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Hal M Hoffman, Lori Broderick
Interferonopathies are a subset of autoinflammatory disorders with a prominent type I IFN gene signature. Treatment of these patients has been challenging, given the lack of response to common autoinflammatory therapeutics including IL-1 and TNF blockade. JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) are a family of small-molecule inhibitors that target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and have shown clinical efficacy, with FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval for arthritic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Sanchez and colleagues repurposed baricitinib to establish a significant role for JAK inhibition as a novel therapy for patients with interferonopathies, demonstrating the power of translational rare disease research with lifesaving effects...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Leopold Eckhart, Erwin Tschachler
The function of the skin as a barrier to the environment is mainly achieved by the outermost layers of the epidermis. In the granular layer, epidermal keratinoytes undergo the last steps of their terminal differentiation program resulting in cornification. The coordinated conversion of living keratinocytes into corneocytes, the building blocks of the cornified layer, represents a unique form of programmed cell death. Recent studies have identified numerous genes that are specifically expressed in terminally differentiated keratinocytes and, surprisingly, this genetic program does not only include mediators of cornification but also suppressors of pyroptosis, another mode of programmed cell death...
June 4, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Annemarie Steiner, Cassandra R Harapas, Seth L Masters, Sophia Davidson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway is tightly regulated through multiple posttranslational mechanisms including ubiquitination. Mutations in these regulatory pathways can cause disease and are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is a trimer made up of HOIL-1L, SHARPIN, and the catalytic subunit HOIP. Loss of function mutations in HOIL-1L and HOIP result in largely overlapping phenotypes, characterized by multi-organ autoinflammation, immunodeficiency, and amylopectinosis...
May 30, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Cassandra R Harapas, Annemarie Steiner, Sophia Davidson, Seth L Masters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal innate immune activation. In the case of inflammasomopathies, these are all attributable to activation of an inflammasome complex, nucleated by an innate immune sensor such as NLRP3. This review will focus on recent advances that have helped to elucidate the role of three other sensors (NLRP1, NLRC4 and pyrin) which can also cause inflammasomopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutations in pyrin (S242R or E244K) destroy an inhibitory 14-3-3 binding site and result in the newly characterised disease pyrin-associated autoinflammation with neutrophilic dermatosis (PAAND)...
May 30, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Isobel Leake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
M Cecilia Poli, Frédéric Ebstein, Sarah K Nicholas, Marietta M de Guzman, Lisa R Forbes, Ivan K Chinn, Emily M Mace, Tiphanie P Vogel, Alexandre F Carisey, Felipe Benavides, Zeynep H Coban-Akdemir, Richard A Gibbs, Shalini N Jhangiani, Donna M Muzny, Claudia M B Carvalho, Deborah A Schady, Mahim Jain, Jill A Rosenfeld, Lisa Emrick, Richard A Lewis, Brendan Lee, Barbara A Zieba, Sébastien Küry, Elke Krüger, James R Lupski, Bret L Bostwick, Jordan S Orange
The proteasome processes proteins to facilitate immune recognition and host defense. When inherently defective, it can lead to aberrant immunity resulting in a dysregulated response that can cause autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. Biallelic or digenic loss-of-function variants in some of the proteasome subunits have been described as causing a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as a severe dysregulatory syndrome: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE)...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Apurva Kanneganti, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Pedro H V Saavedra, Lieselotte Vande Walle, Hanne Van Gorp, Hiroto Kambara, Heather Tillman, Peter Vogel, Hongbo R Luo, Ramnik J Xavier, Hongbo Chi, Mohamed Lamkanfi
Pyroptosis is an inflammasome-induced lytic cell death mode, the physiological role of which in chronic inflammatory diseases is unknown. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease worldwide, affecting an estimated 150,000 patients. The disease is caused by missense mutations in Mefv that activate the Pyrin inflammasome, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms driving autoinflammation in FMF are incompletely understood. Here, we show that Clostridium difficile infection of FMF knock-in macrophages that express a chimeric FMF-associated Mefv V726A Pyrin elicited pyroptosis and gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated interleukin (IL)-1β secretion...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Christian M Hedrich, Eve M D Smith, Michael W Beresford
The systemic autoimmune/inflammatory condition systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) manifests before the age of 16 years in 10-20% of all cases. Clinical courses are more severe, and organ complications are more common in patients with juvenile SLE. Varying gender distribution in different age groups and increasing severity with younger age and the presence of monogenic disease in early childhood indicate distinct differences in the pathophysiology of juvenile versus adult-onset SLE. Regardless of these differences, classification criteria and treatment options are identical...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
Angelo Valerio Marzano, Giovanni Damiani, Giovanni Genovese, Marco Gattorno
Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders pathogenetically related to an abnormal activation of the innate immunity and clinically characterised by aseptic inflammation in the affected organs in the absence of high titer of circulating autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells. In classic monogenic AIDs, the skin is frequently involved with a wide range of cutaneous lesions. Monogenic AIDs result from different mutations in a single gene, which regulates the innate immunity...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Fumiko Honda-Ozaki, Madoka Terashima, Akira Niwa, Norikazu Saiki, Yuri Kawasaki, Haruna Ito, Akitsu Hotta, Ayako Nagahashi, Koichi Igura, Isao Asaka, Hongmei Lisa Li, Masakatsu Yanagimachi, Fukumi Furukawa, Nobuo Kanazawa, Tatsutoshi Nakahata, Megumu K Saito
Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NNS) is an immunoproteasome-associated autoinflammatory disorder caused by a mutation of the PSMB8 gene. Although dysfunction of the immunoproteasome causes various cellular stresses attributed to the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in NNS, the underlying mechanisms of the autoinflammation are still largely unknown. To investigate and understand the mechanisms and signal pathways in NNS, we established a panel of isogenic pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with PSMB8 mutation...
