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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099714/zika-virus-infection-in-brazil-and-human-rights-obligations
#1
Debora Diniz, Sinara Gumieri, Beatriz Galli Bevilacqua, Rebecca J Cook, Bernard M Dickens
The February 2016 WHO declaration that congenital Zika virus syndrome constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern reacted to the outbreak of the syndrome in Brazil. Public health emergencies can justify a spectrum of human rights responses, but in Brazil, the emergency exposed prevailing inequities in the national healthcare system. The government's urging to contain the syndrome, which is associated with microcephaly among newborns, is confounded by lack of reproductive health services. Women with low incomes in particular have little access to such health services...
January 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#2
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077143/pregnant-women-carrying-microcephaly-foetuses-and-zika-virus-contain-potentially-pathogenic-microbes-and-parasites-in-their-amniotic-fluid
#3
Diogo Antonio Tschoeke, Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Luciana Leomil, Amilcar Tanuri, Fabiano Lopes Thompson
BACKGROUND: Microcephaly has become a major public health problem in Brazil. The total number of newborns with microcephaly was reported to be >4000 in June 2016. Studies suggest that Zika Virus is a major cause of new microcephaly cases in Brazil. Inside the uterus, the foetus is surrounded by the Amniotic Fluid, a proximal fluid that contains foetal and maternal cells as well as microorganisms and where Zika Virus was already found. CASE PRESENTATION: A previous study reported the presence of the Zika Virus in the amniotic fluid (collected in the 28th gestational week) of two pregnant women carrying microcephaly foetuses in Brazil...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060137/infants-with-congenital-zika-syndrome-and-ocular-findings-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-spread-of-infection
#4
João Rafael de Oliveira Dias, Camila V Ventura, Paula Delegrego Borba, Bruno de Paula Freitas, Ligia Camera Pierroti, Ana Patricia do Nascimento, Nilva Simeren Bueno de Moraes, Maurício Maia, Rubens Belfort
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To describe the ocular findings of two infants with congenital Zika syndrome born in São Paulo state, Brazil, outside the primary outbreak region. METHODS: Two female infants with congenital Zika syndrome were submitted to a complete screening for infectious diseases, as well as ocular examination, fundus photography, and optical coherence tomography of the retina. One of the infants was submitted to ocular ultrasound. RESULTS: Both children showed positive serology for Zika virus, and other infectious diseases were ruled out...
January 2, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051181/the-larvicide-pyriproxyfen-blamed-during-the-zika-virus-outbreak-does-not-cause-microcephaly-in-zebrafish-embryos
#5
Stefania Dzieciolowska, Anne-Laure Larroque, Elizabeth-Ann Kranjec, Pierre Drapeau, Eric Samarut
Although the zika virus (ZIKV) has now been strongly correlated with emerging cases of microcephaly in the Americas, suspicions have been raised regarding the use of pyriproxyfen, a larvicide that prevents mosquito development, in drinking water. The effects of this compound on neurodevelopment have not yet been addressed specifically in vertebrates. As a result, we aimed at addressing the effects, if any, of pyriproxyfen on neurodevelopment in the zebrafish embryo as a vertebrate model. Using zebrafish transgenic lines expressing GFP in different cell populations (elavl3 in newborn neurons, gfap and nestin in neural stem cells), we focused on the analysis of whole embryonic brain volume after confocal 3D-reconstruction and the quantification of purified neural stem cells during early neurodevelopment by FACS-cell sorting from whole in vivo embryos...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034744/extended-substrate-specificity-and-first-potent-irreversible-inhibitor-activity-based-probe-design-for-zika-virus-ns2b-ns3-protease
#6
Wioletta Rut, Linlin Zhang, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Marcin Poreba, Rolf Hilgenfeld, Marcin Drąg
Zika virus is spread by Aedes mosquitoes and is linked to acute neurological disorders, especially to microcephaly in newborn children and Guillan-Barré Syndrome. The NS2B-NS3 protease of this virus is responsible for polyprotein processing and therefore considered an attractive drug target. In this study, we have used the Hybrid Combinatorial Substrate Library (HyCoSuL) approach to determine the substrate specificity of ZIKV NS2B-NS3 protease in the P4-P1 positions using natural and a large spectrum of unnatural amino acids...
