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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131814/molecular-characterization-of-genetically-modified-crops-challenges-and-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Rong Li, Sheng Quan, Xiaofang Yan, Sukumar Biswas, Dabing Zhang, Jianxin Shi
Molecular characterization lays a foundation for safety assessment and subsequent monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops. Due to the target-specific nature, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods cannot comprehensively detect unintended gene insertions, let alone unknown GM events. As more and more new developed GM crops including new plant breeding technology (NPBT) generated crops are in the pipeline for commercialization, alternative -omics approaches, particularly next generation sequencing, have been developed for molecular characterization of authorized or unauthorized GM (UGM) crops...
March 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103957/rna-interference-mediated-knockdown-of-brugia-malayi-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-severely-affects-parasite-viability-embryogenesis-and-in-vivo-development-of-infective-larvae
#2
Sweta Misra, Jyoti Gupta, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Galactofuranose is an essential cell surface component present in bacteria, fungi and several nematodes such as Caenorhabditis spp., Brugia spp., Onchocerca spp. and Strongyloides spp. This sugar maintains the integrity of parasite surface and is essential for virulence. UDP-Galactopyranose mutase (bmugm) plays a key role in Galf biosynthesis by catalyzing conversion of UDP-Galactopyranose into UDP-galactofuranose and knockout studies of the gene in Leishmania major, Mycobacterium and Aspergillus fumigatus displayed attenuated virulence while RNA interference study in C...
January 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039359/comparing-galactan-biosynthesis-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-corynebacterium-diphtheriae
#3
Darryl A Wesener, Matthew R Levengood, Laura L Kiessling
The suborder Corynebacterineae encompasses species like Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been harnessed for industrial production of amino acids, as well as Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which cause devastating human diseases. A distinctive component of the Corynebacterineae cell envelope is the mycolyl-arabinogalactan (mAG) complex. The mAG is composed of lipid mycolic acids, and arabinofuranose (Araf) and galactofuranose (Galf) carbohydrate residues. Elucidating microbe-specific differences in mAG composition could advance biotechnological applications and lead to new antimicrobial targets...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815803/advancements-in-undergraduate-medical-education-meeting-the-challenges-of-an-evolving-world-of-education-healthcare-and-technology
#4
REVIEW
P G Shelton, Irma Corral, Brandon Kyle
Restructuring of undergraduate medical education (UGME) has occurred from time to time over the past century. Many influences, including the persuasive report of Abraham Flexner in 1910, acted to reorganize medical education in the early twentieth century [1, 2]. In his report, Flexner called on American medical schools to enact higher graduation standards and to stringently adhere to the protocols of mainstream science in their teaching. Prior to this report, UGME had changed little over the previous century but over the last several decades, reform within medical education has become routine...
November 5, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783312/educational-scholarship-and-technology-resources-for-a-changing-undergraduate-medical-education-curriculum
#5
REVIEW
Brandon N Kyle, Irma Corral, Nadyah Janine John, P G Shelton
Returning to the original emphasis of higher education, universities have increasingly recognized the value and scholarship of teaching, and medical schools have been part of this educational scholarship movement. At the same time, the preferred learning styles of a new generation of medical students and advancements in technology have driven a need to incorporate technology into psychiatry undergraduate medical education (UGME). Educators need to understand how to find, access, and utilize such educational technology...
October 26, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778172/participation-of-canadian-anesthesiology-departments-in-undergraduate-medical-education
#6
Colin Hamlin, Kanwar Bhangu, Alexander Villafranca, Manpreet Bhangu, Robert Brown, Marshall Tenenbein, Eric Jacobsohn
PURPOSE: Historically, anesthesiology departments have played a small role in teaching the pre-clerkship component of undergraduate medical education (UGME). The purpose of this study was to measure the current participation of Canadian anesthesiologists in UGME with a focus on pre-clerkship. METHODS: Three surveys were developed in collaboration with the Association of Canadian Departments of Anesthesia. After an initial series of validation procedures, the surveys were distributed to anesthesia department heads, UGME directors, and associate deans at the 17 Canadian medical schools...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771873/rules-versus-layers-which-side-wins-the-battle-of-model-calibration
#7
Yousef Sakieh, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi
Continuous surface of urbanization suitability, as an input to many urban growth models (UGM), has a significant role on a proper calibration process. The present study evaluates and compares the simulation success of the Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model through multiple methods. For this, a series of mapping algorithms are applied ranging from empirical methods such as multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to statistical algorithms without spatially explicit suitability mapping rules such as logistic regression (LR) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network and finally statistical and spatially explicit rule-based methods such as SLEUTH-Genetic Algorithm (SLEUTH-GA) model...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628709/synthesis-of-unprecedented-sulfonylated-phosphono-exo-glycals-designed-as-inhibitors-of-the-three-mycobacterial-galactofuranose-processing-enzymes
#8
Christophe J-M Frédéric, Abdellatif Tikad, Jian Fu, Weidong Pan, Ruixiang B Zheng, Akihiko Koizumi, Xiaochao Xue, Todd L Lowary, Stéphane P Vincent
This study reports a new methodology to synthesize exo-glycals bearing both a sulfone and a phosphonate. This synthetic strategy provides a way to generate exo-glycals displaying two electron-withdrawing groups and was applied to eight different carbohydrates from the furanose and pyranose series. The Z/E configurations of these tetrasubstituted enol ethers could be ascertained using NMR spectroscopic techniques. Deprotection of an exo-glycal followed by an UMP (uridine monophosphate) coupling generated two new UDP (uridine diphosphate)-galactofuranose analogues...
