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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087225/assessing-the-therapeutic-index-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-children-is-knemometry-the-answer
#1
EDITORIAL
H William Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081237/co-occurrence-of-asthma-and-nephrolithiasis-in-children
#2
Ganesh K Kartha, Ina Li, Suzy Comhair, Serpil C Erzurum, Manoj Monga
It has been proposed that epithelial dysfunction and inflammation may predispose patients to kidney stone formation. Asthma is another chronic condition related to epithelial dysfunction and inflammation. We hypothesized that pediatric patients with asthma would have an increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis. Furthermore, we investigated if asthma patients with nephrolithiasis have clinical characteristics and urine profiles that point to mechanisms of stone formation. We evaluated 865 pediatric patients who had a diagnosis of nephrolithiasis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077107/recurrent-pneumonia-among-japanese-adults-disease-burden-and-risk-factors
#3
Tomoko Ishifuji, Eiichiro Sando, Norihiro Kaneko, Motoi Suzuki, Paul E Kilgore, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto, Naoto Hosokawa, Makito Yaegashi, Masahiro Aoshima
BACKGROUND: In Japan and other societies with rapidly aging populations, recurrent pneumonia (RP) is a major clinical problem yet only limited information exists regarding the burden of this disease. METHODS: A prospective study of adult pneumonia was conducted to investigate the incidence of RP and potential risk factors. From February 1, 2012 to January 31, 2013, patients aged ≥ 15 years who were diagnosed with pneumonia were prospectively enrolled in a representative community hospital located in central Japan...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074704/the-toxicology-of-zinc-chloride-smoke-producing-bombs-and-screens
#4
Ayman El Idrissi, Lisanne van Berkel, Nadia E Bonekamp, Diana J Z Dalemans, Marcel A G van der Heyden
CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due to exposure to fumes from ZnCl2 smoke producing bombs. In addition, we give a historical overview of treatment regimens and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We performed a literature search on Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following search terms "smoke bomb", "smoke screen", "ZnCl2", "intoxication", "poisoning", "case report", "HE smoke", "hexachloroethane smoke", "smoke inhalation" and "white smoke"...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073701/effect-of-asthma-therapies-on-the-natural-course-of-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Elissa M Abrams, Stanley J Szefler, Allan B Becker
OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review on the role of pharmacologic (inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, biologic therapies, aeroallergen immunotherapy) and nonpharmacologic therapies (environmental modifications, microbiome) in secondary and tertiary asthma prevention. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search for English-language publications regarding asthma and secondary or tertiary prevention was performed. Some articles cited in selected studies were also considered for inclusion in this review...
December 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069248/race-is-associated-with-differences-in-airway-inflammation-in-patients-with-asthma
#6
Sharmilee M Nyenhuis, Jerry A Krishnan, Alalia Berry, William J Calhoun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Linda Engle, Nicole Grossman, Fernando Holguin, Elliot Israel, Rick A Kittles, Monica Kraft, Stephen C Lazarus, Erik B Lehman, David T Mauger, James N Moy, Stephen P Peters, Wanda Phipatanakul, Lewis J Smith, Kaharu Sumino, Stanley J Szefler, Michael E Wechsler, Sally Wenzel, Steven R White, Steven J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: African American subjects have a greater burden from asthma compared with white subjects. Whether the pattern of airway inflammation differs between African American and white subjects is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare sputum airway inflammatory phenotypes of African American and white subjects treated or not with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs; ICS+ and ICS-, respectively). METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of self-identified African American and white subjects with asthma enrolled in clinical trials conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Asthma Clinical Research Network and AsthmaNet...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069068/the-sygma-programme-of-phase-3-trials-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-budesonide-formoterol-given-as-needed-in-mild-asthma-study-protocols-for-two-randomised-controlled-trials
#7
Paul M O'Byrne, J Mark FitzGerald, Nanshan Zhong, Eric Bateman, Peter J Barnes, Christina Keen, Gun Almqvist, Kristine Pemberton, Carin Jorup, Stefan Ivanov, Helen K Reddel
BACKGROUND: In many patients with mild asthma, the low frequency of symptoms and the episodic nature of exacerbations make adherence to regular maintenance treatment difficult. This often leads to over-reliance on short-acting β2-agonist (SABA) reliever medication and under-treatment of the underlying inflammation, with poor control of asthma symptoms and increased risk of exacerbations. The use of budesonide/formoterol 'as needed' in response to symptoms may represent an alternative treatment option for patients with mild asthma...
