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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426925/ageing-potentiates-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance-%C3%AE-cell-failure-and-tissue-inflammation-through-tlr4
#1
Wei He, Ting Yuan, Dolma Choezom, Hannah Hunkler, Karthika Annamalai, Blaz Lupse, Kathrin Maedler
Ageing and obesity are two major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A chronic, low-grade, sterile inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a major pro-inflammatory pathway; its ligands as well as downstream signals are increased systemically in patients with T2D and at-risk individuals. In the present study we investigated the combined effects of high fat/high sucrose diet (HFD) feeding, ageing and TLR4-deficiency on tissue inflammation, insulin resistance and β-cell failure...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418080/insights-from-ion-binding-site-network-analysis-into-evolution-and-functions-of-proteins
#2
Blaž Škrlj, Tanja Kunej, Janez Konc
Many biological phenomena can be represented as complex networks. Using a protein binding site comparison approach, we generated a network of ion binding sites on the scale of all known protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. We found that this ion binding site similarity network is scale-free, indicating a network in which a few ion binding site scaffolds are the network hubs, and these are connected to hundreds of nodes, whereas the vast majority of nodes have only a few neighbors. Enrichment and statistical analysis of the network components and communities yielded insights into underlying processes from the functional and the structural perspective...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402556/electrochemotherapy-as-treatment-option-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-prospective-pilot-study
#3
Mihajlo Djokic, Maja Cemazar, Peter Popovic, Bor Kos, Rok Dezman, Masa Bosnjak, Martina Niksic Zakelj, Damijan Miklavcic, Stojan Potrc, Borut Stabuc, Ales Tomazic, Gregor Sersa, Blaz Trotovsek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electrochemotherapy provides non-thermal ablation of cutaneous as well as deep seated tumors. Based on positive results of the treatment of colorectal liver metastases, we conducted a prospective pilot study on hepatocellular carcinomas with the aim of testing the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of electrochemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin was performed on 17 hepatocellular carcinomas in 10 patients using a previously established protocol...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373088/molecular-characterization-and-clonal-diversity-of-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-of-milk-of-cows-with-clinical-mastitis-in-tunisia
#4
Amira Klibi, Ahlem Jouini, Paula Gómez, Khouloud Slimene, Sara Ceballos, Carmen Torres, Abderrazek Maaroufi
The aim of this study was to determine the genetic lineages, and the frequency of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from milk of cows with clinical mastitis. Three hundred milk samples from bovine with clinical mastitis were obtained from 30 dairy farms in different regions of Tunisia. Fifteen of the 300 tested samples contained S. aureus (5%), in three cases were MRSA. Isolates (one/sample) were typed (S...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355699/safety-hazards-in-bacteriocinogenic-staphylococcus-strains-isolated-from-goat-and-sheep-milk
#5
Samane Rahmdel, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Sandra Torriani, Veronica Gatto, Safoora Pashangeh
In this study, 28 bacteriocinogenic Staphylococcus strains isolated from goat and sheep milk were subjected to the PCR detection of enterotoxin genes (sea-see), enterotoxin-like toxin Q gene (selq), toxic shock syndrome toxin gene (tst1), and antibiotic resistance genes. They were also evaluated for phenotypic resistance against 10 antibiotics and hemolytic activity. The tyramine and histamine production was investigated using the agar plate assay and capillary zone electrophoretic analysis (CZE). Twenty-five isolates harbored at least one enterotoxin gene...