May 1, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Angelo Valerio Marzano, Federica Derlino, Emilio Francesco Berti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Dermatopathology (Basel, Switzerland)
Scott W Canna, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: International Immunology
Marc Bienias, Normi Brück, Constanze Griep, Christine Wolf, Stefanie Kretschmer, Barbara Kind, Victoria Tüngler, Reinhard Berner, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch
To review recent scientific advances and therapeutic approaches in the expanding field of type I interferonopathies. Type I interferonopathies represent a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous group of disorders of the innate immune system caused by constitutive activation of antiviral type I interferon (IFN). Clinically, type I interferonopathies are characterized by autoinflammation and varying degrees of autoimmunity or immunodeficiency. The elucidation of the underlying genetic causes has revealed novel cell-intrinsic mechanisms that protect the organism against inappropriate immune recognition of self nucleic acids by cytosolic nucleic acid sensors...
April 20, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Tetsuya Yoshimoto, Tatsuhide Hayashi, Toshio Kondo, Mizuho Kittaka, Ernst J Reichenberger, Yasuyoshi Ueki
Cherubism is a craniofacial disorder characterized by maxillary and mandibular bone destruction. Gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) are responsible for the excessive bone resorption caused by fibrous inflammatory lesions. A homozygous knock-in (KI) mouse model for cherubism (Sh3bp2KI/KI ) develops autoinflammation resulting in systemic bone destruction. Although administration of the TNF-α blocker etanercept to neonatal Sh3bp2KI/KI mice prevented the disease onset, this therapy was not effective for adult Sh3bp2KI/KI mice or human cherubism patients who already had lesions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Kareen Bartsch, Markus Damme, Tommy Regen, Lore Becker, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Katharina Knittler, Christopher Borowski, Ari Waisman, Markus Glatzel, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Björn Rabe
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare early onset childhood encephalopathy caused by persistent neuroinflammation of autoimmune origin. AGS is a genetic disorder and >50% of affected individuals bear hypomorphic mutations in ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2). All available RNase H2 mouse models so far fail to mimic the prominent CNS involvement seen in AGS. To establish a mouse model recapitulating the human disease, we deleted RNase H2 specifically in the brain, the most severely affected organ in AGS. Although RNase H2ΔGFAP mice lacked the nuclease in astrocytes and a majority of neurons, no disease signs were apparent in these animals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A A Navarini, L E French
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Clara Franco-Jarava, Hongying Wang, Andrea Martin-Nalda, de la Sierra Daniel Alvarez, Marina García-Prat, Domingo Bodet, Vicenç García-Patos, Alberto Plaja, Francesc Rudilla, Victor Rodriguez-Sureda, Laura García-Latorre, Ivona Aksentijevich, Roger Colobran, Pere Soler-Palacín
There is scarce literature about autoinflammation in syndromic patients. We describe a patient who, in addition to psychomotor and growth delay, presented with fevers, neutrophilic dermatosis, and recurrent orogenital ulcers. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array permitted to identify a 13.13Mb deletion on chromosome 6, encompassing 53 genes, and including TNFAIP3 gene (A20). A20 is a potent inhibitor of the NF-kB signalling pathway and restricts inflammation via its deubiquitinase activity. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays showed decreased A20 expression and increased phosphorylation of p65 and IkBa...
June 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Ann Marie Szymanski, Michael J Ombrello
The intersection of granulomatosis and autoinflammatory disease is a rare occurrence that can be generally subdivided into purely granulomatous phenotypes and disease spectra that are inclusive of granulomatous features. NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2)-related disease, which includes Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis, is the prototypic example of granulomatous inflammation in the context of monogenic autoinflammation. Granulomatous inflammation has also been observed in two related autoinflammatory diseases caused by mutations in PLCG2 (phospholipase Cγ2)...
April 25, 2018: International Immunology
Tridib Das, Zhongli Chen, Rudi W Hendriks, Mirjam Kool
Immune cell activation is a stringently regulated process, as exaggerated innate and adaptive immune responses can lead to autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Perhaps the best-characterized molecular pathway promoting cell activation is the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Stimulation of this pathway leads to transcription of numerous pro-inflammatory and cell-survival genes. Several mechanisms tightly control NF-κB activity, including the key regulatory zinc finger (de)ubiquitinating enzyme A20/tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John V Forrester, Lucia Kuffova, Andrew D Dick
PURPOSE: To review the pathogenesis of uveitis in light of recent advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses and their regulation. DESIGN: Perspective. METHODS: Methods included a review of prevailing views on the pathogenesis of uveitis and an analysis of developments in immunology that impact on its conceptual basis, particularly the concept of immunologic tolerance and its loss in autoimmunity. Importantly, the role of infection in the pathogenesis of uveitis is evaluated...
May 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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