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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351319/speech-stone-tool-making-and-the-evolution-of-language
#1
Dana Michelle Cataldo, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Lucio Vinicius
The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346395/evaluation-of-participatory-teaching-methods-in-undergraduate-medical-students-learning-along-the-first-academic-courses
#2
Beatriz Gal, Margarita Rubio, Eva Iglesias, Purificación González
The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is an opportunity to redesign medical education. Academic training is now focused on acquiring not only knowledge, but also those competencies critical to face complex professional scenarios. Together with re-evaluating traditional teaching methods, EHEA has forced a technological shift in the way we teach. By critically assessing the impact of novel teaching methodologies, we can better define biomedical education demands. Here, we address this question on a sample of medical students instructed in basic subjects along the first two academic courses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345987/habitable-worlds-delivering-on-the-promises-of-online-education
#3
Lev B Horodyskyj, Chris Mead, Zack Belinson, Sanlyn Buxner, Steven Semken, Ariel D Anbar
Critical thinking and scientific reasoning are central to higher education in the United States, but many courses (in-person and online) teach students information about science much more than they teach the actual process of science and its associated knowledge and skills. In the online arena specifically, the tools available for course construction exacerbate this problem by making it difficult to build the types of active learning activities that research shows to be the most effective. Here, we present a report on Habitable Worlds, offered by Arizona State University for 12 semesters over the past 6 years...
January 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339931/assessment-of-knowledge-and-skills-in-information-literacy-instruction-for-rehabilitation-sciences-students-a-scoping-review
#4
Jill T Boruff, Pamela Harrison
Objective: This scoping review investigates how knowledge and skills are assessed in the information literacy (IL) instruction for students in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology, regardless of whether the instruction was given by a librarian. The objectives were to discover what assessment measures were used, determine whether these assessment methods were tested for reliability and validity, and provide librarians with guidance on assessment methods to use in their instruction in evidence-based practice contexts...
January 2018: Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335659/recommendation-system-for-adaptive-learning
#5
Yunxiao Chen, Xiaoou Li, Jingchen Liu, Zhiliang Ying
An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics...
January 2018: Applied Psychological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324048/peer-observation-of-rounds-leads-to-collegial-discussion-of-teaching
#6
J Rush Pierce, Patrick Rendón, Deepti Rao
PROBLEM: Faculty in the Division of Hospital Medicine provide most of the clinical teaching for learners at our institution. The majority of these faculty are Assistant Professors with limited formal instruction in clinical teaching. Previous Divisional strategies to improve clinical teaching ability included discussion of effective teaching behaviors, developing written expectations for teaching faculty, and instituting seminars on effective clinical teaching. Heretofore, the Division had not utilized a direct observation exercise...
January 11, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321011/attractive-toxic-sugar-baits-for-controlling-mosquitoes-a-qualitative-study-in-bagamoyo-tanzania
#7
Marta Ferreira Maia, Frank Chelestino Tenywa, Hannah Nelson, Athumani Kambagha, Abigail Ashura, Ibrahim Bakari, Deogratis Mruah, Aziza Simba, Ally Bedford
BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination is unlikely to be achieved without the implementation of new vector control interventions capable of complementing insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Attractive-toxic sugar baits (ATSBs) are considered a new vector control paradigm. They are technologically appropriate as they are simple and affordable to produce. ATSBs kill both female and male mosquitoes attracted to sugar feed on a sugary solution containing a mosquitocidal agent and may be used indoors or outdoors...
January 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318354/li-rads-a-glimpse-into-the-future
#8
REVIEW
Claude B Sirlin, Ania Z Kielar, An Tang, Mustafa R Bashir
This article provides a glimpse into the future of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS), discussing the immediate and long-term plans for its continuing improvement and expansion. To complement the Core and Essentials components of the latest version of LI-RADS, a comprehensive manual will be released soon, and it will include technical recommendations, management guidance, as well as reporting instructions and templates. In this article, we briefly review the process by which LI-RADS has been developed until now, a process guided by a variable combination of data, expert opinion, and desire for congruency with other diagnostic systems in North America...
