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Boh Boi Wong, Yiong Huak Chan, Mabel Qi He Leow, Yi Lu, Yap Seng Chong, Serena Siew Lin Koh, Hong-Gu He
BACKGROUND: The effects of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs on breast engorgement management have been inconclusive. No studies have compared the effects of these methods on breast engorgement using a rigorous design. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs application on pain, hardness, and temperature due to breast engorgement, the duration of breastfeeding and satisfaction. DESIGN: A randomised controlled three-group pre-test and repeated post-test study...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Francesco Pisani, Maurizio Cammalleri, Massimo Dal Monte, Filippo Locri, Maria Grazia Mola, Grazia Paola Nicchia, Antonio Frigeri, Paola Bagnoli, Maria Svelto
Hypoxia-dependent accumulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in retinal diseases characterized by neovessel formation. In this study, we investigated whether the glial water channel Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is involved in the hypoxia-dependent VEGF upregulation in the retina of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The expression levels of VEGF, the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the production of nitric oxide (NO), the methylation status of the HIF-1 binding site (HBS) in the VEGF gene promoter, the binding of HIF-1α to the HBS, the retinal vascularization and function have been determined in the retina of wild-type (WT) and AQP4 knock out (KO) mice under hypoxic (OIR) or normoxic conditions...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Haocheng Lin, Chunhui Liu, Run Wang
BACKGROUND: Penile traction therapy with the use of a traction device (TD) or vacuum erectile device (VED) has been studied as local modalities for Peyronie's disease (PD). AIM: To identify changes of penile curvature, erectile function, and possible cellular and molecular mechanisms between the TD and VED in a rat model of PD. METHODS: Peyronie's plaque was induced in 30 adult male rats. Then, rats were randomly divided into control (PD without treatment), VED, and TD groups...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Sirama Niare, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Bernard Davoust, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Lionel Almeras
The determination of the trophic preferences of the Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) is a decisive parameter for the monitoring and the prevention of malaria risk transmission. Currently, arthropod blood feeding sources are identified using immunological or molecular biology traditional techniques. Despite the effectiveness of these methods, they present several limitations, and notably, they are time-consuming and costly techniques. A recent study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS could be a useful tool for the identification of blood meal origins in freshly engorged mosquitoes...
September 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Victor A Brugman, Marion E England, Joanne Stoner, Laura Tugwell, Lara E Harrup, Anthony J Wilson, Jolyon M Medlock, James G Logan, Anthony R Fooks, Peter P C Mertens, Nicholas Johnson, Simon Carpenter
BACKGROUND: This field-based study examined the abundance and species complement of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) attracted to humans at four sites in the United Kingdom (UK). The study used a systematic approach to directly measure feeding by mosquitoes on humans at multiple sites and using multiple volunteers. Quantifying how frequently humans are bitten in the field by mosquitoes is a fundamental parameter in assessing arthropod-borne virus transmission. METHODS: Human landing catches were conducted using a standardised protocol by multiple volunteers at four rural sites between July and August 2013...
September 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Binod Kumar, H V Manjunathachar, Gaurav Nagar, G Ravikumar, José de la Fuente, B C Saravanan, Srikant Ghosh
Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus microplus seriously affect dairy animals and immunization of host is considered as a sustainable option for the management of the tick species. Identification and validation of protective molecules are the major challenges in developing a cross-protective vaccine. The subolesin (SUB), calreticulin (CRT) and cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase (CathL) genes of H. anatolicum were cloned, sequenced and analysed for sequence homology. Both Ha-SUB and Ha-CRT genes showed very high level of homogeneity within the species (97...
September 11, 2017: Vaccine
Edwin Ogola, Jandouwe Villinger, Danspaid Mabuka, David Omondi, Benedict Orindi, James Mutunga, Vincent Owino, Daniel K Masiga
BACKGROUND: Small islands serve as potential malaria reservoirs through which new infections might come to the mainland and may be important targets in malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated malaria vector species diversity, blood-meal hosts, Plasmodium infection rates, and long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage on Mageta, Magare and Ngodhe Islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya, a region where extensive vector control is implemented on the mainland. RESULTS: From trapping for six consecutive nights per month (November 2012 to March 2015) using CDC light traps, pyrethrum spray catches and backpack aspiration, 1868 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected...
September 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
Camila Delmonte, Paula Barroso Cruz, Viviane Zeringóta, Valéria de Mello, Felipe Ferreira, Maria da Penha Henriques Amaral, Erik Daemon
The objective of this study was to assess, for the first time, the in vitro acaricidal activity of two topical formulations containing thymol, on immature stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. For this purpose, two base formulations were prepared: an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and a hydroalcoholic solution, containing different thymol concentrations (0.5 to 20 mg/mL). We used the larval packet test for non-engorged larvae and nymphs, and the immersion test for engorged larvae and nymphs. For emulsion, a mortality rate of 94...
September 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
Tara C Thiemann, David L Woodward, Ying Fang, Bonnie M Ryan, Brittany M Nelms, Jamesina J Scott, William K Reisen
The abundance and bloodfeeding patterns of mosquitoes was studied from 2008 to 2010 at an 18 ha. oak woodland in Lake County, CA. Host-seeking females were collected weekly from sunset to sunrise by paired dry-ice-baited CDC style traps, whereas resting females were aspirated from paired walk-in red boxes. Sequences of the COI gene amplified from bloodmeals from engorged resting females were used to identify the bloodmeal hosts. Aedes sierrensis (Ludlow) and Aedes increpitus Dyar complex mosquitoes were univoltine, although the timing of emergence and abundance varied temporally and seemed weather dependent...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
S Talavera, F Muñoz-Muñoz, M Verdún, N Pujol, N Pagès
Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens, such as the bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV) viruses, which cause important diseases in domestic and wild ruminants. As wild ruminants can contribute to overwintering and epizootics of both diseases, knowledge of the host-feeding behaviour of Culicoides in natural ecosystems is important to better understand their epidemiology. Blood-engorged Culicoides females trapped in natural areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species were genetically analysed to identify host species...
