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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430097/zika-virus-update-more-on-an-emerging-arboviral-disease-in-the-western-hemisphere
#1
Kelly G Vest
Zika virus has captivated the world with its quick spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Increased emphasis has been placed on the infection of pregnant women and subsequent adverse and severe effects in the developing fetus and newborn. This article supplements a previous article and provides updated information on new and evolving evidence that strengthens the association between Zika virus and unique congenital and neurologic diseases, updates what is known about the epidemiology of the disease, and provides new and updated material for primary care providers as they counsel patients who may be exposed or infected...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420742/synergistic-internal-ribosome-entry-site-microrna-based-approach-for-flavivirus-attenuation-and-live-vaccine-development
#2
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Guangping Liu, Evgeniya Volkova, Alexander G Pletnev
The recent emergence of Zika virus underscores the need for new strategies for a rapid development of safe flavivirus vaccines. Using another flavivirus (Langat virus [LGTV]) that belongs to the group of tick-borne flaviviruses as a model, we describe a dual strategy for virus attenuation which synergistically accesses the specificity of microRNA (miRNA) genome targeting and the effectiveness of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) insertion. To increase the stability and immunogenicity of bicistronic LGTVs, we developed a novel approach in which the capsid (C) protein gene was relocated into the 3' noncoding region (NCR) and expressed under translational control from an IRES...
April 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403328/zika-puzzle-in-brazil-peculiar-conditions-of-viral-introduction-and-dissemination-a-review
#3
Cristina Possas, Patricia Brasil, Mauro Ca Marzochi, Amilcar Tanuri, Reinaldo M Martins, Ernesto Ta Marques, Myrna C Bonaldo, Antonio Gp Ferreira, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Rita Maria R Nogueira, Patricia C Sequeira, Keyla Bf Marzochi, Akira Homma
This article discusses the peculiar conditions that favoured the unexpected introduction of Zika virus into the poorest northeastern region of Brazil in 2015, its speed of transmission to other Brazilian states, other Latin American countries and other regions, and the severity of related neurological disorders in newborns and adults. Contrasting with evidence that Zika had so far caused only mild cases in humans in the last six decades, the epidemiological scenario of this outbreak in Brazil indicates dramatic health effects: in 2015, an increase of 20-fold in notified cases of microcephaly and/or central nervous system (CNS) alterations suggestive of Zika congenital infection, followed by an exponential increase in 2016, with 2366 cumulative cases confirmed in the country by the end of December 2016...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394887/transmission-of-zika-virus-through-breast-milk-and-other-breastfeeding-related-bodily-fluids-a-systematic-review
#4
Susannah Colt, Maria N Garcia-Casal, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Julia L Finkelstein, Pura Rayco-Solon, Zita C Weise Prinzo, Saurabh Mehta
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, which is associated with an increase in central nervous system malformations and newborn microcephaly cases. This review investigated evidence of breastfeeding transmission from ZIKV-infected mothers to their children and the presence of ZIKV infection in breastfeeding-related fluids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review of observational studies, case studies, and surveillance reports involving breastfeeding women with ZIKV infection in several international databases...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384133/vital-signs-update-on-zika-virus-associated-birth-defects-and-evaluation-of-all-u-s-infants-with-congenital-zika-virus-exposure-u-s-zika-pregnancy-registry-2016
#5
Megan R Reynolds, Abbey M Jones, Emily E Petersen, Ellen H Lee, Marion E Rice, Andrea Bingham, Sascha R Ellington, Nicole Evert, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Titilope Oduyebo, Catherine M Brown, Stacey Martin, Nina Ahmad, Julu Bhatnagar, Jennifer Macdonald, Carolyn Gould, Anne D Fine, Kara D Polen, Heather Lake-Burger, Christina L Hillard, Noemi Hall, Mahsa M Yazdy, Karnesha Slaughter, Jamie N Sommer, Alys Adamski, Meghan Raycraft, Shannon Fleck-Derderian, Jyoti Gupta, Kimberly Newsome, Madelyn Baez-Santiago, Sally Slavinski, Jennifer L White, Cynthia A Moore, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Lyle Petersen, Coleen Boyle, Denise J Jamieson, Dana Meaney-Delman, Margaret A Honein
BACKGROUND: In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. METHODS: This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016...