January 9, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311440/understanding-the-administrative-regulation-on-occupational-health-and-trend-in-china
#9
Zhijun Zhou
With the immense economic growth and social development, China has gained worldwide attention. With the quick growth of industrialization, several international professionals are gaining interest in occupational management system and in the role of the Chinese Government in protecting the worker's health. The Law on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and the Work Safety Law are the two most important laws in China, which highlight the responsibilities of the employer, employee, governmental agencies, authorized occupational health service agency, and other stakeholders...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296895/minimal-residual-disease-in-adult-all-technical-aspects-and-implications-for-correct-clinical-interpretation
#10
REVIEW
Monika Brüggemann, Michaela Kotrova
Nowadays, minimal residual disease (MRD) is accepted as the strongest independent prognostic factor in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It can be detected by molecular methods that use leukemia-specific or patient-specific molecular markers (fusion gene transcripts, or immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor [IG/TR] gene rearrangements), and by multi-parametric flow cytometry. The sensitivity and specificity of these methods can vary across treatment time points and therapeutic settings. Thus, knowledge of the principles and limitations of each technology is of the utmost importance for correct interpretation of MRD results...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286467/fluorescence-mediated-tomography-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-macrophage-related-murine-intestinal-inflammation
#11
Tobias M Nowacki, Dominik Bettenworth, Markus Brückner, Friederike Cordes, Frank Lenze, Anne Becker, Moritz Wildgruber, Michel Eisenblätter
Murine models of disease are indispensable to scientific research. However, many diagnostic tools such as endoscopy or tomographic imaging are not routinely employed in animal models. Conventional experimental readouts often rely on post mortem and ex vivo analyses, which prevent intra-individual follow-up examinations and increase the number of study animals needed. Fluorescence-mediated tomography enables the non-invasive, repetitive, quantitative, three-dimensional assessment of fluorescent probes. It is highly sensitive and permits the use of molecular makers, which allows for the specific detection and characterization of distinct molecular targets...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259794/weight-loss-and-frequency-of-body-weight-self-monitoring-in-an-online-commercial-weight-management-program-with-and-without-a-cellular-connected-smart-scale-a-randomized-pilot-study
#12
J G Thomas, H A Raynor, D S Bond, A K Luke, C C Cardoso, A C Wojtanowski, S Vander Veur, D Tate, R R Wing, G D Foster
Objective: Evaluate the effects of an online commercial weight management program, with and without provision of a 'smart' scale with instructions to weigh daily and weekly tailored feedback, on weight loss and the frequency of body-weight self-monitoring. Methods: Participants (N = 92; body mass index 27-40 kg/m2) were randomized to 6 months of no-cost access to the Weight Watchers Online (WWO) platform alone, or enhanced with a cellular-connected 'smart' scale, instructions to weigh daily and weekly pre-scripted email feedback (Weight Watchers Online Enhanced [WWO-E])...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242065/preliminary-results-of-endovascular-aneurysm-sealing-from-the-multicenter-italian-research-on-nellix-endoprosthesis-irene-study
#13
Bruno Gossetti, Ombretta Martinelli, Michelangelo Ferri, Roberto Silingardi, Fabio Verzini
OBJECTIVE: Because of advances in technology and experience of the operator, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has supplanted open repair to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The low 30-day mortality and morbidity of EVAR make the endovascular approach particularly suitable for patients at high surgical risk. However, endoleak or endograft migration requiring secondary intervention or open surgical conversion is a limitation of EVAR. The Nellix system (Endologix, Inc, Irvine, Calif) has been designed to seal the entire AAA to overcome these limitations with EVAR...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#14
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233450/interprofessional-education-and-distance-education-a-review-and-appraisal-of-the-current-literature
#15
REVIEW
Livia R M McCutcheon, Saeed K Alzghari, Young R Lee, William G Long, Robyn Marquez
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming essential for students and healthcare professionals. An evolving approach to implement it is via distance education. Distance education can provide a viable solution to deliver IPE in a variety of settings. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed and Academic Search Complete databases was conducted, revealing 478 articles ranging from the years of 1971-2015. The articles were screened for relevance using the following inclusion criteria: 1) Is this study implementing IPE? 2) Is this study utilizing the instructional delivery method of distance education? 3) Does this study contain students from two or more healthcare professions? RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were systematically analyzed to identify data relevant for this review...
