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Zika newborn

Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues Melo, Diogo Noin de Oliveira, Estela de Oliveira Lima, Tatiane Melina Guerreiro, Cibele Zanardi Esteves, Raissa Marques Beck, Marina Aiello Padilla, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Clarice Weis Arns, José Luiz Proença-Modena, Jayme Augusto Souza-Neto, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in Oceania and Latin America, accompanied by unexpected clinical complications, made this infection a global public health concern. This virus has tropism to neural tissue, leading to microcephaly in newborns in a significant proportion of infected mothers. The clinical relevance of this infection, the difficulty to perform accurate diagnosis and the small amount of data in literature indicate the necessity of studies on Zika infection in order to characterize new biomarkers of this infection and to establish new targets for viral control in vertebrates and invertebrate vectors...
2016: PloS One
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed
The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in South America is one of the most serious public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak of West Africa [2014]. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family and has two lineages (Asian and African). The virus was first discovered in Uganda [1947] and the first human infection was identified in Nigeria [1952]. The current epidemic is the third of its type after that of Yap Island, Micronesia [2007] and French Polynesia [2013]. Phylogenetic studies revealed that the current strain shares about 99...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Wen-Chin Huang, Rachy Abraham, Byoung-Shik Shim, Hyeryun Choe, Damon T Page
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women has been established as a cause of microcephaly in newborns. Here we test the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental stages when the brain is undergoing rapid growth are particularly vulnerable to the effects of ZIKV infection. We injected ZIKV intracranially into wild type C57BL/6 mice at two different time points: early postnatal development, when the brain is growing at its maximal rate, and at weaning, when the brain has largely reached adult size. Both time points showed widespread immunoreactivity for ZIKV and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3, a marker of apoptosis) throughout the brain...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi
Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
William J Muller
Viral infections in the fetus or newborn often involve the central nervous system (CNS) and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Substantial progress has been made in identifying interventions decreasing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. This review highlights progress in treatment of important viruses affecting the CNS in these susceptible hosts, focusing on herpes simplex (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and enteroviruses. The observation that high-dose acyclovir improves mortality in neonatal HSV disease culminated decades of antiviral research for this disease...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
William L Walker, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer A Lehman, Elisabeth R Krow-Lucal, Ingrid B Rabe, Susan L Hills, Stacey W Martin, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections have also been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-5). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic (1,6). Clinical illness, when it occurs, is generally mild and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis...
September 16, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Yuri Raoni Ramalho Rocha, José Ricardo Cavalcanti Costa, Pericles Almeida Costa, Gessica Maia, Rafael de Medeiros Vasconcelos, Cynthia Ramos Tejo, Rafaella Martins Batista, Manoel Lima Neto, Gustavo Graco Martins de Lima, Francisco Negromonte, Marcelle Borba, Selma Maria Bezerra Jeronimo, Eduardo Bouth Sequerra, Manuel Moreira Neto
INTRODUCTION: Brazil is facing, since October of 2015, an outbreak of microcephalic fetuses. This outbreak is correlated with the beginning of circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the country. Although it is clear that the size of the head is diminished in these fetuses, the brain phenotype associated with these malformations is unknown. METHODS: We collected computed tomography images of the microcephaly cases from the region of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, from September 2015 to February 2016...
2016: PLoS Currents
Jonathan J Miner, Abdoulaye Sene, Justin M Richner, Amber M Smith, Andrea Santeford, Norimitsu Ban, James Weger-Lucarelli, Francesca Manzella, Claudia Rückert, Jennifer Govero, Kevin K Noguchi, Gregory D Ebel, Michael S Diamond, Rajendra S Apte
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina...
September 20, 2016: Cell Reports
Zichen Wang, Avi Ma'ayan
RNA-seq analysis is becoming a standard method for global gene expression profiling. However, open and standard pipelines to perform RNA-seq analysis by non-experts remain challenging due to the large size of the raw data files and the hardware requirements for running the alignment step. Here we introduce a reproducible open source RNA-seq pipeline delivered as an IPython notebook and a Docker image. The pipeline uses state-of-the-art tools and can run on various platforms with minimal configuration overhead...