January 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350135/plasmid-encoded-transferable-mecb-mediated-methicillin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Karsten Becker, Sarah van Alen, Evgeny A Idelevich, Nina Schleimer, Jochen Seggewiß, Alexander Mellmann, Ursula Kaspar, Georg Peters
During cefoxitin-based nasal screening, phenotypically categorized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated and tested negative for the presence of the mecA and mecC genes as well as for the SCCmec-orfX junction region. The isolate was found to carry a mecB gene previously described for Macrococcus caseolyticus but not for staphylococcal species. The gene is flanked by β-lactam regulatory genes similar to mecR, mecI, and blaZ and is part of an 84.6-kb multidrug-resistance plasmid that harbors genes encoding additional resistances to aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD, aphA, and aadK) as well as macrolides (ermB) and tetracyclines (tetS)...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337343/antimicrobial-resistance-genetic-markers-in-potentially-pathogenic-gram-positive-cocci-isolated-from-brazilian-soft-cheese
#7
Juliana Alves Resende, Cláudia Oliveira Fontes, Alessandra Barbosa Ferreira-Machado, Thiago César Nascimento, Vânia Lúcia Silva, Cláudio Galuppo Diniz
Although most Brazilian dairy products meet high technological standards, there are quality issues regarding milk production, which may reduce the final product quality. Several microbial species may contaminate milk during manufacture and handling. If antimicrobial usage remains uncontrolled in dairy cattle, the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in foodstuffs may be of particular concern for both food producers and dairy industry. This study focused on the evaluation of putative Gram positive cocci in Minas cheese and of antimicrobial and biocide resistance genes among the isolated bacteria...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326223/genome-sequence-of-a-lethal-strain-of-xylem-invading-verticillium-nonalfalfae
#8
Jernej Jakše, Vid Jelen, Sebastjan Radišek, Ronnie de Jonge, Stanislav Mandelc, Aljaž Majer, Tomaž Curk, Blaž Zupan, Bart P H J Thomma, Branka Javornik
Verticillium nonalfalfae, a soilborne vascular phytopathogenic fungus, causes wilt disease in several crop species. Of great concern are outbreaks of highly aggressive V. nonalfalfae strains, which cause a devastating wilt disease in European hops. We report here the genome sequence and annotation of V. nonalfalfae strain T2, providing genomic information that will allow better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of highly aggressive strains.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275961/mtorc1-signaling-a-double-edged-sword-in-diabetic-%C3%AE-cells
#9
REVIEW
Amin Ardestani, Blaz Lupse, Yoshiaki Kido, Gil Leibowitz, Kathrin Maedler
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of metabolic and nutrient cues that integrates environmental inputs into downstream signaling pathways to control cellular metabolism, growth, and survival. While numerous in vitro and in vivo studies reported the positive functions of mTORC1 in the regulation of β cell survival and proliferation under physiological conditions, more recent work demonstrates the opposite in the long term; this is exemplified by the constitutive inappropriate hyper-activation of mTORC1 in diabetic islets or β cells under conditions of increased β cell stress and metabolic demands...
December 20, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260928/contribution-of-sonicate-fluid-cultures-and-broad-range-pcr-to-microbiological-diagnosis-in-vascular-graft-infections
#10
Barbara Kokosar Ulcar, Nikola Lakic, Samo Jeverica, Blaz Pecavar, Mateja Logar, Tjasa Kisek Cerar, Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc
BACKGROUND: Vascular graft infections (VGI) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and antimicrobial treatment is an important adjunct to surgical treatment. While microbial aetiology of VGI is often difficult to determine, other techniques such as sonication of implanted material may be used to enhance the recovery of biofilm-associated organisms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 22 consecutive patients treated for VGI at University Medical Centre Ljubljana from May 2011 through January 2015...
December 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234984/bober-web-interface-to-the-base-of-bioisosterically-exchangeable-replacements
#11
Samo Lešnik, Blaž Škrlj, Nika Eržen, Urban Bren, Stanislav Gobec, Janez Konc, Dušanka Janežič
We describe a novel freely available web server Base of Bioisosterically Exchangeable Replacements (BoBER), which implements an interface to a database of bioisosteric and scaffold hopping replacements. Bioisosterism and scaffold hopping are key concepts in drug design and optimization, and can be defined as replacements of biologically active compound's fragments with other fragments to improve activity, reduce toxicity, change bioavailability or to diversify the scaffold space. Our web server enables fast and user-friendly searches for bioisosteric and scaffold replacements which were obtained by mining the whole Protein Data Bank...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220509/community-effort-endorsing-multiscale-modelling-multiscale-data-science-and-multiscale-computing-for-systems-medicine
#12
Massimiliano Zanin, Ivan Chorbev, Blaz Stres, Egils Stalidzans, Julio Vera, Paolo Tieri, Filippo Castiglione, Derek Groen, Huiru Zheng, Jan Baumbach, Johannes A Schmid, José Basilio, Peter Klimek, Nataša Debeljak, Damjana Rozman, Harald H H W Schmidt
Systems medicine holds many promises, but has so far provided only a limited number of proofs of principle. To address this road block, possible barriers and challenges of translating systems medicine into clinical practice need to be identified and addressed. The members of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action CA15120 Open Multiscale Systems Medicine (OpenMultiMed) wish to engage the scientific community of systems medicine and multiscale modelling, data science and computing, to provide their feedback in a structured manner...
December 5, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215752/familial-tauopathy-with-p364s-mapt-mutation-clinical-course-neuropathology-and-ultrastructure-of-neuronal-tau-inclusions
#13
Peter Štrafela, Jerica Pleško, Jožef Magdič, Blaž Koritnik, Andrej Zupan, Damjan Glavač, Mara Bresjanac, Mara Popović
AIMS: This report presents the clinical course, neuropathology and ultrastructure of neuronal tau inclusions of four Slovene relatives with P364S MAPT mutation. METHODS: The clinical history of three out of four P364S MAPT mutation carriers was taken. After formalin fixation, thorough sampling of the central nervous system was followed by paraffin embedding, H&E, Gallyas, Bielschowsky, and immunostaining with AT8, anti-3R, anti-4R tau, anti-Amyloid-β, anti-TDP43, and anti-alpha-synuclein antibodies...