July 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222232/minimal-residual-disease-in-adult-all-technical-aspects-and-implications-for-correct-clinical-interpretation
#16
REVIEW
Monika Brüggemann, Michaela Kotrova
Nowadays, minimal residual disease (MRD) is accepted as the strongest independent prognostic factor in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It can be detected by molecular methods that use leukemia-specific or patient-specific molecular markers (fusion gene transcripts, or immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor [IG/TR] gene rearrangements), and by multi-parametric flow cytometry. The sensitivity and specificity of these methods can vary across treatment time points and therapeutic settings. Thus, knowledge of the principles and limitations of each technology is of the utmost importance for correct interpretation of MRD results...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217504/challenges-during-implementation-of-a-patient-facing-mobile-app-for-surgical-rehabilitation-feasibility-study
#17
Annie Ys Lau, Kalman Piper, Desmond Bokor, Paige Martin, Victor Sl Lau, Enrico Coiera
BACKGROUND: Translating research into practice, especially the implementation of digital health technologies in routine care, is increasingly important. Yet, there are few studies examining the challenges of implementing patient-facing digital technologies in health care settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report challenges experienced when implementing mobile apps for patients to support their postsurgical rehabilitation in an orthopedic setting. METHODS: A mobile app was tailored to the needs of patients undergoing rotator cuff repair...
December 7, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214425/can-smartphones-be-used-to-bring-computer-based-tasks-from-the-lab-to-the-field-a-mobile-experience-sampling-method-study-about-the-pace-of-life
#18
Stefan Stieger, David Lewetz, Ulf-Dietrich Reips
Researchers are increasingly using smartphones to collect scientific data. To date, most smartphone studies have collected questionnaire data or data from the built-in sensors. So far, few studies have analyzed whether smartphones can also be used to conduct computer-based tasks (CBTs). Using a mobile experience-sampling method study and a computer-based tapping task as examples (N = 246; twice a day for three weeks, 6,000+ measurements), we analyzed how well smartphones can be used to conduct a CBT. We assessed methodological aspects such as potential technologically induced problems, dropout, task noncompliance, and the accuracy of millisecond measurements...
December 6, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206004/outcomes-of-endovascular-aortic-repair-in-the-modern-era
#19
Jacob Budtz-Lilly, Anders Wanhainen, Kevin Mani
Monitoring outcomes following endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is critical. Although evidence from randomized controlled trials has solidified the role of EVAR, the analysis of outcomes and "real-world" data has uncovered limitations, improved the selection of appropriate patients, and underscored the importance of instructions for use. Subsequent studies demonstrated the learning curve of EVAR and gradual improvement of outcomes over time. Outcomes analyses will continue to play an important role, particularly as technological growth of endovascular therapy has enabled treatment of more complex aneurysm pathologies and patients...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202919/stakeholders-guidance-document-for-consumer-analytical-devices-with-a-focus-on-gluten-and-food-allergens
#20
Bert Popping, Laura Allred, François Bourdichon, Kurt Brunner, Carmen Diaz-Amigo, Patricia Galan-Malo, Markus Lacorn, Jennifer North, Salvatore Parisi, Adrian Rogers, Jennifer Sealy-Voyksner, Tricia Thompson, Jupiter Yeung
Until recently, analytical tests for food were performed primarily in laboratories, but technical developmentsnow enable consumers to use devices to test their food at home or when dining out. Current consumer devices for food can determine nutritional values, freshness, and, most recently, the presence of food allergens and substances that cause food intolerances. The demand for such products is driven by an increase in the incidence of food allergies, as well as consumer desire for more information about what is in their food...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
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