September 15, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626294/carboxylate-surrogates-enhance-the-antimycobacterial-activity-of-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-probes
#9
Valerie J Winton, Claudia Aldrich, Laura L Kiessling
Uridine diphosphate galactopyranose mutase (UGM also known as Glf) is a biosynthetic enzyme required for construction of the galactan, an essential mycobacterial cell envelope polysaccharide. Our group previously identified two distinct classes of UGM inhibitors; each possesses a carboxylate moiety that is crucial for potency yet likely detrimental for cell permeability. To enhance the antimycobacterial potency, we sought to replace the carboxylate with a functional group mimic-an N-acylsulfonamide group. We therefore synthesized a series of N-acylsulfonamide analogs and tested their ability to inhibit UGM...
August 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611945/androgen-receptor-differentially-regulates-the-proliferation-of-prostatic-epithelial-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Shu Yang, Ming Jiang, Magdalena M Grabowska, Jiahe Li, Zachary M Connelly, Jianghong Zhang, Simon W Hayward, Justin M Cates, Guichun Han, Xiuping Yu
Androgens regulate the proliferation and differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells, including prostate cancer (PCa) cells in a context-dependent manner. Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) do not invariably promote cell proliferation; in the normal adult, endogenous stromal and epithelial AR activation maintains differentiation and inhibits organ growth. In the current study, we report that activation of AR differentially regulates the proliferation of human prostate epithelial progenitor cells, NHPrE1, in vitro and in vivo...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465638/udp-galactopyranose-mutase-a-potential-drug-target-against-human-pathogenic-nematode-brugia-malayi
#11
Sweta Misra, Guru R Valicherla, Mohd Shahab, Jyoti Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
Lymphatic filariasis, a vector-borne neglected tropical disease affects millions of population in tropical and subtropical countries. Vaccine unavailability and emerging drug resistance against standard antifilarial drugs necessitate search of novel drug targets for developing alternate drugs. Recently, UDP-galactopyranose mutases (UGM) have emerged as a promising drug target playing an important role in parasite virulence and survival. This study deals with the cloning and characterization of Brugia malayi UGM and further exploring its antifilarial drug target potential...
2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384425/study-of-uridine-5-diphosphate-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-using-udp-5-fluorogalactopyranose-as-a-probe-incubation-results-and-mechanistic-implications
#12
Geng-Min Lin, He G Sun, Hung-Wen Liu
Uridine 5'-diphosphate-5-fluorogalactopyranose (UDP-5F-Galp, 7) was synthesized, and its effect on UDP-Galp mutase (UGM) was investigated. UGM facilitated the hydrolysis of 7 to yield UDP and 5-oxogalactose (24), but no 11 was detected. (19)F NMR and trapping experiments demonstrated that the reaction involves the initial formation of a substrate-cofactor adduct followed by decomposition of the resulting C5 gem-fluorohydrin to generate a 5-oxo intermediate (10). The results support the current mechanistic proposal for UGM and suggest new directions for designing mechanism-based inhibitors...
July 15, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971884/postnatal-development-of-mongolian-gerbil-female-prostate-an-immunohistochemical-and-3d-modeling-study
#13
Bruno D A Sanches, Bruno C Zani, Juliana S Maldarine, Manoel F Biancardi, Fernanda C A Santos, Rejane M Góes, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
The development of the prostate in male rodents, which involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and the urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), has been deeply studied. In females, however, this process is not very clear. In this study, the postnatal development of the prostate in female Mongolian gerbils employing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques was characterized. It was observed that prostatic branching and differentiation in females was induced by a single mesenchyme localized at a ventrolateral position, which was named as ventrolateral mesenchyme (VLM); furthermore, the canalization of solid buds began on the third postnatal day (P3) and the branching morphogenesis on P5...
May 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836146/in-crystallo-capture-of-a-covalent-intermediate-in-the-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-reaction
#14
Ritcha Mehra-Chaudhary, Yumin Dai, Pablo Sobrado, John J Tanner
UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) plays an essential role in galactofuranose biosynthesis in pathogens by catalyzing the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose. Here we report the first crystal structure of a covalent intermediate in the UGM reaction. The 2.3 Å resolution structure reveals UDP bound in the active site and galactopyranose linked to the FAD through a covalent bond between the anomeric C of galactopyranose and N5 of the FAD. The structure confirms the role of the flavin as nucleophile and supports the hypothesis that the proton destined for O5 of galactofuranose is shuttled from N5 of the FAD via O4 of the FAD...
