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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443506/catestain-a-master-regulator-of-cardiovascular-functions
#1
Sushil K Mahata, Malapaka Kiranmayi, Nitish R Mahapatra
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death globally, accounts for ~30% of all deaths worldwide. Hypertension is a common contributor to morbidity and mortality from CVD. The plasma concentration of chromogranin A (CgA) is elevated in patients with CVD as well as patients with established human essential hypertension and heart failure (HF). In contrast, the plasma level of the CgA-derived peptide catestatin (CST) is diminished in human essential hypertension. Low conversion of CgA-to-CST has been associated with increased mortality in patients hospitalized with acute HF...
April 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442472/functional-and-metabolomic-consequences-of-atp-dependent-potassium-channel-inactivation-in-human-islets
#2
Changhong Li, Amanda M Ackermann, Kara E Boodhansingh, Tricia R Bhatti, Chengyang Liu, Jonathan Schug, Nicolai Doliba, Bing Han, Karen E Cosgrove, Indraneel Banerjee, Franz M Matschinsky, Itzhak Nissim, Klaus H Kaestner, Ali Naji, N Scott Adzick, Mark J Dunne, Charles A Stanley, Diva D De León
Loss-of-function mutations of β-cell KATP channels cause the most severe form of congenital hyperinsulinism (KATPHI). KATPHI is characterized by fasting and protein-induced hypoglycemia that is unresponsive to medical therapy. For a better understanding of the pathophysiology of KATPHI, we examined cytosolic calcium, insulin secretion, oxygen consumption, and [U-(13)C]glucose metabolism in islets isolated from the pancreases of children with KATPHI who required pancreatectomy. Basal cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)] i ) and insulin secretion were higher in KATPHI islets compared to controls...
April 25, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430359/sulfur-containing-gaseous-signal-molecules-ion-channels-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Wen Yu, Hongfang Jin, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Zhiren Zhang
Sulfur-containing gaseous signal molecules including hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) were previously recognized as toxic gases. However, extensive studies have revealed that they can be generated in the cardiovascular system via a sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway, playing an important part in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins present in the membrane of all biological cells; functions include establishing a resting membrane potential and controlling action potentials and other electrical signals by conducting ions across the cell membrane...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414054/endothelium-dependent-vasorelaxant-effect-of-procyanidin-b2-on-human-internal-mammary-artery
#4
Aleksandra Novakovic, Marija Marinko, Goran Jankovic, Ivan Stojanovic, Predrag Milojevic, Dragoslav Nenezic, Vladimir Kanjuh, Qin Yang, Guo-Wei He
The aim of the present study was to investigate and characterize vasorelaxant effect of procyanidin B2 on human internal mammary artery (HIMA) as one of the mechanisms of its protective effect against vascular risk. Procyanidin B2 induced strong concentration-dependent relaxation of HIMA rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine. Pretreatment with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, hydroxocobalamin, a NO scavenger, and ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, significantly inhibited procyanidin B2-induced relaxation of HIMA, while indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, considerably reduced effects of low concentrations...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412203/atp-sensitive-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-modulators-alter-cardiac-function-in-honey-bees
#5
Scott T O'Neal, Daniel R Swale, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Troy D Anderson
ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (KATP) channels couple cellular metabolism to the membrane potential of the cell and play an important role in a variety of tissue types, including the insect dorsal vessel, making them a subject of interest not only for understanding invertebrate physiology, but also as a potential target for novel insecticides. Most of what is known about these ion channels is the result of work performed in mammalian systems, with insect studies being limited to only a few species and physiological systems...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397372/k-channel-impairment-determines-sex-and-age-differences-in-epinephrine-mediated-outcomes-after-brain-injury
#6
William M Armstead, John Riley, Monica S Vavilala
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of injury-related death in children, with boys and children under 4 years having particularly poor outcomes. Activation of ATP- and calcium-sensitive (KATP and KCa ) channels produces cerebrovasodilation and contributes to autoregulation, both of which are impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcomes. Upregulation of the c-Jun-terminal kinase (JNK) isoform of mitogen-activated protein kinase produces K channel function impairment after CNS injury. Vasoactive agents can be used to normalize cerebral perfusion pressure...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395176/the-ketogenic-diet-metabolite-beta-hydroxybutyrate-%C3%AE-hb-reduces-incidence-of-seizure-like-activity-sla-in-a-katp-and-gabab-dependent-manner-in-a-whole-animal-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#7
Jinglu Li, Emma I O'Leary, Geoffrey R Tanner
The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective clinical treatment for epilepsy in juveniles, especially for drug-resistant seizures. The KD results in elevated production of ketone bodies (KB's), such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), which are thought to have anticonvulsant properties; however, their exact mechanism of action is unknown. In vitro, KB effects on reducing neuronal firing rates are mediated in part by Katp channel activity and GABAb signaling. In order to study metabolic and pharmacological effects in a whole-animal model, we used the eas "bang-sensitive" (BS) mutant strain of Drosophila, which exhibits seizure-like activity (SLA) upon mechanical stimulation...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392407/actions-of-pgla-am1-and-its-a14k-and-a20k-analogues-and-their-therapeutic-potential-as-anti-diabetic-agents
#8
Bosede O Owolabi, Vishal Musale, Opeolu O Ojo, R Charlotte Moffett, Mary K McGahon, Tim M Curtis, J Michael Conlon, Peter R Flatt, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab
PGLa-AM1 (GMASKAGSVL(10)GKVAKVALKA(20)AL.NH2) was first identified in skin secretions of the frog Xenopus amieti (Pipidae) on the basis of its antimicrobial properties. PGLa-AM1 and its [A14K] and [A20K] analogues produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 3 μM. In contrast, the [A3K] was cytotoxic at concentrations ≥ 30 nM. The potency and maximum rate of insulin release produced by the [A14K] and [A20K] peptides were significantly greater than produced by PGLa-AM1...
