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Aisha Mansoor Ali, Abdulaziz Alobaid, Tasnim Nidal Malhis, Ahmad Fawzi Khattab
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays pivotal role in decidualization and implantation of the placenta. Recent researches have shown that low level of vitamin D3 "25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)" in serum is a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. Latest evidence supports role of vitamin D3 deficiency treatment in reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of antenatal supplementation of vitamin D3 on the risk of pre-eclampsia and to explore the dose effect in attaining the vitamin D3 normal level...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Michael Tchirikov, Erich Saling, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bucher, Oliver Thews, Gregor Seliger
In the first case, the AA and glucose were infused through a perinatal port system into the umbilical vein at 30 weeks' gestation due to severe IUGR. The patient received daily hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO, 100% O2 ) with 1.4 atmospheres absolute for 50 min for 7 days. At 31+4  weeks' gestation, the patient gave birth spontaneously to a newborn weighing 1378 g, pH 7.33, APGAR score 4/6/intubation. In follow-up examinations at 5 years of age, the boy was doing well without any neurological disturbance or developmental delay...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Hegui Huang, Lian Liu, Jing Li, Chunyan Zhu, Xiaoyu Xie, Ying Ao, Hui Wang
Autophagy plays a vital role in embryonic development and cell differentiation. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) resulted in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and adrenal developmental toxicities in rat offspring. The present study focused on PEE-induced autophagy as an underlying mechanism and its biological significance in female fetal rats. Female fetuses in the PEE group exhibited lower body weights and suffered adrenal structural abnormalities compared to the controls...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
M E Rodríguez-Almaraz, I Herraiz, P I Gómez-Arriaga, P Vallejo, E Gonzalo-Gil, A Usategui, E A López-Jiménez, A Galindo, M Galindo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of the uterine artery mean pulsatility index (mPI-UtA) and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) for the prediction of placental dysfunction-related adverse outcomes (AO), namely pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and for differential diagnosis between PE and SLE flares. STUDY DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort study of 57 pregnant women with SLE or APS...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
M Vasku, N Kleine-Eggebrecht, W Rath, M G Mohaupt, G Escher, U Pecks
OBJECTIVE: The enzyme 11ß-dehydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11ß-HSD2) converts active cortisol (F) to inactive cortisone (E). A reduced 11ß-HSD2 activity in the placenta has been demonstrated for prematurity, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. We hypothesized that disturbed placental function rather than a maternal response contributes to decreased 11ßHSD2 activity as reflected by a diminished conversion of F to E. Hence, the aim of the present study was to estimate the systemic activity of 11ß-HSD2 throughout gestation and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) by calculating maternal serum F/E ratios...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Myriam Stolz, Harald Zeisler, Florian Heinzl, Julia Binder, Alex Farr
OBJECTIVES: The ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) is increased in preeclampsia. This study evaluated perinatal outcomes in cases with an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio above 655. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed data from all consecutive women with singleton pregnancies who presented with clinically manifest preeclampsia and underwent immediate sFlt-1:PlGF assessment. Cases with an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio ≥ 655 were matched 1:1 for gestational age to controls with a ratio < 655...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
N Varnier, M A Brown, M Reynolds, F Pettit, G Davis, G Mangos, A Henry
OBJECTIVE: Examine the frequency with which the most accepted indicators for delivery in pre-eclampsia are used in a population with predominantly late-onset (birth > 32 weeks) pre-eclampsia (PE). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the St George Public Hospital (SGH) Hypertension in Pregnancy database. Demographic, pregnancy, and outcome details were extracted and verified by comparison with data collection sheets. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2013, 908 women (970 babies) with PE were included, of which a subgroup of 303 women (33%) had clearly delineated delivery triggers available...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
I Maini, I Ivanovski, O Djuric, S G Caraffi, E Errichiello, M Marinelli, F Franchi, V Bizzarri, S Rosato, M Pollazzon, C Gelmini, M Malacarne, C Fusco, G Gargano, S Bernasconi, O Zuffardi, L Garavelli
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, array-CGH (aCGH) has been the first-tier test in the diagnostic approach of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) of unknown origin. Its broad application led to the detection of numerous variants of uncertain clinical significance (VOUS). How to appropriately interpret aCGH results represents a challenge for the clinician. METHOD: We present a retrospective study on 293 patients with age range 1 month - 29 years (median 7 years) with NDD and/or MCA and/or dysmorphisms, investigated through aCGH between 2005 and 2016...
