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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544604/thymic-peripheral-crosstalk-in-lymphodepletion-therapy
#1
EDITORIAL
M E Snyder, D L Farber
T cell depletion is widely used as induction therapy in solid organ transplants and particularly in kidney transplantation, to reduce the episodes of acute cellular rejection. The resultant reduction in T cell numbers is usually temporary, as T cells are actively replenished due to thymic output and/or lymphopenia-induced proliferation of remaining, depletion-resistant T cells. However, the extent of T cell replenishment and the persistence of lymphopenia varies between individuals, with potential impacts on protective or pathogenic immune responses...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544474/breast-cancer-and-transplantation
#2
Germaine Wong, Eric Au, Sunil V Badve, Wai H Lim
Breast cancer is an important cancer among solid organ transplant recipients. While the incidence of breast cancer in solid organ transplant recipients is comparable to the age matched general population, the outcomes are generally poor. Interventions such as cancer screening which preclude the development of late stage disease through early detection are not well-studied, and clinical practice guidelines for cancer screening rely solely on recommendations from the general population. Among those with a prior breast cancer history, disease recurrence after transplantation is a rare but fearful event...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544183/clinical-outcomes-of-intestinal-transplant-recipients-colonized-with-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-study
#3
Jacques Simkins, Michele I Morris, Jose F Camargo, Rodrigo Vianna, Thiago Beduschi, Lilian M Abbo
Rates of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) colonization among intestinal transplant (ITx) recipients have not been reported. Colonization rates with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained retrospectively in adults undergoing ITx (isolated or multi-visceral) from 1/2009-12/2015. We assessed for VRE, CR-GNB and MRSA bacteremia during the first year post-transplant for patients colonized with VRE, CR-GNB and MRSA respectively and for those who were not colonized...
May 19, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543844/death-and-liver-transplantation-within-two-years-of-onset-of-drug-induced-liver-injury
#4
Paul H Hayashi, Don Rockey, Robert J Fontana, Hans L Tillmann, Neil Kaplowitz, Huiman Barnhart, Jiezhan Gu, Naga P Chalasani, K Rajender Reddy, Averell H Sherker, Jay H Hoofnagle
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of death and indication for liver transplantation (fatality). The role of DILI in these fatalities ispoorly characterized particularly when fatalities occur > 26 weeks after DILI onset. We analyzed patients in the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network prospective study having a fatal outcome within 2 years of onset. Each case was reviewed by 8 Network investigators and categorized as DILI having a primary, contributory or no role in the fatality...
May 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542651/cellular-migration-transition-and-interaction-during-regeneration-of-the-sponge-hymeniacidon-heliophila
#5
Cristiano C Coutinho, Ivone de Andrade Rosa, John Douglas de Oliveira Teixeira, Leonardo R Andrade, Manoel Luis Costa, Claudia Mermelstein
Sponges have a high capacity for regeneration and this process improves biomass production in some species, thus contributing to a solution for the biomass supply problem for biotechnological applications. The aim of this work is to characterize the dynamics of cell behavior during the initial stages of sponge regeneration, using bright-field microscopy, confocal microscopy and SEM. We focused on the first 20 h of regeneration, during which blastema formation and epithelium initialization occur. An innovative sponge organotypic culture of the regenerating internal region is described and investigated by confocal microscopy, cell transplantation and vital staining...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542523/impact-of-maintenance-immunosuppressive-therapy-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-renal-transplant-recipients-comparison-between-an-everolimus-and-a-standard-tacrolimus-based-regimen
#6
Gianluigi Zaza, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Giovanna Felis, Simona Granata, Sandra Torriani, Antonio Lupo
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is the full set of microbes living in the gastrointestinal tract and is emerging as an important dynamic/fluid system that, if altered by environmental, dietetic or pharmacological factors, could considerably influence drug response. However, the immunosuppressive drug-induced modifications of this system are still poorly defined. METHODS: We employed an innovative bioinformatics approach to assess differences in the whole-gut microbial metagenomic profile of 20 renal transplant recipients undergoing maintenance treatment with two different immunosuppressive protocols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542111/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#7
Deepa Nanayakkara, Neha Nanda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542109/application-and-interpretation-of-histocompatibility-data-in-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#8
Hilda E Fernandez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in technology to assess immunologic risk in solid organ transplant offer an opportunity to optimize the approach to pediatric deceased donor kidney transplant in the setting of a new allocation system in the United States. RECENT FINDINGS: Degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch, class II HLA mismatch, unacceptable antigens and donor-specific antibody (DSA) detected by solid-phase assays, and epitope matching pretransplant affect pediatric kidney transplant outcomes...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542105/national-trends-and-in-hospital-outcomes-of-patients-with-solid-organ-transplant-undergoing-spinal-fusion
#9
Hiroyuki Yoshihara, Daisuke Yoneoka, Carl Paulino, Sanjeev Agarwal, Jose R Reyna, Kazuhiro Hasegawa
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of population-based national hospital discharge data collected for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) OBJECTIVES.: To examine the demographics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with solid organ transplant (SOT) undergoing spinal fusion on a national level SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Solid organ transplantation has become more common in recent years and some of these patients undergo spinal fusion surgery. However, there is little information regarding the trends and outcomes in such patients...