December 7, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214760/prevalence-of-blaz-gene-and-performance-of-phenotypic-tests-to-detect-penicillinase-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-japan
#14
Yoshiko Takayama, Takashi Tanaka, Koko Oikawa, Naoki Fukano, Mieko Goto, Takashi Takahashi
Guidelines recommend that clinical laboratories perform phenotypic tests (nitrocefin-based test and penicillin 10-U [P10] or 1-U [P1] zone edge tests) to detect penicillinase in Staphylococcus aureus isolates. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of blaZ encoding penicillinase and perform various phenotypic tests in S. aureus isolates from Japan. We prospectively collected 200 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates from June 2015 to January 2016 and performed six phenotypic tests (nitrocefin-based test, P10 zone edge test/P10 diffusion test, penicillin 2-U [P2] zone edge test/P2 diffusion test, and cloverleaf test) on each sample...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#15
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198902/inoculum-effect-of-high-concentrations-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-on-the-efficacy-of-cefazolin-and-other-beta-lactams
#16
Masachika Saeki, Masaaki Shinagawa, Yuki Yakuwa, Shinya Nirasawa, Yuki Sato, Nozomi Yanagihara, Satoshi Takahashi
The existence of a cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), which is speculated to be a reason for cefazolin treatment failure in MSSA infections, is controversial. In Japan, although cefazolin is one of the therapeutic choices for patients with MSSA infection, there are few reports of this effect. Additionally, the association between InE and blaZ type in beta-lactams other than cefazolin has not been well documented. In this study, we confirmed an MSSA InE in several beta-lactams, including cefazolin, and its relationship with blaZ, using 52 MSSA isolates from blood cultures...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184366/polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-of-genes-responsible-for-multiple-antibiotic-resistance-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-food-of-animal-origin-in-egypt
#17
Fawzy R El Seedy, A A Samy, Hala S H Salam, Eman A Khairy, Aya A Koraney
Aim: The aim of our study was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the genes responsible for the multiple antibiotic resistance S. aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples were randomly collected from milk, meat, and their products from Giza and Beni-Suef Governorates markets. The S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity tests using four antibacterial disks (Oxoid), and then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for detection of antibiotic resistance genes...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155941/new-graft-sizing-rings-for-aortic-valve-reimplantation-procedures
#18
Matija Jelenc, Blaž Jelenc, Ivan Kneževic, Tomislav Klokocovnik
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to design sizing rings that would enable proper sizing of the graft in reimplantation procedures and to perform leaflet repair before graft implantation. METHODS: The rings were designed in Autodesk Fusion 360 (San Rafael, CA, USA) and 3D printed using a commercial online 3D printing service. We designed incomplete rings with a low profile and complete rings with a high profile. The complete rings are best suited for reimplantation procedures, whereas low profile C rings are intended for isolated aortic valve repair, where the ascending aorta is not transected...
August 11, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142246/a-comprehensive-structural-biochemical-and-biological-profiling-of-the-human-nudix-hydrolase-family
#19
Jordi Carreras-Puigvert, Marinka Zitnik, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Megan Carter, Judith E Unterlass, Björn Hallström, Olga Loseva, Zhir Karem, José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Cecilia Lindskog, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Damian J Matuszewski, Hammou Ait Blal, Ronnie P A Berntsson, Maria Häggblad, Ulf Martens, Matthew Studham, Bo Lundgren, Carolina Wählby, Erik L L Sonnhammer, Emma Lundberg, Pål Stenmark, Blaz Zupan, Thomas Helleday
The NUDIX enzymes are involved in cellular metabolism and homeostasis, as well as mRNA processing. Although highly conserved throughout all organisms, their biological roles and biochemical redundancies remain largely unclear. To address this, we globally resolve their individual properties and inter-relationships. We purify 18 of the human NUDIX proteins and screen 52 substrates, providing a substrate redundancy map. Using crystal structures, we generate sequence alignment analyses revealing four major structural classes...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134317/the-impact-of-canal-flare-index-on-leg-length-discrepancy-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#20
Peter Brumat, Borut Pompe, Vane Antolič, Blaž Mavčič
INTRODUCTION: The femoral stem should protrude from femur by an appropriate vertical distance to allow leg length equalization at hip arthroplasty; this distance depends on the size/shape of medullary canal and implant. The relationship between femoral morphology and achievability of leg length restoration is currently unclear. Our aim was to examine the impact of the femoral canal flare index (CFI) on the risk of leg length discrepancy (LLD) after total hip arthroplasty with different femoral stems...
November 13, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
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