January 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065396/inhaled-corticosteroid-dose-response-in-asthma-should-we-measure-inflammation
#8
William J Anderson, Philip M Short, Sunny Jabbal, Brian J Lipworth
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) titration in asthma is primarily based on symptoms and pulmonary function. ICSs may not be increased on this basis despite residual airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the dose-response relationships of ICSs on measures of pulmonary function, symptoms, and inflammation in patients with persistent asthma. METHODS: We performed a pooled post hoc analysis of 121 patients with mild to moderate asthma from 4 randomized clinical trials that incorporated an ICS dose ramp...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065254/pulmonary-eosinophilia-from-inhaled-colistin
#9
Pierre-Alexis Lépine, Alain Dumas, Louis-Philippe Boulet
We report the case of a patient with a history of chronic bronchiectasis that presented with new onset fatigue, shortness of breath, peripheral blood eosinophilia and infiltrates on chest radiograph. Eight days previously, she was prescribed inhaled colistimethate sodium 75 mg bid to prevent exacerbations of her respiratory condition. To our knowledge, our case is the first to show the clinical and radiologic features of inhaled-colistimethate-induced pulmonary eosinophilia. It also shows the rapid resolution of its features following treatment with oral corticosteroids...
January 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053970/leukotriene-b4-levels-in-sputum-from-asthma-patients
#10
Andrew Higham, Paul Cadden, Thomas Southworth, Matthew Rossall, Umme Kolsum, Simon Lea, Richard Knowles, Dave Singh
Poor asthma control is associated with increased airway neutrophils. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant. We examined the levels of LTB4 levels in the sputum of asthma patients and the relationship with disease severity. 47 asthma patients (categorised according to Global Initiative for Asthma treatment stage) and 12 healthy controls provided sputum samples that were processed first with PBS to obtain supernatants and secondly with dithiothreitol (DTT) to obtain supernatants. LTB4 levels were determined by ELISA...
October 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053518/initiation-of-triple-therapy-maintenance-treatment-among-patients-with-copd-in-the-us
#11
Jason C Simeone, Rakesh Luthra, Shuchita Kaila, Xiaoyun Pan, Tarun D Bhagnani, Jieruo Liu, Teresa K Wilcox
BACKGROUND: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) recommends triple therapy (long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists, long-acting beta-2 agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids) for patients with only the most severe COPD. Data on the proportion of COPD patients on triple therapy and their characteristics are sparse and dated. Objective 1 of this study was to estimate the proportion of all, and all treated, COPD patients receiving triple therapy. Objective 2 was to characterize those on triple therapy and assess the concordance of triple therapy use with GOLD guidelines...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052803/childhood-obesity-in-pediatric-patients-with-difficult-to-control-asthma-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-subspecialty-clinic
#12
Yasmin Hamzavi Abedi, Amy M Perkins, Maripaz B Morales
BACKGROUND: Identifying clinical features associated with difficult-to-control asthma will help address overall control and more-effective asthma management. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our clinical observation that the proportion of patients who are overweight or obese is significantly higher in patients with difficult-to-control asthma than in patients with well-controlled asthma. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of 400 patients, ages 5 to 18 years...