April 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#6
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) and Guillain- Barré Syndrome (GBS). Here we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348160/zika-virus-a-race-in-search-for-antivirals
#7
Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín-Acebes
Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes, was an almost neglected pathogen until its introduction in the Americas in 2015, and its subsequent explosive spread throughout the continent, where it has infected millions of people. The virus has caused social and sanitary alarm, mainly due to its association with severe neurological disorders (Guillain-Barré syndrome, and microcephaly in fetus and newborns). Nowadays, no specific antiviral therapy is available against ZIKV. However, during the past months, a great effort has been made in search for antiviral candidates by using different approaches and methodologies, from testing specific compounds with known antiviral activity to screenings of libraries with hundreds of bioactive molecules...
March 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332092/the-spectrum-of-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#8
Leila Chimelli, Adriana S O Melo, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Clayton A Wiley, Aline H S Camacho, Vania S Lopes, Heloisa N Machado, Cecilia V Andrade, Dione C A Dock, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Patricia S Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Angela C G Carvalho, Odile N Ugarte, Alba G M Batista, Melania M R Amorim, Fabiana O Melo, Thales A Ferreira, Jacqueline R L Marinho, Girlene S Azevedo, Jeime I B F Leal, Rodrigo F Madeiro da Costa, Stevens Rehen, Monica B Arruda, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Rodrigo Delvechio, Renato S Aguiar, Amilcar Tanuri
A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320497/laboratory-evaluation-of-infants-with-possible-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#9
Susan Givens Bell
Our understanding of the effects of maternal Zika virus infection on the newborn continues to evolve. First discovered in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, the world became more aware of the virus in 2015, with reports of hundreds of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian newborns whose mothers reported symptoms related to Zika viral infection during pregnancy. This article reviews the current guidelines for laboratory evaluation of newborns with possible congenital Zika virus infection.
March 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318966/structural-biology-of-the-zika-virus
#10
REVIEW
Yi Shi, George F Gao
Zika virus (ZIKV), a Flaviviridae family member transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, has emerged as a major health concern. ZIKV infections can cause serious neurological complications in adults, and infection in pregnant women can cause congenital malformations, including fetal and newborn microcephaly. In response to this emerging concern, the structural virology field was quick to explore the features of ZIKV. These efforts have provided significant insights into ZIKV pathogenesis, and have identified targets for drug design...
March 15, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318359/zika-virus-and-eye
#11
Rupesh Agrawal, Hnin Hnin Oo, Praveen Kumar Balne, Lisa Ng, Louis Tong, Yee Sin Leo
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the latest global health concern. Transmission is mainly via Aedes mosquitoes and the infection can be diagnosed on molecular or serologic testings. It typically causes a mild self-remitting illness of low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, and myalgia, but when severe, it is associated with neurological deficits and congenital structural defects. Ocular manifestations are usually mild like nonpurulent conjunctivitis in adults, though it may be linked to uveitis, maculopathy, and hypertensive iridocyclitis...
