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Mehmet Cemal Kahya, Oğuz Sebik, Kemal S Türker
Painful stimulation of the hand results in an inhibitory response in the hand muscles known as the cutaneous silent period (CSP). In this study, we employed probability- and frequency-based analysis methods to examine the CSP induced by laser stimuli. Subjects were asked to contract their first dorsal interosseous muscle so that selected motor units discharged at a rate of about 8Hz. Laser pulses were delivered to the palm of the hand, and reflex responses were recorded. The stimuli generated CSP in all test subjects...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
M G Jones, A P Andreou, S B McMahon, D Spanswick
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs are highly sensitive to the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate which triggers attacks in many sufferers. In animal studies, glyceryl trinitrate increases neuronal activity in the trigeminovascular pathway and elevates neurotransmitter levels in the brainstem. Many migraineurs also display alterations in blink reflexes, known to involve brainstem circuits. We investigated the effect of GTN on evoked blinks in the anaesthetised rat to determine whether such reflexes may prove useful as the basis for a novel animal model to evaluate potential anti-migraine therapeutic agents...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Hideaki Kishimoto, Yoshitaka Matsuura, Katsuya Kawai, Shigehito Yamada, Shigehiko Suzuki
When the lesser palatine nerve (LPN) is supposed to be a branch of the trigeminal nerve and innervate sensation of the soft palate, whether the LPN contains motor fibers is unclear. In this study, we monitored the electromyogram of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle on stimulating the LPN during palatoplasty in 3 patients. The electromyogram of the muscles showed the myogenic potential induced by electrostimulation of the LPN. Taken together with the finding from our previous anatomical study that the motor fibers come from the facial nerve, this result supports the double innervation theory of the LVP, which posits that both the pharyngeal plexus and the facial nerve innervate it...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Yasuhide Yoshitake, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Minoru Shinohara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the modulation of common low-frequency oscillations in pools of motor units across antagonistic muscles due to the difference in the activation level of pools of spinal motor neurons and the presence of neuromuscular fatigue during intended co-contraction. METHODS: Ten healthy young men (21.8 ± 1.5 yr) performed intended steady co-contractions of elbow flexors and extensors at maximal and a submaximal (10% of maximal electromyogram, EMG) effort...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Saurabh Khemka, Athina Tzovara, Samuel Gerster, Boris B Quednow, Dominik R Bach
Pavlovian fear conditioning is widely used as a laboratory model of associative learning in human and nonhuman species. In this model, an organism is trained to predict an aversive unconditioned stimulus from initially neutral events (conditioned stimuli, CS). In humans, fear memory is typically measured via conditioned autonomic responses or fear-potentiated startle. For the latter, various analysis approaches have been developed, but a systematic comparison of competing methodologies is lacking. Here, we investigate the suitability of a model-based approach to startle eyeblink analysis for assessment of fear memory, and compare this to extant analysis strategies...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
Jason Fleming, Dianna Quan
We present a patient with congenital spinal muscular atrophy associated with pain, subjective sensory loss, right talipes equinovarus, delayed walking, and progressive gait impairment. A sister and niece reportedly had Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A, but the patient's electromyogram showed an axonal motor neuropathy or neuronopathy. We identified a c.806G>A TRPV4 gene mutation causing an Arg269His amino acid substitution. TRPV4 mutations cause variable phenotypes including axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and motor neuropathy or neuronopathy...
September 16, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Joshua J Emrick, Brooks A Gross, Brett T Riley, Gina R Poe
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Investigators assign sleep-waking states using brain activity collected from a single site, assuming that states occur at the same time throughout the brain. We sought to determine if sleep-waking states differ between two separate structures: the hippocampus and neocortex. METHODS: We measured electrical signals (electroencephalograms and electromyograms) during sleep from the hippocampus and neocortex of five freely behaving adult male rats. We assigned sleep-waking states in 10-sec epochs based on standard scoring criteria across a 4 h recording and analyzed and compared states and signals from simultaneous epochs between sites...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Yukihiko Okada, Yuji Sato, Noboru Kitagawa, Keiichiro Uchida, Tokiko Osawa, Yoshiki Imamura, Mayumi Terazawa
BACKGROUND: Occlusal contact on the implant superstructures is important for successful treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occlusal contact of single implant superstructures at the mandibular first molar immediately after seating from weak to strong clenching. METHODS: Subjects were nine patients who had just been fitted with an implant prosthesis in the mandibular first molar region, with no missing teeth other than in the implant region...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Luca Mesin, Davide Dardanello, Alberto Rainoldi, Gennaro Boccia
During fatiguing contractions, many adjustments in motor units behaviour occur: decrease in muscle fibre conduction velocity; increase in motor units synchronisation; modulation of motor units firing rate; increase in variability of motor units inter-spike interval. We simulated the influence of all these adjustments on synthetic EMG signals in isometric/isotonic conditions. The fractal dimension of the EMG signal was found mainly influenced by motor units firing behaviour, being affected by both firing rate and synchronisation level, and least affected by muscle fibre conduction velocity...