April 6, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389584/control-of-kir-channel-gating-by-cytoplasmic-domain-interface-interactions
#9
William F Borschel, Shizhen Wang, Sunjoo Lee, Colin G Nichols
Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels are expressed in almost all mammalian tissues and play critical roles in the control of excitability. Pancreatic ATP-sensitive K (KATP) channels are key regulators of insulin secretion and comprise Kir6.2 subunits coupled to sulfonylurea receptors. Because these channels are reversibly inhibited by cytoplasmic ATP, they link cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. Loss-of-function mutations in the pore-forming Kir6.2 subunit cause congenital hyperinsulinism as a result of diminished channel activity...
April 7, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387875/polymorphism-e23k-rs5219-in-the-kcnj11-gene-in-euro-brazilian-subjects-with-type-1-and-2-diabetes
#10
S W Souza, L P Alcazar, P A Arakaki, I C R Santos-Weiss, D Alberton, G Picheth, F G M Rego
Insulin secretion is regulated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). The potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11) gene, located on chromosome 11p15.1, encodes the subunit Kir6.2 that forms the pore region of KATP channels in pancreatic β-cells. Among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with KCNJ11, the E23K polymorphism (rs5219) promotes a substitution (G > A) of a glutamic acid residue for lysine at position 23. The E23K SNP has been associated with diabetes in several populations, although with controversial results...
April 5, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386998/metabolic-syndrome-induced-bladder-cannabinoid-receptor-changes-in-the-fructose-fed-rats
#11
I-Hung Chen, Juei-Tang Cheng, Yat-Ching Tong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome on the bladder cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1/CB2) expression and function in the fructose-fed rats (FR). METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: (i) Control rats fed with normal chow; and (ii) Rats fed with high-fructose diet (FR) for 9 weeks. The body weight, blood pressure, plasma sugar, insulin, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured. Bladder muscle strips were prepared in organ bath and pre-contracted with 1 µM/L acetylcholine (ACh) or 50 mM/L KCl...
April 6, 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386438/expression-and-function-of-atp-dependent-potassium-channels-in-zebrafish-islet-%C3%AE-cells
#12
Christopher H Emfinger, Alecia Welscher, Zihan Yan, Yixi Wang, Hannah Conway, Jennifer B Moss, Larry G Moss, Maria S Remedi, Colin G Nichols
ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) are critical nutrient sensors in many mammalian tissues. In the pancreas, KATP channels are essential for coupling glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. While orthologous genes for many components of metabolism-secretion coupling in mammals are present in lower vertebrates, their expression, functionality and ultimate impact on body glucose homeostasis are unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that zebrafish islet β-cells express functional KATP channels of similar subunit composition, structure and metabolic sensitivity to their mammalian counterparts...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385801/mechanisms-controlling-glucose-induced-glp-1-secretion-in-human-small-intestine
#13
Emily W Sun, Dayan de Fontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Luigi Sposato, Steven L Due, David A Wattchow, Christopher K Rayner, Adam M Deane, Richard L Young, Damien J Keating
Intestinal glucose stimulates secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The mechanisms underlying this pathway have not been fully investigated in humans. In this study, we showed that a 30 minute intraduodenal glucose infusion activated half of all duodenal L cells in humans. This infusion was sufficient to increase plasma GLP-1. With an ex vivo model using human gut tissue specimens, we showed a dose-responsive GLP-1 secretion in ileum at 200mM glucose or above. In ex vivo tissue from duodenum and ileum, but not colon, 300mM glucose potently stimulated GLP-1 release...