March 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316896/vector-competence-of-anopheles-and-culex-mosquitoes-for-zika-virus
#12
Brittany L Dodson, Jason L Rasgon
Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302630/prevalence-of-microcephaly-in-eight-south-eastern-and-midwestern-brazilian-neonatal-intensive-care-units-2011-2015
#13
Maria Clara de Magalhães-Barbosa, Arnaldo Prata-Barbosa, Jaqueline Rodrigues Robaina, Carlos Eduardo Raymundo, Fernanda Lima-Setta, Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of microcephaly in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in eight private hospitals in south-eastern and midwestern Brazil, from 2011 to 2015. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study in a cohort of neonates. SETTING: Eight private NICUs situated in the cities of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP) and Federal District of Brasilia (FDB). PATIENTS: Neonates up to 7 days of age and >23 weeks of gestational age...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289159/cutting-edge-innate-immune-augmenting-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-expressing-zika-virus-proteins-confers-protective-immunity
#14
Dillon Betancourt, Nina M G P de Queiroz, Tianli Xia, Jeonghyun Ahn, Glen N Barber
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a serious public health concern because of its link to brain damage in developing human fetuses. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) was shown to be a highly effective and safe vector for the delivery of foreign immunogens for vaccine purposes. In this study, we generated rVSVs (wild-type and attenuated VSV with mutated matrix protein [VSVm] versions) that express either the full length ZIKV envelope protein (ZENV) alone or include the ZENV precursor to the membrane protein upstream of the envelope protein, and our rVSV-ZIKV constructs showed efficient immunogenicity in murine models...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271821/animal-models-of-zika-virus
#15
Michael P Bradley, Claude M Nagamine
Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults...
March 7, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249158/ultrastructural-characterization-of-zika-virus-replication-factories
#16
Mirko Cortese, Sarah Goellner, Eliana Gisela Acosta, Christopher John Neufeldt, Olga Oleksiuk, Marko Lampe, Uta Haselmann, Charlotta Funaya, Nicole Schieber, Paolo Ronchi, Martin Schorb, Priit Pruunsild, Yannick Schwab, Laurent Chatel-Chaix, Alessia Ruggieri, Ralf Bartenschlager
A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs). Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells...
February 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241773/zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-of-disease-course-and-complications
#17
REVIEW
Ezinne C Chibueze, Veronika Tirado, Katharina da Silva Lopes, Olukunmi O Balogun, Yo Takemoto, Toshiyuki Swa, Amarjargal Dagvadorj, Chie Nagata, Naho Morisaki, Clara Menendez, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Olufemi T Oladapo
OBJECTIVES: To characterize maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and complement the evidence base for the WHO interim guidance on pregnancy management in the context of ZIKV infection. METHODS: We searched the relevant database from inception until March 2016. Two review authors independently screened and assessed full texts of eligible reports and extracted data from relevant studies. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) tool for observational studies and case series/reports, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239447/yeast-help-identify-cytopathic-factors-of-zika-virus
#18
Michael Bukrinsky
Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203251/sulfated-glycans-and-related-digestive-enzymes-in-the-zika-virus-infectivity-potential-mechanisms-of-virus-host-interaction-and-perspectives-in-drug-discovery
#19
REVIEW
Vitor H Pomin
As broadly reported, there is an ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in countries of Latin America. Recent findings have demonstrated that ZIKV causes severe defects on the neural development in fetuses in utero and newborns. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the ZIKV infectivity. Potential therapeutic agents are also under investigation. In this report, the possible mechanisms of action played by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) displayed at the surface proteoglycans of host cells, and likely in charge of interactions with surface proteins of the ZIKV, are highlighted...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182608/prevalence-and-clinical-attributes-of-congenital-microcephaly-new-york-2013-2015
#20
Krishika A Graham, Deborah J Fox, Achala Talati, Cristian Pantea, Laura Brady, Sondra L Carter, Eric Friedenberg, Neil M Vora, Marilyn L Browne, Christopher T Lee
Congenital Zika virus infection can cause microcephaly and other severe fetal neurological anomalies (1). To inform microcephaly surveillance efforts and assess ascertainment sources, the New York State Department of Health and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene sought to determine the prevalence of microcephaly in New York during 2013-2015, before known importation of Zika virus infections. Suspected newborn microcephaly diagnoses were identified from 1) reports submitted by birth hospitals in response to a request and 2) queries of a hospital administrative discharge database for newborn microcephaly diagnoses...
February 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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