October 12, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Afshin Samani, Divya Srinivasan, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Pascal Madeleine
The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Charles C Reilly, Caroline J Jolley, Caroline Elston, John Moxham, Gerrard F Rafferty
The electromyogram recorded from the diaphragm (EMGdi) and parasternal intercostal muscle using surface electrodes (sEMGpara) provides a measure of neural respiratory drive (NRD), the magnitude of which reflects lung disease severity in stable cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to explore perception of NRD and breathlessness in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Given chronic respiratory loading and increased NRD in cystic fibrosis, often in the absence of breathlessness at rest, we hypothesised that patients with cystic fibrosis would be able to tolerate higher levels of NRD for a given level of breathlessness compared to healthy individuals during exercise...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Hiroshi Endo, Shuichi Ino, Waka Fujisaki
Elderly individuals whose ability to chew and swallow has declined are often restricted to unpleasant diets of very soft food, leading to a poor appetite. To address this problem, we aimed to investigate the influence of altered auditory input of chewing sounds on the perception of food texture. The modified chewing sound was reported to influence the perception of food texture in normal foods. We investigated whether the perceived sensations of nursing care foods could be altered by providing altered auditory feedback of chewing sounds, even if the actual food texture is dull...
October 5, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
I Hoeritzauer, V Phé, J N Panicker
The term functional urologic disorders covers a wide range of conditions related broadly to altered function rather than structure of the lower urinary tract, mainly of impaired urine voiding or storage. Confusingly, for a neurologic readership, these disorders of function may often be due to a urologic, gynecologic, or neurologic cause. However, there is a subset of functional urologic disorders where the cause remains uncertain and, in this chapter, we describe the clinical features of these disorders in turn: psychogenic urinary retention; Fowler's syndrome; paruresis (shy-bladder syndrome); dysfunctional voiding; idiopathic overactive bladder, and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Wonryung Lee, Dongmin Kim, Jonathan Rivnay, Naoji Matsuhisa, Thomas Lonjaret, Tomoyuki Yokota, Hiromu Yawo, Masaki Sekino, George G Malliaras, Takao Someya
Integration of organic electrochemical transistors and organic field effect transistors has been successfully realized on a 600 nm thick parylene film toward an electrophysiology array. Single cell of integrated device and a 2 × 2 electrophysiology array have succeeded in detecting electromyogram with locally stimulating the motor nerve bundle of a transgenic rat by a laser pulse.
September 22, 2016: Advanced Materials
Wei-Lun Lin, Li-Wei Lo, Hau-Ruey Chen, Chun-Ting Lai, Shinya Yamada, Shin-Huei Liu, Yu-Hui Chou, Shih-Ann Chen, Yun-Ching Fu, Terry B J Kuo
BACKGROUND: Autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activities is observed in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to investigate sleep-related changed in autonomic regulation in left coronary artery (LCA) ligation rats. METHODS: Wireless transmission of polysomnographic recording was performed in sham and LCA ligation male rats during normal daytime sleep with and without atenolol treatment. Spectral analyses of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) were evaluated to define active waking (AW), quiet and paradoxical sleeps (QS, PS)...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Hideyuki Nukaga, Tomotaka Takeda, Kazunori Nakajima, Keishiro Narimatsu, Takamitsu Ozawa, Keiichi Ishigami, Kazuo Funato
Teeth clenching has been shown to improve remote muscle activity (by augmentation of the Hoffmann reflex), and joint fixation (by decreased reciprocal inhibition) in the entire body. Clenching could help maintain balance, improve systemic function, and enhance safety. Teeth clenching from a sports dentistry viewpoint was thought to be important and challenging. Therefore, it is quite important to investigate mastication muscles' activity and function during sports events for clarifying a physiological role of the mastication muscle itself and involvement of mastication muscle function in whole body movement...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Ying Y Zhao, Jia Weng, Daniel R Mobley, Rui Wang, Younghoon Kwon, Phyllis C Zee, Pamela L Lutsey, Susan Redline
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Type 3 home sleep apnea tests may underestimate the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) due to overestimation of total sleep time (TST). We aimed to evaluate the effect of manual editing of the total recording time (TRT) on the TST and AHI. METHODS: Thirty 15-channel in-home polysomnography studies (AHI 0 to 30 events/h) scored using American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria were rescored by two blinded polysomnologists after data from electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, and electromyogram were masked...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Neda Mahdavi, Majid Motamedzade, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi, Ebrahim Darvishi, Abbas Moghimbeygi, Rashid Heidari Moghadam
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder disorders are one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders among carpet weavers. The most important cause of these disorders is muscle fatigue. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of carpet weaving characteristics on upper trapezius (UTr) muscle fatigue during a task cycle. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, 9 women and 3 men participated. During an 80-min cycle of carpet weaving, a times-series model was applied to assess electromyography amplitude and frequency changes...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Keitaro Yoshida, Yu Mimura, Ryosuke Ishihara, Hiroshi Nishida, Yuji Komaki, Tomohito Minakuchi, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Masaru Mimura, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F Tanaka, Norio Takata
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in mice is typically performed under anesthesia due to difficulties in holding the head of awake mice stably with a conventional three-point fixation method that uses a tooth-bar and earplugs. Although some studies have succeeded in fMRI in awake mice by attaching a head-post on the skull, this cannot be applied to fMRI using a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) cryogenic MRI-detector, CryoProbe, because it covers the head of a mouse closely...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Tomomi Fujimura, Kazuo Okanoya
This study investigated how trustworthiness modulates facial reactions to emotional faces, specifically emotional mimicry. In order to manipulate the trustworthiness of others, we used the trust game. The participants (N=37) perceived the partners as trustworthy or untrustworthy based on whether the partners tended to behave fairly or unfairly in the game with a within-subjects design. Facial electromyograms were measured while viewing the emotional faces displayed by the partners. The results demonstrated that the zygomaticus major activity in response to happy faces was greater for the trustworthy partners than for the untrustworthy partners...
October 1, 2016: Biological Psychology
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