. The current study tested whether premonitory urges decreased in youth with PTDs (N = 126) and adults with PTDs (N = 122) who participated in parallel randomized clinical trials comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). Trends in premonitory urges, tic severity, and treatment outcome were analyzed according to the predictions of a habituation model, whereby urge severity would be expected to decrease in those who responded to behavior therapy...
November 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942805/randomized-clinical-trial-of-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-preadolescent-children-with-disruptive-mood-dysregulation-disorder-feasibility-and-outcomes
#3
Francheska Perepletchikova, Donald Nathanson, Seth R Axelrod, Caitlin Merrill, Amy Walker, Meredith Grossman, James Rebeta, Lawrence Scahill, Joan Kaufman, Barbara Flye, Elizabeth Mauer, John Walkup
OBJECTIVE: Persistent irritability and behavior outbursts in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are associated with severe impairment in childhood and with negative adolescent and adult outcomes. There are no empirically established treatments for DMDD. This study examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy adapted for preadolescent children (DBT-C) with DMDD. METHOD: Children 7 to 12 years old with DMDD (N = 43) were randomly assigned 1:1 to DBT-C or treatment as usual (TAU)...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942801/antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain-and-metformin
#4
EDITORIAL
John T Walkup, Elizabeth Cottingham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777984/comorbid-sleep-disorders-and-suicide-risk-among-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder
#5
Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Joan L Luby, Paramjit T Joshi, Karen D Wagner, Graham J Emslie, John T Walkup, David A Axelson, Thomas E Joiner
Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for suicide. Sleep disturbances are common among youth with bipolar disorder and are also independently implicated in suicide risk; thus, comorbid sleep disorders may amplify suicide risk in this clinical population. This study examined the effects of comorbid sleep disorders on suicide risk among youth with bipolar disorder. We conducted secondary analyses of baseline data from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study, a randomized controlled trial of individuals aged 6-15 years (mean ± SD = 10...
December 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740356/social-interpretation-bias-in-children-and-adolescents-with-anxiety-disorders-psychometric-examination-of-the-self-report-of-ambiguous-social-situations-for-youth-sassy-scale
#6
Araceli Gonzalez, Michelle Rozenman, Audra K Langley, Philip C Kendall, Golda S Ginsburg, Scott Compton, John T Walkup, Boris Birmaher, Anne Marie Albano, John Piacentini
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on cognitive bias during intervention. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) scale, a self-report measure developed to assess interpretation bias in youth...
June 2017: Child & Youth Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735699/establishing-clinical-cutoffs-for-response-and-remission-on-the-screen-for-child-anxiety-related-emotional-disorders-scared
#7
Nicole E Caporino, Dara Sakolsky, Douglas M Brodman, Joseph F McGuire, John Piacentini, Tara S Peris, Golda S Ginsburg, John T Walkup, Satish Iyengar, Philip C Kendall, Boris Birmaher
OBJECTIVE: To determine optimal percent reduction and raw score cutoffs on the parent- and child-report Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) for predicting treatment response and remission among youth with anxiety disorders. METHOD: Data were obtained from youth (N = 438; 7-17 years old) who completed treatment in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal treatment Study, a multisite, randomized clinical trial that examined the relative efficacy of medication (sertraline), cognitive-behavioral therapy (Coping Cat), their combination, and pill placebo for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448176/child-and-adolescent-adherence-with-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-predictors-and-associations-with-outcomes
#8
Phyllis Lee, Asima Zehgeer, Golda S Ginsburg, James McCracken, Courtney Keeton, Philip C Kendall, Boris Birmaher, Dara Sakolsky, John Walkup, Tara Peris, Anne Marie Albano, Scott Compton
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is effective, but nonadherence with treatment may reduce the benefits of CBT. This study examined (a) four baseline domains (i.e., demographic, youth clinical characteristics, therapy related, family/parent factors) as predictors of youth adherence with treatment and (b) the associations between youth adherence and treatment outcomes. Data were from 279 youth (7-17 years of age, 51.6% female; 79.6% White, 9% African American), with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423149/transdiagnostic-behavioral-therapies-in-pediatric-primary-care-looking-ahead
#9
John T Walkup, Tara Mathews, Cori Meredith Green
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384010/placebo-response-in-pediatric-anxiety-disorders-results-from-the-child-adolescent-anxiety-multimodal-study
#10
Jeffrey R Strawn, Eric T Dobson, Jeffrey A Mills, Gary J Cornwall, Dara Sakolsky, Boris Birmaher, Scott N Compton, John Piacentini, James T McCracken, Golda S Ginsburg, Phillip C Kendall, John T Walkup, Anne Marie Albano, Moira A Rynn
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of pill placebo response and to characterize the temporal course of pill placebo response in anxious youth. METHODS: Data from placebo-treated patients (N = 76) in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a multisite, randomized controlled trial that examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy, sertraline, their combination, and placebo for the treatment of separation, generalized, and social anxiety disorders, were evaluated...