January 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052185/early-administration-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-preventing-chronic-lung-disease-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonates
#13
REVIEW
Vibhuti S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Michael Dunn
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short- and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system with a lower risk of undesirable systemic side effects...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049179/through-a-glass-darkly-inhaled-corticosteroids-airway-inflammation-and-copd
#14
EDITORIAL
Peter M A Calverley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049170/airway-inflammation-in-copd-after-long-term-withdrawal-of-inhaled-corticosteroids
#15
Lisette I Z Kunz, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Thérèse S Lapperre, Wim Timens, Huib A M Kerstjens, Annemarie van Schadewijk, Judith M Vonk, Jacob K Sont, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Dirkje S Postma, Peter J Sterk, Pieter S Hiemstra
Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) might attenuate lung function decline and decrease airway inflammation in a subset of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and discontinuing ICS treatment could result in further lung function decline. We hypothesised that airway inflammation increases after ICS withdrawal following long-term ICS treatment in COPD.In the GLUCOLD-1 study (GL1), 114 patients with moderate-severe COPD were randomised to 6-month or 30-month treatment with fluticasone propionate (500 µg twice daily), 30-month treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol (500/50 µg twice daily) or placebo...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044257/targeted-therapy-for-severe-asthma-identifying-the-right-patients
#16
Kathy Low, Philip G Bardin
Asthma affects over 300 million people worldwide. Most asthmatics are well controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonists; however, a proportion of patients are unresponsive and attain limited disease control. This group represents a considerable healthcare and financial burden, particularly patients who experience frequent exacerbations and require hospital admission. Development of new biological agents and disease biomarkers has provided novel avenues for treatment. These treatments have been highly successful, reducing exacerbations and yielding modest improvements in quality of life and lung function...
January 2, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042004/the-potential-role-of-allergen-immunotherapy-in-stepping-down-asthma-treatment
#17
Pascal Demoly, Melina Makatsori, Thomas B Casale, Moises A Calderon
For patients whose asthma is controlled and who have a low risk for future exacerbations, current guidelines recommend gradually stepping down pharmacotherapy to identify the lowest dose needed to maintain control. This review article will discuss the benefits and risks of step down in asthma management and the different strategies of achieving step down with particular focus on allergen immunotherapy (AIT). A literature search was conducted to identify studies that assessed the effect of AIT on asthma step down and evaluated this and asthma control as one of the outcomes...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039105/long-acting-%C3%AE-2-agonists-promote-glucocorticoid-mediated-repression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-enhancing-expression-of-the-feedback-regulator-tnfaip3
#18
Mohammed Omar Altonsy, Mahmoud M Mostafa, Anthony N Gerber, Robert Newton
Glucocorticoids, or corticosteroids, are effective treatments for many chronic inflammatory diseases and, in mild/moderate asthma, long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) enhance the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) more than increasing the ICS dose. In human bronchial epithelial, BEAS-2B, cells, expression of TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), or A20, a dual-ubiquitin ligase that provides feedback inhibition of NF-κB, was induced by budesonide, an ICS, formoterol, a LABA, and was further enhanced by budesonide/formoterol combination...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036088/current-concepts-of-ards-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Michele Umbrello, Paolo Formenti, Luca Bolgiaghi, Davide Chiumello
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema of non-cardiogenic origin, along with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and reduction in respiratory system compliance. The hallmark of the syndrome is refractory hypoxemia. Despite its first description dates back in the late 1970s, a new definition has recently been proposed. However, the definition remains based on clinical characteristic. In the present review, the diagnostic workup and the pathophysiology of the syndrome will be presented...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031708/trend-of-cost-and-utilization-of-copd-medication-in-korea
#20
Jongmin Lee, Jae Ha Lee, Jee-Ae Kim, Chin Kook Rhee
BACKGROUND: There are only a few longitudinal studies regarding medical utilization and costs for patients with COPD. The purpose of this study was to analyze the trend of medical utilization and costs on a long-term basis. METHODS: Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) data from 2008 to 2013, COPD patients were identified. The trend of medical utilization and costs was also analyzed. RESULTS: The number of COPD patients increased by 13...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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