December 26, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032327/emerging-zika-virus-infection-a-rapidly-evolving-situation
#7
Bordi Licia, Avsic-Zupanc Tatjana, Lalle Eleonora, Vairo Francesco, Capobianchi Maria Rosaria, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults...
December 29, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031359/the-zika-virus-methyltransferase-structure-and-functions-for-drug-design-perspectives
#8
Bruno Coutard, Karine Barral, Julie Lichière, Barbara Selisko, Baptiste Martin, Wahiba Aouadi, Miguel Ortiz Lombardia, Françoise Debart, Jean-Jacques Vasseur, Jean Claude Guillemot, Bruno Canard, Etienne Decroly
: The Flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) is the causing agent of neurological disorders like microcephaly in newborns or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Its NS5 protein embeds a methyltransferase (MTase) domain involved in the formation of the viral mRNA cap. We investigated the structural and functional properties of the ZIKV MTase. We show that the ZIKV MTase can methylate RNA cap structures at the N7 position of the cap, and at the 2' O position on the ribose of the first nucleotide, yielding a cap-1 structure...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930910/the-neurobiology-of-zika-virus
#9
REVIEW
Hongda Li, Laura Saucedo-Cuevas, Sujan Shresta, Joseph G Gleeson
Zika virus (ZIVK) represents a new threat to global health, with particular relevance to neuroscientists, due to associated newborn and adult neurological disease. Consequences of vertical infection include microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and consequences of adult infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and meningoencephalitis. Recent data suggest specific vulnerability of neural progenitors to infection, leading to cell death and brain calcification, reminiscent of other viral syndromes...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912090/advances-in-zika-virus-research-stem-cell-models-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Guo-Li Ming, Hengli Tang, Hongjun Song
The re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its suspected link with various disorders in newborns and adults led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. In response, the stem cell field quickly established platforms for modeling ZIKV exposure using human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors and brain organoids, fetal tissues, and animal models. These efforts provided significant insight into cellular targets, pathogenesis, and underlying biological mechanisms of ZIKV infection as well as platforms for drug testing...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899230/experimental-zika-virus-infection-induces-spinal-cord-injury-and-encephalitis-in-newborn-swiss-mice
#11
Natália C C A Fernandes, Juliana S Nogueira, Rodrigo A Réssio, Cinthya S Cirqueira, Lidia M Kimura, Karolina R Fernandes, Mariana S Cunha, Renato P Souza, Juliana M Guerra
A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America, with neurological symptons including meningoencephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, besides an apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in infants born to infected mothers. It is becoming a necessity to have a trustworthy animal model to better understand ZIKV infection. In this study we used newborn white Swiss mice as a model to investigate the ZIKV strain recently isolated in Brazil. ZIKV was inoculated via intracerebral and subcutaneous routes and analysed through gross histopathology and immunohistochemistry...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885741/zika-and-pregnancy-a-comprehensive-review
#12
Adrija Hajra, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Lyndsey R Heise, Rajarshi Bhadra, Somedeb Ball, Shyamal Kumar Hajra
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a well-nurtured topic for healthcare personnel nowadays. Central nervous system involvement including microcephaly and ocular involvements has already been reported in neonates of affected pregnant ladies. In this article, we have discussed these effects on the newborns of ZIKV-infected mothers. The proposed pathogenesis, modes of transmission of this infection from mothers to the fetuses, diagnosis of the cases and precaution for the pregnant ladies have also been discussed. We have gathered the recently available data on the risk of ZIKV for expectant mothers from PubMed, https://www...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878100/neurological-manifestations-of-zika-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Ana-Belén Blázquez, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) transmitted mainly by Aedes mosquitoes. The virus was restricted to the African continent until its spread to south-east Asia in the 1980's, the Micronesia in 2007, the French Polynesia in 2013 and, more recently in the Americas in 2015, where, up to date, the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated about 3-4 million total cases of ZIKV infection. During outbreaks in the French Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015, respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological complications of ZIKV disease, chiefly an upsurge in Guillain-Barré syndrome, which coincided with ZIKV outbreaks...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862008/zika-virus-global-health-challenge-threat-and-current-situation
#14
REVIEW
Hafsa Aziz, Aadarash Zia, Amania Anwer, Muneeba Aziz, Shazia Fatima, Muhammad Faheem
ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829655/cuba-time-to-expand-health-in-all-policies
#15
Pastor Castell-Florit Serrate, Pedro Más-Bermejo
The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies (2010), lays out equity-based principles designed to guide policymakers on incorporating health and well-being components into the development, implementation and evaluation of policy and practice while moving towards shared governance at all levels-local, regional, national and international. Special emphasis is placed on cross-sector coordination to achieve policy goals, while improving health and well-being for all.[1] In Cuba's case, experience in disaster preparedness, particularly for hurricanes, has shown good cross-sector coordination...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822207/rapid-detection-strategies-for-the-global-threat-of-zika-virus-current-state-new-hypotheses-and-limitations
#16
REVIEW
Shruti Shukla, Sung-Yong Hong, Soo Hyun Chung, Myunghee Kim
The current scenario regarding the widespread Zika virus (ZIKV) has resulted in numerous diagnostic studies, specifically in South America and in locations where there is frequent entry of travelers returning from ZIKV-affected areas, including pregnant women with or without clinical symptoms of ZIKV infection. The World Health Organization, WHO, announced that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the USA in the near future. This situation has created an alarming public health emergency of international concern requiring the detection of this life-threatening viral candidate due to increased cases of newborn microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812648/zika-in-pernambuco-rewriting-the-first-outbreak
#17
Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Cecilia Coelho Moraes de Brito, Augusto César Oliveira, Marilia Rocha, Caio Atanásio, Carolina Asfora, Júlio Dourado Matos, Anton Saraiva Lima, Maria Fátima Militão Albuquerque
INTRODUCTION: A Zika virus epidemic was registered in 2015 in Northeast Brazil. In the State of Pernambuco, thousands of classical cases transpired, and in the following months, neurological disturbances in adults and microcephaly in newborns emerged as complications. After the peak of the epidemic, the official system reported only four cases of Zika virus but over 100,000 cases of dengue virus. The vigilance system was unable to retrospectively estimate cases or to issue an alert to officially notified cases with possible inconsistence concerning specific arbovirosis diagnoses...
September 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812601/pyriproxyfen-and-the-microcephaly-epidemic-in-brazil-an-ecological-approach-to-explore-the-hypothesis-of-their-association
#18
Maria de Fatima P Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner V de Souza, Antônio da Cruz G Mendes, Tereza M Lyra, Ricardo Aa Ximenes, Thália Vb Araújo, Cynthia Braga, Demócrito B Miranda-Filho, Celina Mt Martelli, Laura C Rodrigues
The microcephaly epidemic in Brazil generated intense debate regarding its causality, and one hypothesised cause of this epidemic, now recognised as congenital Zika virus syndrome, was the treatment of drinking water tanks with pyriproxyfen to control Aedes aegypti larvae. We present the results of a geographical analysis of the association between the prevalence of microcephaly confirmed by Fenton growth charts and the type of larvicide used in the municipalities that were home to the mothers of the affected newborns in the metropolitan region of Recife in Pernambuco, the state in Brazil where the epidemic was first detected...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797853/zika-virus-inhibits-type-i-interferon-production-and-downstream-signaling
#19
Anil Kumar, Shangmei Hou, Adriana M Airo, Daniel Limonta, Valeria Mancinelli, William Branton, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that is associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly and other neurological defects in newborns. Despite being declared an international emergency by the World Health Organization, comparatively little is known about its biology. Here, we investigate the strategies employed by the virus to suppress the host antiviral response. We observe that once established, Zika virus infection is impervious to interferon treatment suggesting that the virus deploys effective countermeasures to host cell defences...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723844/a-lipidomics-approach-in-the-characterization-of-zika-infected-mosquito-cells-potential-targets-for-breaking-the-transmission-cycle
#20
Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues Melo, Diogo Noin de Oliveira, Estela de Oliveira Lima, Tatiane Melina Guerreiro, Cibele Zanardi Esteves, Raissa Marques Beck, Marina Aiello Padilla, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Clarice Weis Arns, José Luiz Proença-Modena, Jayme Augusto Souza-Neto, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in Oceania and Latin America, accompanied by unexpected clinical complications, made this infection a global public health concern. This virus has tropism to neural tissue, leading to microcephaly in newborns in a significant proportion of infected mothers. The clinical relevance of this infection, the difficulty to perform accurate diagnosis and the small amount of data in literature indicate the necessity of studies on Zika infection in order to characterize new biomarkers of this infection and to establish new targets for viral control in vertebrates and invertebrate vectors...
2016: PloS One
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