August 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278599/mediators-of-treatment-outcomes-for-anxious-children-and-adolescents-the-role-of-somatic-symptoms
#11
Amy E Hale, Golda S Ginsburg, Grace Chan, Philip C Kendall, James T McCracken, Dara Sakolsky, Boris Birmaher, Scott N Compton, Anne Marie Albano, John T Walkup
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective treatments for pediatric anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms of these treatments are unknown. Previous research indicated that somatic symptoms are reduced following treatment, but it is unclear if their reductions are merely a consequence of treatment gains. This study examined reductions in somatic symptoms as a potential mediator of the relationship between treatment and anxiety outcomes. Participants were 488 anxious youth ages 7-17 (M = 10...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253735/antidepressant-efficacy-for-depression-in-children-and-adolescents-industry-and-nimh-funded-studies
#12
REVIEW
John T Walkup
Significant controversy surrounds the efficacy of the newer antidepressants for children and adolescents with depression. The controversy largely hinges on meta-analyses of studies that suggest that antidepressants are minimally effective, not effective, or equivalent to placebo. In this review, the author discusses several scientific and clinical complexities that are important to understand in reviewing the antidepressant literature: the strengths and weaknesses of meta-analyses; the scientific and regulatory context for the large number of antidepressant trials in the late 1990s and early 2000s; and the distinction between a negative trial, where the treatment does not demonstrate efficacy, and a failed trial, where methodological problems make it impossible to draw any conclusion about efficacy...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202705/moderators-and-predictors-of-response-to-behavior-therapy-for-tics-in-tourette-syndrome
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Denis G Sukhodolsky, Douglas W Woods, John Piacentini, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, Lily Katsovich, James Dziura, John T Walkup, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To examine moderators and predictors of response to behavior therapy for tics in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. METHODS: Data from 2 10-week, multisite studies (1 in children and 1 in adults; total n = 248) comparing comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST) were combined for moderator analyses. Participants (177 male, 71 female) had a mean age of 21.5 ± 13...
March 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199072/genetic-risk-score-analysis-in-early-onset-bipolar-disorder
#14
Paul E Croarkin, Joan L Luby, Kelly Cercy, Jennifer R Geske, Marin Veldic, Matthew Simonson, Paramjit T Joshi, Karen Dineen Wagner, John T Walkup, Malik M Nassan, Alfredo B Cuellar-Barboza, Leah Casuto, Susan L McElroy, Peter S Jensen, Mark A Frye, Joanna M Biernacka
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we performed a candidate genetic risk score (GRS) analysis of early-onset bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study enrollment and sample collection took place from 2003 to 2008. Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank samples were collected from 2009 to 2013. Genotyping and analyses for the present study took place from 2013 to 2014. The diagnosis of BD was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882443/gut-microbiota-and-autism-key-concepts-and-findings
#15
REVIEW
Helen T Ding, Ying Taur, John T Walkup
There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members of the Clostridium and Sutterella genus. Evidence from animal models suggest that certain microbial shifts in the gut may produce changes consistent with the clinical picture of autism, with proposed mechanisms including toxin production, aberrations in fermentation processes/products, and immunological and metabolic abnormalities...