March 9, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Frank T Spradley, Jillian A Smith, Barbara T Alexander, Christopher D Anderson
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is linked to increased risk for chronic disease. Placental ischemia and insufficiency in the mother are implicated in predisposing IUGR offspring to metabolic dysfunction, including hypertension, insulin resistance, abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether these metabolic disturbances contribute to the developmental origins of exaggerated cardiovascular-renal disease (CVRD) risk accompanying IUGR is unclear. IUGR impacts the pancreas, adipose tissue, and liver, which are hypothesized to program for hepatic insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ravi Shankar Swamy, Helen McConachie, Jane Ng, Judith Rankin, Murthy Korada, Stephen Sturgiss, Nicholas D Embleton
AIM: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with poorer outcomes in later life. We used a monochorionic twin model with IUGR in one twin to determine its impact on growth and neurocognitive outcomes. METHODS: Monochorionic twins with ≥20% birth weight discordance born in the north of England were eligible. Cognitive function was assessed using the British Ability Scales. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to identify behavioural problems...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Xiao Huang, Pascale Anderle, Lu Hostettler, Marc U Baumann, Daniel V Surbek, Edgar C Ontsouka, Christiane Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Gestational disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia (PE) are main causes of poor perinatal outcomes worldwide. Both diseases are related with impaired materno-fetal nutrient transfer, but the crucial transport mechanisms underlying IUGR and PE are not fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to identify membrane transporters highly associated with transplacental nutrient deficiencies in IUGR/PE. RESULTS: In silico analyses on the identification of differentially expressed nutrient transporters were conducted using seven eligible microarray datasets (from Gene Expression Omnibus), encompassing control and IUGR/PE placental samples...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Federico Aranda, Sebastián Udry, Silvia Perés Wingeyer, Lea Christina Amshoff, Nadja Bogdanova, Peter Wieacker, José Omar Latino, Arseni Markoff, Gabriela de Larrañaga
PURPOSE: Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is a protein abundantly expressed in normal placenta where it contributes to the healthy outcome of a pregnancy. Lower ANXA5 levels have been observed in M2/ANXA5 haplotype carrying chorion. Consequently, this study aimed to assess the potential association of M2 maternal carrier status with the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the timing of miscarriages, and other obstetric complications, for the first time in a population from Latin America. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective recruitment of RPL patients with post hoc analysis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Adrianne Rahde Bischoff, Fábio da Silva Cunha, Roberta Dalle Molle, Paulo José Cauduro Maróstica, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
OBJECTIVE: The literature suggests that a fetus will adapt to surrounding adversities by optimizing its use of energy to improve survival, ultimately leading to the programming of the individual's energy intake and expenditure. While recent reviews focused on the fetal programming of energy intake and food preferences, there is also some evidence that fetal adversity is associated with diminished physical activity levels. Therefore, we aimed to review (a) the evidence for an association between being born IUGR and sedentarism over the life-course and (b) the potential benefits of physical activity over cardiometabolic risk factors for this population...
February 21, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Hatice Gulcin Gumus, Miriam Illa, Laura Pla, Monica Zamora, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perinatal effects of a prenatal therapy based on intra-amniotic nutritional supplementation in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: IUGR was surgically induced in pregnant rabbits at gestational day 25 by ligating 40-50% of uteroplacental vessels of each gestational sac. At the same time, modified-parenteral nutrition solution (containing glucose, amino acids and electrolytes) was injected into the amniotic sac of nearly half of the IUGR fetuses (IUGR-T group n = 106), whereas sham injections were performed in the rest of fetuses (IUGR group n = 118)...
2018: PloS One
Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Vicki Mattern, Hillary F Huber, Anthony Comuzzie, Laura Cox, Matthias Schwab, Peter W Nathanielsz, Geoffrey D Clarke
Developmental programming by reduced maternal nutrition alters function in multiple offspring physiological systems, including lipid metabolism. We have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to offspring cardiovascular dysfunction with an accelerated aging phenotype in our nonhuman primate, baboon model. We hypothesized age-advanced pericardial fat and blood lipid changes. In pregnancy and lactation, pregnant baboons ate ad lib (control) or 70% ad lib diet (IUGR). We studied baboon offspring pericardial lipid deposition with magnetic resonance imaging at 5-6 years (human equivalent 20-24 years), skinfold thickness, and serum lipid profile at 8-9 years (human equivalent 32-36 years), comparing values with a normative life-course baboon cohort, 4-23 years...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Stephanie Skuby Chassen, Veronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Madhulika B Gupta, Thomas Jansson, Theresa L Powell
Fatty acids (FA) are critical for fetal brain development and are transferred across the placenta by membrane-bound FA transport proteins (FATP), translocases (FAT/CD36) and cytosolic binding proteins (FABP). The cytosolic protein perilipin-2 aids in neutral lipid storage within lipid droplets. Decreased placental nutrient transport is believed to contribute to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, IUGR placental lipid transport and metabolism are poorly understood. We hypothesized protein expression of FATPs, FABPs, and perilipin-2 in human placenta is decreased and placental lipid content and incorporation into lipid classes are reduced in IUGR...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
M Guitart-Mampel, A Gonzalez-Tendero, S Niñerola, C Morén, M Catalán-Garcia, I González-Casacuberta, D L Juárez-Flores, O Ugarteburu, L Matalonga, M V Cascajo, F Tort, A Cortés, E Tobias, J C Milisenda, J M Grau, F Crispi, E Gratacós, G Garrabou, F Cardellach
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with cardiovascular remodeling persisting into adulthood. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, essential for embryonic development and cardiovascular function, are regulated by nuclear effectors as sirtuins. A rabbit model of IUGR and cardiovascular remodeling was generated, in which heart mitochondrial alterations were observed by microscopic and transcriptomic analysis. We aimed to evaluate if such alterations are translated at a functional mitochondrial level to establish the etiopathology and potential therapeutic targets for this obstetric complication...
February 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
S Kyle Gonzales, Steven Goudy, Kara Prickett, Jane Ellis
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of pathologies leading to poor lung development and difficulty oxygenating the newborn after delivery. While previously uniformly fatal, the ex utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) procedure has provided a method to treat these patients and provide an airway to potentiate survival. We present a patient diagnosed prenatally with CHAOS secondary to tracheal atresia complicated by severe intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) who was successfully delivered via an EXIT procedure at 33-weeks...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Aurore Martin Agnoux, Angélina El Ghaziri, Thomas Moyon, Anthony Pagniez, Agnès David, Gilles Simard, Patricia Parnet, El Mostafa Qannari, Dominique Darmaun, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Marie-Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau
Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. However, the exact mechanisms underlying offspring metabolic adaptations are not yet fully understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the gestation or the lactation is the more vulnerable period to modify offspring metabolic flexibility. We investigated in a rodent model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induced by maternal protein restriction (R) during gestation which time window of maternal undernutrition (gestation, lactation or gestation-lactation) has more impact on the male offspring metabolomics phenotype...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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