April 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379974/non-invasive-phenotyping-and-drug-testing-in-single-cardiomyocytes-or-beta-cells-by-calcium-imaging-and-optogenetics
#14
Yu-Fen Chang, Connor N Broyles, Frances A Brook, Mark J Davies, Cameron W Turtle, Takeharu Nagai, Matthew J Daniels
Identification of drug induced electrical instability of the heart curtails development, and introduction, of potentially proarrhythmic drugs. This problem usually requires complimentary contact based approaches such as patch-clamp electrophysiology combined with field stimulation electrodes to observe and control the cell. This produces data with high signal to noise but requires direct physical contact generally preventing high-throughput, or prolonged, phenotyping of single cells or tissues. Combining genetically encoded optogenetic control and spectrally compatible calcium indicator tools into a single adenoviral vector allows the analogous capability for cell control with simultaneous cellular phenotyping without the need for contact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377630/katp-channels-mediate-differential-metabolic-responses-to-glucose-shortage-of-the-dorsomedial-and-ventrolateral-oscillators-in-the-central-clock
#15
Jyh-Jeen Yang, Ruo-Ciao Cheng, Pi-Cheng Cheng, Yi-Chi Wang, Rong-Chi Huang
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) central clock comprises two coupled oscillators, with light entraining the retinorecipient vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-positive ventrolateral oscillator, which then entrains the arginine vasopressin (AVP)-positive dorsomedial oscillator. While glucose availability is known to alter photic entrainment, it is unclear how the SCN neurones respond to metabolic regulation and whether the two oscillators respond differently. Here we show that the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel mediates differential responses to glucose shortage of the two oscillators...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371470/role-of-renal-vascular-potassium-channels-in-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#16
REVIEW
Max Salomonsson, Jens Christian Brasen, Charlotte M Sorensen
The control of renal vascular tone is important for the regulation of salt and water balance, blood pressure and the protection against damaging elevated glomerular pressure. The K(+) conductance is a major factor in the regulation of the membrane potential (Vm ) in vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC). The vascular tone is controlled by Vm via its effect on the opening probability of voltage operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCC) in VSMC. When K(+) conductance increases Vm becomes more negative and vasodilation follows, while deactivation of K(+) channels leads to depolarization and vasoconstriction...
March 30, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364596/cardioprotective-effects-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-isolated-rat-heart-and-in-h9c2-cells-via-redox-signaling
#17
Francesca Tullio, Claudia Penna, Karine Cabiale, Saveria Femminò, Marco Galloni, Pasquale Pagliaro
The calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) release is coupled to the signaling of Angeli's salt in determining vasodilator effects. However, it is unknown whether CGRP is involved in Angeli's salt cardioprotective effects and which are the mechanisms of protection. We aimed to determine whether CGRP is involved in myocardial protection induced by Angeli's salt. We also analyzed the intracellular signaling pathway activated by CGRP. Isolated rat hearts were pre-treated with Angeli's salt or Angeli's salt plus CGRP8-37, a specific CGRP-receptor antagonist, and subjected to ischemia (30-min) and reperfusion (120-min)...
March 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346775/hyperinsulinism-causing-mutations-cause-multiple-molecular-defects-in-sur1-nbd1
#18
Claudia P Alvarez, Marijana Stagljar, D Ranjith Muhandiram, Voula Kanelis
The sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) protein forms the regulatory subunit in ATP sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels in the pancreas. SUR proteins are members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins. Binding and hydrolysis of MgATP at the SUR nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) lead to channel opening. Pancreatic KATP channels play an important role in insulin secretion. SUR1 mutations that result in increased levels of channel opening ultimately inhibit insulin secretion and lead to neonatal diabetes...
April 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334715/potassium-channel-independent-relaxing-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-mouse-carotid-artery
#19
Marta Laskowski, Cathrin Andersson, Emilie Eliasson, Veronika Golubinskaya, Holger Nilsson
Since the cardiovascular consequences of obesity reportedly vary in different types of obesity, we investigated the influence of adipose tissue from different locales on the phenylephrine-induced tone of the mouse carotid artery. Vessels were mounted in a Mulvany-Halpern-type wire myograph, and adipose tissue, from the back (brown) or mesenteric or inguinal subcutaneous (white), was placed around the artery. Contractile responses to phenylephrine were not affected by brown adipose tissue but were reduced (p < 0...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333380/smooth-muscle-ion-channels-and-regulation-of-vascular-tone-in-resistance-arteries-and-arterioles
#20
Nathan R Tykocki, Erika M Boerman, William F Jackson
Vascular tone of resistance arteries and arterioles determines peripheral vascular resistance, contributing to the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to, and within the body's tissues and organs. Ion channels in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in these blood vessels importantly contribute to the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the primary determinant of SMC contractile activity and vascular tone. Ion channels provide the main source of activator Ca2+ that determines vascular tone, and strongly contribute to setting and regulating membrane potential, which, in turn, regulates the open-state-probability of voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), the primary source of Ca2+ in resistance artery and arteriolar SMCs...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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