May 25, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542093/feasibility-and-applicability-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-immunocompromised-patients
#10
Elizabeth Robilotti, Marisa Holubar, Susan K Seo, Stan Deresinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial stewardship is the primary intervention in the battle against antimicrobial resistance, but clinicians do not always apply many key antimicrobial stewardship principles to patients with significant immune defects due to lack of data and fear of bad outcomes. We review evidence regarding the application of stewardship principles to immunocompromised patients, with a focus on solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), targeting immunocompromised patient populations such as oncology and transplant, are gaining traction...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542092/approach-to-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-hosts
#11
Victoria E Burke, Fred A Lopez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections are frequent contributors to morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. This article reviews the changing epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the most common cutaneous pathogens in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts, including patients with solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants, solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Defects in the innate or adaptive immune response can predispose the immunocompromised host to certain cutaneous infections in a predictive fashion...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540899/gender-differences-in-perceptions-and-attitudes-of-general-population-towards-organ-donation-an-indian-perspective
#12
Vijayalakshmi Poreddi, T S Sunitha, Rohini Thimmaiah, Suresh Bada Math
Globally, shortage of organs available for organ transplantation is a major problem. Studies assessing awareness and attitudes towards organ donation are limited from India. The aim of this study is to assess gender differences in the perceptions and attitude of general population toward organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected patient relatives (n = 193) at the outpatient department of a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540885/outcome-of-recipients-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-incompatible-kidney-transplants-who-underwent-desensitization-at-king-fahad-specialist-hospital-dammam-saudi-arabia
#13
Mohammed Abdulrahim Idris, Akhtar Hossain, Mohammed Abdulrahman Muntasir, Adnan Marmi, Ahmed Abdulfattah Aldajani, Yousef Mohammed Aljamaan, Mahmood Akhtar, Abdulrahman Housawi
In patients whom are highly sensitized immunologically, the benefit of kidney transplantation can be extended to this population through the utilization of organs from human leukocyte antigen incompatible (HLAi) donors. This retrospective observational study was designed to identify the incidence and predictors of acute antibody-mediated rejection/acute cellular rejection (AMR/ACR) in our kidney recipients from living kidney donors (sensitized and those with low immunologic risk). This single-center study has been conducted at King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam (KFSH-D), Saudi Arabia; during the period of September 2008- August 2013...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540499/cell-based-therapies-with-t-regulatory-cells
#14
REVIEW
Mateusz Gliwiński, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Piotr Trzonkowski
CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunodominant suppressors in the immune system. Tregs use various mechanisms to control immune responses. Preclinical data from animal models have confirmed the huge therapeutic potential of Tregs in many immune-mediated diseases. Hence, these cells are now on the road to translation to cell therapy in the clinic as the first clinical trials are accomplished. To date, clinical research has involved mainly hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, solid organ transplantations, and autoimmunity...