August 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Daiane S Dos Santos, Jhonatan P Boito, Roberto C V Santos, Priscilla M Quatrin, Aline Ferreira Ourique, João H Dos Reis, Roger R Gebert, Patrícia Glombowsky, Vanderlei Klauck, Aline A Boligon, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro S Da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of pure and nanostructured cinnamon oil to control the infestation and reproductive efficiency of Rhipicephalus microplus on dairy cows. In vitro (stage I)-engorged female ticks were immersed in concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10% of cinnamon oil on its pure form, and 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0% of the nanostructured form. 10% cinnamon oil (pure form) showed 100% efficacy, whereas concentrations of 1 and 5% were 62 and 97% efficacious, respectively. Nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing cinnamon oil at 5% showed 95 and 97% efficacy, respectively...
August 29, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
J González, F Valcárcel, A Aguilar, A S Olmeda
In vitro feeding of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important means to study the biology of ticks and their vectorial capacity. Here, we have adapted the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch to previously published silicone-based membranes for in vitro feeding. For comparison purposes data on pre-oviposition, oviposition and hatching from females engorged on animals were used. A total of 68 engorged females out of 169 were obtained; feeding duration and feeding behaviour were similar to that of ticks on live host animals, although the final weight achieved for membrane-fed ticks was lower than that of their animal-fed counterparts...
August 24, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Brittany Salter, Roma Sehmi
Increased vascularity of the bronchial sub-mucosa is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with disease severity. Capillary engorgement, leakage, and vasodilatation can directly increase airway wall thickness resulting in airway luminal narrowing and facilitate inflammatory cell trafficking, thereby contributing to irreversible airflow obstruction, a characteristic of COPD. Airway wall neovascularisation, seen as increases in both the size and number of bronchial blood vessels is a prominent feature of COPD that correlates with reticular basement membrane thickening and airway obstruction...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Antônia Suely Guimarães-E-Silva, Soraia de Oliveira Silva, Rosa Cristina Ribeiro da Silva, Valéria Cristina Soares Pinheiro, José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Maria Norma Melo
The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens...
2017: PloS One
F M Ferreira, C C Delmonte, T L P Novato, C M O Monteiro, E Daemon, F M P Vilela, M P H Amaral
The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), is the most important ectoparasite in cattle-breeding areas and is responsible for severe economic losses. Synthetic acaricides have been used to control this parasite. However, the need for safer products has stimulated the search for new acaricides, such as those to be obtained from medicinal plants. The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) has many biological properties and shows great potential for use in veterinary applications...
August 18, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Magliano, P Scaramozzino, S Ravagnan, F Montarsi, G DA Rold, G Cincinelli, A Moni, P Silvestri, A Carvelli, C DE Liberato
Indoor and outdoor winter activity of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in central Italy was investigated in order to evaluate whether indoor activity might account for the overwintering of bluetongue virus, as has been hypothesized by some authors. Weekly Culicoides collections were performed at three farms over three consecutive winter seasons. At each farm, two black-light traps were operated simultaneously, indoors and outdoors. Culicoides were identified using both morphological and molecular means...
August 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Sasha R Azar, Christopher M Roundy, Shannan L Rossi, Jing H Huang, Grace Leal, Ruimei Yun, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Christopher J Vitek, Igor A D Paploski, Pamela M Stark, Jeremy Vela, Mustapha Debboun, Martin Reyna, Uriel Kitron, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Kathryn A Hanley, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
To evaluate the potential role of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) as a vector of Zika virus (ZIKV), colonized mosquitoes of low generation number (≤ F5) from Brazil, Houston, and the Rio Grande Valley of Texas engorged on viremic mice infected with ZIKV strains originating from Senegal, Cambodia, Mexico, Brazil, or Puerto Rico. Vector competence was established by monitoring infection, dissemination, and transmission potential after 3, 7, and 14 days of extrinsic incubation. Positive saliva samples were assayed for infectious titer...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mariam Tayae, Jihad Jamor
Galactocele is a rare cystic formation, a benign breast lesion, occurring when breast duct is blocked and engorged. It generally affects postpartum women, either breastfeeding or not. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature and they were not related to lactation, as in the case of postmenopausal women or of men; moreover, their relationship to the overproduction of prolactin, a growth factor stimulating mammary epithelial cells, is not very well defined at this time. We here report the unusual case of a 30-year old patient with no personal history of childbirth or abortion...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Sirama Niare, Lionel Almeras, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Amina Yssouf, Affane Bacar, Ali Toilibou, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals...
2017: PloS One
M Aktas, S Ozubek
This study investigated the transmission of Anaplasma platys by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Engorged nymphs (n = 404) removed from A. platys-infected dogs were incubated at 28 °C until moulting. Unfed adults were obtained and divided into 48 pools. Unfed ticks collected from the grounds of the dog shelter, comprising 1800 larvae (n = 18 pools), 3100 nymphs (n = 62 pools) and 85 adults (n = 10 pools, including three male and seven female pools) were sorted into 90 pools. All pools were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the 16S rRNA gene of A...
August 16, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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