February 16, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26595659/mechanism-based-candidate-inhibitors-of-uridine-diphosphate-galactopyranose-mutase-ugm
#15
Yasaman Mahdavi-Amiri, Sankar Mohan, Silvia Borrelli, Kathryn Slowski, David A R Sanders, B Mario Pinto
Uridine diphosphate-galactopyranose mutase (UGM), an enzyme found in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic human pathogens, catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp) and UDP-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf), the latter being used as the biosynthetic precursor of the galactofuranose polymer portion of the mycobacterium cell wall. We report here the synthesis of a sulfonium and selenonium ion with an appended polyhydroxylated side chain. These compounds were designed as transition state mimics of the UGM-catalyzed reaction, where the head groups carrying a permanent positive charge were designed to mimic both the shape and positive charge of the proposed galactopyranosyl cation-like transition state...
January 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559764/use-of-next-generation-sequencing-data-to-develop-a-qpcr-method-for-specific-detection-of-eu-unauthorized-genetically-modified-bacillus-subtilis-overproducing-riboflavin
#16
Elodie Barbau-Piednoir, Sigrid C J De Keersmaecker, Maud Delvoye, Céline Gau, Patrick Philipp, Nancy H Roosens
BACKGROUND: Recently, the presence of an unauthorized genetically modified (GM) Bacillus subtilis bacterium overproducing vitamin B2 in a feed additive was notified by the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). This has demonstrated that a contamination by a GM micro-organism (GMM) may occur in feed additives and has confronted for the first time,the enforcement laboratories with this type of RASFF. As no sequence information of this GMM nor any specific detection or identification method was available, Next GenerationSequencing (NGS) was used to generate sequence information...
2015: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26488571/identifying-and-promoting-best-practices-in-residency-application-and-selection-in-a-complex-academic-health-network
#17
Glen Bandiera, Caroline Abrahams, Mariela Ruetalo, Mark D Hanson, Leslie Nickell, Salvatore Spadafora
Medical education institutions have a social mandate to produce a diverse physician workforce that meets the public's needs. Recent reports have framed the admission process outcome of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education (UGME and PGME) programs as a key determinant of the collective contributions graduating cohorts will make to society, creating a sense of urgency around the issue of who gets accepted. The need for evidence-informed residency application and selection processes is growing because of the increasing size and diversity of the applicant pool and the need for equity, fairness, social accountability, and health human resource planning...
December 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26214585/virtual-screening-for-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-ligands-identifies-a-new-class-of-antimycobacterial-agents
#18
Virginia A Kincaid, Nir London, Kittikhun Wangkanont, Darryl A Wesener, Sarah A Marcus, Annie Héroux, Lyudmila Nedyalkova, Adel M Talaat, Katrina T Forest, Brian K Shoichet, Laura L Kiessling
Galactofuranose (Galf) is present in glycans critical for the virulence and viability of several pathogenic microbes, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet the monosaccharide is absent from mammalian glycans. Uridine 5'-diphosphate-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) catalyzes the formation of UDP-Galf, which is required to produce Galf-containing glycoconjugates. Inhibitors of UGM have therefore been sought, both as antimicrobial leads and as tools to delineate the roles of Galf in cells. Obtaining cell permeable UGM probes by either design or high throughput screens has been difficult, as has elucidating how UGM binds small molecule, noncarbohydrate inhibitors...
October 16, 2015: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819094/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-nonionic-substrate-mimics-of-udp-galp-as-candidate-inhibitors-of-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-ugm
#19
Ramakrishna Kuppala, Silvia Borrelli, Kathryn Slowski, David A R Sanders, K P Ravindranathan Kartha, B Mario Pinto
The synthesis of 1-[5-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucityl]pyrimidine-2,4(3H)-dione and 1-[(5-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucityl]pyrimidine-2,4(3H)-dione as non-ionic substrate mimics of UDP-Galp are described. UDP-Galp is a precursor of Galf, which is a primary component of the cell-wall glycans of several microorganisms. The interconversion of UDP-Galp and UDP-Galf is catalyzed by UDP galactopyranose mutase (UGM); its inhibition comprises a mode of compromising the microorganisms. The nonionic polyhydroxylated chain was intended to mimic the ionic pyrophosphate group and the ribose moiety in UDP-Galp and increase the bioavailabilities of the candidate inhibitors...
May 1, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25681227/combined-molecular-dynamics-std-nmr-and-corcema-protocol-yields-structural-model-for-a-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-inhibitor-complex
#20
Yun Shi, Ana Ardá, B Mario Pinto
UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall, and is essential for the growth and survival of the organism. A micromolar inhibitor developed by tetrafluorination of the UGM substrate has been previously studied by saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. To elucidate the bioactive conformation of the inhibitor bound to UGM, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to construct a structural model. The MD model is subsequently validated by a good fit between experimental and theoretical STD effects, the latter calculated by a complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix (CORCEMA) analysis...
March 15, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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