2016: F1000Research
Kate Russell, Sara E Oliver, Lillianne Lewis, Wanda D Barfield, Janet Cragan, Dana Meaney-Delman, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer, Georgina Peacock, Titilope Oduyebo, Emily E Petersen, Sherif Zaki, Cynthia A Moore, Sonja A Rasmussen
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (1). Laboratory testing is recommended for 1) infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and 2) infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging findings suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a maternal epidemiologic link suggesting possible transmission, regardless of maternal Zika virus test results...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro Lyra, Gúbio Soares Campos, Igor Dórea Bandeira, Silvia Ines Sardi, Lilian Ferreira de Moura Costa, Flávia Rocha Santos, Carlos Alexandre Santos Ribeiro, Alena Maria Barreto Jardim, Ana Cecília Travassos Santiago, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro de Oliveira, Lícia Maria Oliveira Moreira
There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Elizabeth M Glowacki, Allison J Lazard, Gary B Wilcox, Michael Mackert, Jay M Bernhardt
The arrival of the Zika virus in the United States caused much concern among the public because of its ease of transmission and serious consequences for pregnant women and their newborns. We conducted a text analysis to examine original tweets from the public and responses from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during a live Twitter chat hosted by the CDC. Both the public and the CDC expressed concern about the spread of Zika virus, but the public showed more concern about the consequences it had for women and babies, whereas the CDC focused more on symptoms and education...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
V Velev
This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
Joan A Caylà, Ángela Domínguez, Elena Rodríguez Valín, Fernando de Ory, Ana Vázquez, Claudia Fortuny
Infection with Zika virus (ZV) has become a new epidemic, with great impact on the media, and is having a strong effect in Latin American countries. Its possible association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare on 1 February 2016 that this epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern. Epidemiological data show an increasing incidence in countries like Brazil and Colombia, and that the epidemic is still expanding in many other countries...
July 26, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Ildefonso Fernández-Salas, Esteban E Díaz-González, Hugo López-Gatell, Celia Alpuche-Aranda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review gathers the most recent investigations about chikungunya and zika viruses in America and would help in creating new research approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical descriptions of chikungunya fever have been performed in the American outbreak observing that fever, polyarthalgia, myalgia and rash are the most common symptoms in the acute phase, while chronic arthralgia has persisted in 37-90% of small cohorts. The Asian origin of American strains of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and zika virus (ZIKV) evidences a dissemination route in common and both are being transmitted by Aedes aegypti...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Ming-Yue Xu, Si-Qing Liu, Cheng-Lin Deng, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Bo Zhang
The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has rapidly spread to new areas of Americas, which were the first transmissions outside its traditional endemic areas in Africa and Asia. Due to the link with newborn defects and neurological disorder, numerous infected cases throughout the world and various mosquito vectors, the virus has been considered to be an international public health emergency. In the present study, we developed a SYBR Green based one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid detection of ZIKV. Our results revealed that the real-time assay is highly specific and sensitive in detection of ZIKV in cell samples...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi
On February 1, 2016, Zika virus (ZIKV) was designated as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the director of the World Health Organization. Zika virus has spread to numerous countries throughout the Americas, affecting up to an estimated 1.3 million people since the first reports from Brazil in early 2015. Although ZIKV infections are self-limiting, fetal microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies have been associated with ZIKV infection as a possible result of perinatal transmission. The causal link between maternal ZIKV infection and newborn microcephaly and eye lesions has not been proven beyond doubt and is currently debated...
September 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Anthony R Mawson
A strong causal association has become evident between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and the occurrence of fetal growth restriction, microcephaly and eye defects. Circumstantial evidence is presented in this paper in support of the hypothesis that these effects, as well as the Guillain-Barré syndrome, are due to an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A resulting from ZIKV infection-induced damage to the liver and the spillage of stored vitamin A compounds ("retinoids") into the maternal and fetal circulation in toxic concentrations...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
Lucia Regina Cangussu da Silva, Adriano Miranda de Souza
The Zika virus epidemic that started in Brazil in 2014 has spread to >30 countries and territories in Latin America, leading to a rapid rise in the incidence of microcephalic newborns and adults with neurological complications. At the beginning of the outbreak, little was known about Zika virus morphology, genome structure, modes of transmission, and its potential to cause neurological malformations and disorders. With the advancement of basic science, discoveries of the mechanisms of strain variability, viral transfer to the fetus, and neurovirulence were published...
May 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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