May 24, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540307/decellularization-strategies-for-regenerative-medicine-from-processing-techniques-to-applications
#15
REVIEW
Anna Gilpin, Yong Yang
As the gap between donors and patients in need of an organ transplant continues to widen, research in regenerative medicine seeks to provide alternative strategies for treatment. One of the most promising techniques for tissue and organ regeneration is decellularization, in which the extracellular matrix (ECM) is isolated from its native cells and genetic material in order to produce a natural scaffold. The ECM, which ideally retains its inherent structural, biochemical, and biomechanical cues, can then be recellularized to produce a functional tissue or organ...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540063/microrna-122-ameliorates-corneal-allograft-rejection-through-the-downregulation-of-its-target-cpeb1
#16
Ting Wang, Fengjie Li, Wenwen Geng, Qingguo Ruan, Weiyun Shi
Transplant rejection is a major cause of corneal transplantation failure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small RNAs that regulates gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. miRNAs have recently been shown to have important roles in human organ transplantation, but reports of miRNAs directly associated with corneal transplantation rejection remain limited. To investigate the role of miRNAs during corneal allograft rejection, we established a mouse penetrating keratoplasty model and used microarrays to screen for differentially expressed miRNAs...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539698/solid-organ-transplant-recipients-opinions-of-pre-and-post-transplant-supervised-exercise-programmes-a-brief-report
#17
Emma Schoo, Tanya Gustaw, Colleen Barbalinardo, Nicole Rodrigues, Yalda Zameni, Sunita Mathur, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira
Purpose: Access to pre- and post-transplant supervised exercise programmes in Canada is not consistent across organ types. The opinions of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients can contribute to the discussion among stakeholders regarding increasing the availability of supervised exercise programmes. The objective of the study was to determine Canadian SOT recipients' opinions of pre- and post-transplant supervised exercise programmes and the factors that influenced their participation. Method: An Internet-based questionnaire was distributed to members of the Canadian Transplant Association...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538578/total-abdominal-wall-transplantation-an-anatomical-study-and-classification-system
#18
David Light, Neilendu Kundu, Risal Djohan, Cristiano Quintini, Namita Gandhi, Brian R Gastman, Richard Drake, Maria Siemionow, James E Zins
BACKGROUND: Candidates for multivisceral transplantation present with complex defects often beyond traditional reconstructive options. In this study, the authors describe a dissection technique for a total abdominal wall vascularized composite flap. In addition, the authors suggest a classification system for complex abdominal wall defects. METHODS: Forty fresh, cadaveric hemiabdomens were dissected, with care taken to preserve the iliofemoral, deep circumflex iliac, superficial circumflex iliac, deep inferior epigastric, and superficial inferior epigastric arteries and corresponding veins...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538502/successful-reduced-intensity-allogeneic-transplant-with-full-donor-chimerism-and-good-quality-of-life-in-adolescent-patient-with-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome
#19
Salah Ali, Anna Gacsadi, Elizabeth McDougall, Christine Armstrong, Joerg Krueger, Tal Schechter, Muhammad Ali
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disease characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, immune deficiency, and autoimmune phenomena. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment. Myeloablative conditioning is the most common regimen used for HSCT in patients with WAS to avoid the risk of mixed donor chimerism and autoimmunity post-HSCT. There is limited data on the use of reduced intensity conditioning for HSCT in patients with WAS. Here, we report a case with severe phenotype of WAS transplanted successfully with reduced intensity conditioning, which is an acceptable conditioning regimen and can be considered in patients with WAS with significantly impaired organ functions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538243/bk-virus-as-a-mediator-of-graft-dysfunction-following-kidney-transplantation
#20
Stephanie G Yi, Richard J Knight, Keri E Lunsford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: BK virus is a significant risk factor for kidney allograft dysfunction and loss among renal transplant recipients. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment except for the reduction of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss diagnostic challenges and current treatment options for BK in kidney transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiviral and antibiotic therapies have been employed for BK viraemia with variable efficacy. In addition, novel therapeutic regimens such as adoptive transfer of targeted T cells have been described as possible treatment options for recipients with BK nephropathy...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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