February 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864156/neurocognitive-predictors-of-treatment-response-to-randomized-treatment-in-adults-with-tic-disorders
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amitai Abramovitch, Lauren S Hallion, Hannah E Reese, Douglas W Woods, Alan Peterson, John T Walkup, John Piacentini, Lawrence Scahill, Thilo Deckersbach, Sabine Wilhelm
Tourette's disorder (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by involuntary vocal and motor tics. Consequently, TS/CTD have been conceptualized as disorders of cognitive and motor inhibitory control. However, most neurocognitive studies have found comparable or superior inhibitory capacity among individuals with TS/CTD relative to healthy controls. These findings have led to the hypothesis that individuals with TS/CTD develop increased inhibitory control due to the constant need to inhibit tics...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736202/decreases-in-suicide-deaths-and-attempts-linked-to-the-white-mountain-apache-suicide-surveillance-and-prevention-system-2001-2012
#17
Mary F Cwik, Lauren Tingey, Alexandra Maschino, Novalene Goklish, Francene Larzelere-Hinton, John Walkup, Allison Barlow
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of a comprehensive, multitiered youth suicide prevention program among the White Mountain Apache of Arizona since its implementation in 2006. METHODS: Using data from the tribally mandated Celebrating Life surveillance system, we compared the rates, numbers, and characteristics of suicide deaths and attempts from 2007 to 2012 with those from 2001 to 2006. RESULTS: The overall Apache suicide death rates dropped from 40...
December 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492388/feasibility-tolerability-and-safety-of-pediatric-hyperpolarized-129-xe-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-healthy-volunteers-and-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Laura L Walkup, Robert P Thomen, Teckla G Akinyi, Erin Watters, Kai Ruppert, John P Clancy, Jason C Woods, Zackary I Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Hyperpolarized (129)Xe is a promising contrast agent for MRI of pediatric lung function, but its safety and tolerability in children have not been rigorously assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas as an inhaled contrast agent for pediatric pulmonary MRI in healthy control subjects and in children with cystic fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 6-15 years, 11 boys) and 11 children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8-16 years, 4 boys) underwent (129)Xe MRI, receiving up to three doses of (129)Xe gas prepared by either a commercially available or a homebuilt (129)Xe polarizer...
November 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477942/hyperpolarized-129-xe-for-investigation-of-mild-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-in-pediatric-patients
#19
Robert P Thomen, Laura L Walkup, David J Roach, Zackary I Cleveland, John P Clancy, Jason C Woods
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease which carries high morbidity and mortality from lung-function decline. Monitoring disease progression and treatment response in young patients is desirable, but serial imaging via CT is often considered prohibitive, and detailed functional information cannot be obtained using conventional imaging techniques. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict and quantify regional ventilation, but has not been investigated in pediatrics...
March 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456111/temperamental-characteristics-of-withdrawn-behavior-problems-in-children
#20
David H Rubin, Eileen T Crehan, Robert R Althoff, David C Rettew, Erica Krist, Valerie Harder, John T Walkup, James J Hudziak
Withdrawn/depressed behavior (WD) as defined by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) relates to various outcomes in developmental psychopathology such as depression, pervasive developmental disorders, and suicide. We sought to examine the temperamental characteristics of children who concurrently endorse symptoms of WD. Junior Temperament and Characteristic Inventory (JTCI) and CBCL data were collected from 397 children's parents in a family study in the northeastern United States. Linear mixed models were used to test the relations between WD and temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence) on the JTCI, while controlling for age, sex, item overlap, and co-occurring aggression and attention problems...
June 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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